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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

t E. CAPPS, ph.d., ll.d. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, l.h.d. E. II. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



PLUTAKCH'S 
MORALIA 

VI 



PLUTAECH'S 


MORALIA 


IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES 


VOLUME VI 


439a— 523b 


WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 


VV. C. HELMBOLD 


TRINITY COLLEGE, HARTFORD, CONN. 


CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 


HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 


LONDON 


WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 


MCMLXII 



First printed 1939 ^-v » 

Reprinted 1957, 1962 J h 

1U0 
1153688 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI 

PAGE 

Preface vii 



The Traditional Order of the Books of the 

Moralia ix 

Can Virtue be Taught ? — 

Introduction ........ 2 

Text and Translation 4 

On Moral Virtue — 

Introduction 16 

Text and Translation 18 

On the Control of Anger — 

Introduction 90 

Text and Translation 92 

On Tranquillity of Mind — 

Introduction 163 

Text and Translation 166 

On Brotherly Love — 

Introduction 245 

Text and Translation 246 

v 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI 



PAGE 



On Affection for Offspring — 

Introduction 328 

Text and Translation 330 

Whether Vice be sufficient to cause 
Unhappiness — 

Introduction 361 

Text and Translation 362 

Whether the Affections of the Soul are 
worse than those of the body 

Introduction 378 

Text and Translation 380 

Concerning Talkativeness — 

Introduction 395 

Text and Translation 396 

On being a Busybody — 

Introduction 471 

Text and Translation 472 

Index 519 



vt 



PREFACE 

In proceeding with this edition of the Moralia a few 
changes have been made from the standard created 
and maintained by Professor Babbitt. The spelling 
/jLtyvvfit has been adopted, and ylvofiai and ytvwo-Kd) 
have been preferred. But variation of tt and cro- 
has been allowed. Elsewhere the orthography- 
adopted by Mr. Pohlenz in the Teubner edition has 
been followed, or not abandoned without reason. 

The expert assistance of Professor F. H. Fobes of 
Amherst College and that of Professor L. C. Barret 
and Mr. J. A. Notopoulos of Trinity College must 
be gratefully acknowledged. All three read the 
proof, and the two last, parts of the manuscripts. 
They removed innumerable errors and inconsisten- 
cies, but for blemishes that may yet remain they are 
not responsible. 

W. C. Helmbold 
Trinity College, 
Hartford, Conn. 



vn 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books of 
the Moralia as they appear since the edition of 
Stephanus (1572), and their division into volumes 
in this edition. 



PAGE 

I. De liberis educandis (Ilept iraiha>v dycoyrjs) 1a 

Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat 

(TltOS Set TOV V€OV 7TOL7]fxdr(X)V OLKOVeiv) 17d 

De recta ratione audiendi (IIept tov olkovziv) . 37 b 

Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatu. 

(Ilais dv tls Sta/cptVete tov koAclkol tov <j>i\ov) . 48e 

Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 

(IIa)s dv ris aioOoiro iavrov rrpoKOfrrovros iff 

dperfj) ..... H5a 

II. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (TIojs dv tls 

vtt* €\dpa)v dxfreAolro) . . . . 86 B 

De amicorum multitudine ((Ilepi TroAu^tAta?) 93a 

De fortuna (Ilepi rvxys) . . 97c 

De virtute et vitio (Llept dp^rrjs /cat /ca/a'as) . 100b 
Consolatio ad Apollonium (Uapa/xvdrjTLKos irpos 

' AttoXXcovlov) . . . . . • . sOIf 

De tuenda sanitate praecepta ('Yyieira nap- 

ayycXfiara) . . . L22b 

Coniugalia praecepta (TafiLKa 7rapayyeXfiaTa) 138a 

Septem sapientium convivium (Taw eWd ao<£aV 

ovfirtoaiov) . . . 146 b 

De superstitione (llept oetai8atu<Was) 164e 

III. Regum et imperatorum apophthegmata ('Ano- 

(frOeyfjLara ftaoiAecov /cat orpanqyajv) . 172a 

Apophthegmata Laconica (' Airo(f>0€yixara Aa- 

kojvlko) ....... 208a 

lnstituta Laconica (Td77-aAatd tcov Aa/ceSat/xoyt'aw 

eWr^Seu/xara) . £36f 

vol. vi a 2 ix 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



Lacaenarum apophthegmata {Aolkclivcov diro- 

<j>0€yficLTa) ...... 240c 

Mulierum virtutes (FvvaiKwv aperat) 242e 

IV. Quaestiones Romanae (AtTta c Pa)p:at/ca). . 263d 

Quaestiones Graecae (Atria 'EWtjvlko) . . 29 Id 

Parallela Graeca et Romana (Lwayajyr) iaro- 

picov irapaXXrjXaiv 'EAAiyyt/caV /cat 'Ptu/xat/coDv) . 305a 
De fortuna Roman orum (Ilept tt}s c Pa>p;ataw 

Tvxns) .... 316b 

De Aiexandn magni fortuna aut virtute, li- 

bri ii (Ilept rrjs 'AAefdVopou tvx 7 ) 5 r) dpcrrjs, 

AoyotjS') . .... 326d 

Bellone an pace clariores fuerint Athenienses 

(Uorepov ^AdrjvaloL /caret 77oAe/xoi> r) Kara oo<j>iav 

ivoo£oT€poi) .... 345c 

V '. De Iside et Osiride (Ilept "loi&os /cat 'OcnpicW). 351c 

De E apud Delphos (Ilept rod EI tov eV AeA<£o&) 384c 
De Pythiae oraculis (Ilept tov fii) XP& V ^pifxerpa 

vvv tt)v Uvdtav) ..... 394d 

De defectu oraculorum ( Ilept roV eVAeAotTrorcov 

XprjoTTjpiatv) ...... 409e 

VI. An virtus doceri possit (Et oloolktov r) dpcrrj) . 439a 

De virtute morali (Ilept tt}s tjOlktjs dp€TTJs) . 440d 

De cohibenda ira (Ilepi dopyrjolas) . 452e 

De tranquillitate animi (Ilept evdv/ilas) . . 464e 

De fraterno amore (Ilept <£tAaSeA<£t'as) . . 478a 

De amore prolis (Ilept rijs els ra enyova <£tAo- 

oropylas) ...... 493a 

An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat (Ei 

avrdpKr)S r) /ca/ct'a npos KaKOoaipLOviav) . 498a 

Animine an corporis affectiones sint peiores 

(Uorcpov rd rijs tfivxfjs rj rd tov aai/xaTOS ndOr] 

X^lpova) ....... 500b 

De garrulitate (Ilept dboXeaxtas) . . 502b 

De curiositate (Ilept TroXvirpaypLoovvris) . . 515b 

VII. De cupiditate divitiarum (Ilept <£tAo7rAotm'as) . 523c 

De vitioso pudore (Ilept cWamtas) . . 528c 

De invidia et odio (Ilept cj>96vov /cat filcrovs) . 536e 
De se ipsum citra invidiam laudando (Ilept tov 

iavrov enoLvelv dveirufrdovcos) . . . 539 a 

De sera numinis vindicta (Ilept t&v vno tov 

Otiov fipabdcos Tificopovfidvcov) . . . 548a 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 

PAGE 

De fato (HcpL eLfiapfjLevrjs ) . . .568b 

De genio Socratis (IIcpi tov ZcoKparovs haifioviov) 575 a 
De exilio (Ilepi (f>vyrjs) . . 599x\ 

Consolatio ad uxorem (Uapa/jLvd-qTiKos irpos ttjv 

yvvaiKa) . ..... 608a 

VIII. Quaestionum convivalium libri vi (Hu/*7roorta- 

kcx)v 7rpo/3Ai7/xara>v /fySAta £"') . . . 612c 

1,612c; II, 629b: III, 644e : IV, 659e ; V. 

672d ; VI, 686a 
IX. Quaestionum convivalium libri iii (Eu/u.7ro<7ia- 

kcjv TrpofiXrmaToyv jSi/JAi'a y) . 69 7c 

VII, 697c ; VIII, 716d : IX, 736c 
Amatorius (*Epa>n#cd?) .... 748e 

X. Amatoriae narrationes ('Epamirat farjyrjaeis) 77 1e 

Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis- 

serendum (flepi tov otl p,dAicrra tols rjycfjLoat 

8ci tov <f>iX6ao<f>ov hiaXiyeoQai) . . 776a 

Ad principem ineruditum (IIpo? rjye/jLova dirai- 

htvrov) . . . . 779c 

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Et 7Tp€opvT€pa> 

7ToXlT€VT€Ov) .... 7 83 A 

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae (HoXltlkol 

irapayydXfjLaTa) .... T98a 

De unius in republica dominatione, populari 
statu, et paucorum imperio (Ilepi novapxias 
koll SrjfxoKpaTLas Kai oXiyapxtas) ■ • • 826a 

De vitando aere alieno (Ilepi tov pr) felv Sam- 

IcoBu) 827d 

Vitae decern oratorum (Uepl twv Sc/ca pi)To- 
pcov) 832b 

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com- 
pendium (HvyKpioeois y XpiOT0<j>d vovs koX Mei>- 

dvhpOV €TTLTOfX1]) ..... 853 A 

XL De Herodoti malignitate (HepL tyjs 'HpoSdrot; 

KCLKOTjdeias) ...... 854e 

De placitis philosophorum, libri v (Ilep t&v 

dpzoKovrayv tols <j>iXoo6<j>ois , jStjSAta e') . 874d 

Quaestiones naturales (Ama 0ucrtica) . 911a 

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilept tov 

€/jL<f>CUVOH€l>OV 7TpOOO)7TOV T60 KVKX(i) TTJS CTcAl}- 

vtjs) . . .' 920a 

De primo frigido (IIcpl tov npwTcos ifivxpov) 945e 

xi 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



PAGE 

Aquane an ignis sit utilior (IIcpi rod noTepov 

vbcjp 7] irvp xpyo't'V'WTepov) .... 955d 

Terrestriane an aquatilia animalia sint callidi- 
ora (HoTcpa tow ^wcav <j>povL/jLU)T€pa ra \€paala 
77 ra evvopa) ..... 959a 

Bruta animalia ratione uti, sive Gryllus (Ilepi 

rov ra dXoya Xoycp xPV°^ ai ) • • • 985u 

De esu carnium orationes ii (Ilcpi oapKofayias 

Xoyot 0') 993a 

XIII. Platonicae quaestiones (UXarajvLKd ^TT^iara) . 999c 
De animae procreatione in Timaeo (Hepl rfjs h> 

TtfjLOLLq) ipvxoyovias) . .1012a 

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in 

Timaeo ('Ettito/x^ rov nepl rrjs iv ra> Tifiaito 

ifjvxoyovLds) ...... 1030d 

De Stoicorum repugnantiis (Ilepi Htcolkc^v ivav- 

TLCofidrcov) .... 1033a 

Compendium argument! Stoicos absurdiora 

poetis dicere (Hvvoipcs rod on 7rapaSo£oTepa oi 

YiTojiKol t&v ttoitjtcov Xiyovoi) . . . 1057c 

De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos (Ilept 

tojv kolvwv ivvoiayv npos rovs ^tcolkovs) . 1058e 

XIV. Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum 

("On OV& T)$€0)S £,fjv €OTL KOLT 'l&TTLKOVpOv) 1086c 

Adversus Colotem (IIpos KcoXcorrjv) . 1107d 

An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum Ei 

KaXa>s €ip7]Ta.L to Xdde jStcucras) . . . 1128a 

De musica (Ilept ixovoiktjs) .... 1131a 
XV. Fragments and Index 



CAN VIRTUE BE TAUGHT? 
CAN VIRTUS DOCERI POSSIT) 



INTRODUCTION 

This slight and possibly fragmentary essay, or de- 
clamation, makes no considerable addition to the 
theory of knowledge. Virtue is assumed to be an 
M art " ; since the practice of all other arts is un- 
successful without instruction, Virtue (dperrj), or the 
Good Life (to tv (r}v), or Prudence (^povrjo-is) — for 
Plutarch appears to equate the three — must be 
learned, if we are to be successful in the dependent 
arts. Plutarch appeals as usual to common sense, 
but does not take the trouble to prove any of his 
assumptions ; yet the work, even in its present 
mutilated state, is a graceful exercise in popular 
philosophy. 

While Plutarch's slipshod and half-defined position 
is not directly contrary to that of Plato {e.g. in the 
Meno) 9 it must be observed that two pupils of Socrates, 
Crito and Simon, wrote works with the titles, "On 
ovk Ik tov fxaddv ol dyaOot (That Men are not made 
Good by Instruction) and He pi dperrjs on ov SlSolktov 
(That Virtue cannot be Taught), respectively. a Whether 
these books differed radically from the Platonic or 
Socratic position, as developed in the Meno and the 
Republic, cannot be argued here. 

We must note in passing that G. Siefert (Commen- 
tationes Ienenses, 1896, pp. 102-105) held that Plutarch 

a Diogenes Laertius, ii. 121, 122. 



CAN VIRTUE BE TAUGHT ? 

wrote this work in connexion with the De Fortuna (see 
the parallels recorded in the notes) and that it is not 
mutilated, but unfinished. This is quite possible. 5 

The text is very uncertain, for although the essay 
appears in several important classes of mss., they differ 
considerably among themselves. The text which 
must serve as the basis of the present translation is 
only presented with the greatest hesitation. 

The work appears as No. 180 in the Lamprias 
catalogue, where it bears the title TLepl dptrrjs d 
6i8aKTeov c tj dpeTi], 

a " Ne hie quidem liber fragmentum est, sed schedula 
tantum a Plutarcho in suum usum obiter composita." 

b Xylander's supposition, recently repeated without argu- 
ment by Hartman, that this is not a work of Plutarch, seems 
untenable. 

c Bernardakis would rightly emend to SlSolktov. 



439 EI AIAAKTON H APETH 

1. Uepl rrjs aperrjs fiovXevopieda Kal hiairopov- 
fJL€V, el SlSolktov ian to cfrpovelv to SiKaio'jrpayeiv 
to ev ^rjv etra 1 davpid^ofiev, el pr\Topodv \xev epya 
Kal KvfiepvrjTcov Kal appLOVLKtov Kal oIko86jjlo>v Kal 

B yeojpycov pLvpi 2, eoTLV, dyaOol 8' dvSpes ovofid- 
t.ovTai Kal XeyovTai jjlovov, cos iTTiroKevTavpoi Kal 
yiyavTes Kal kvkAo)tt€s. epyov §' dfiepi^es els 
dpeTT)v z ovk eoTiv evpelv ovSe Trddovs aKepaiov 
rjdog ov8 u adiKTOv aloypov filov 5 - aAA' el Kal tl 
KaXov rj cf)VOtg avTopLaTWs eK^epei, tovto 7toXXco 
to) dAAoTplo), Kaddrrep vXrj Kapnos dypla Kal 
aKaddpTCp \xiyvv\xevos , e^a/zaupourat. ijjdXXeiv 
p.avOdvovaiv ol avdpojrroi Kal opx^loOai Kal dva- 
yivajGKeiv ypdjJLfJLaTa Kal yeojpyetv Kal iTr7Teveiv 6, 
vTToSeioOai fjiavddvovcn, irepifidXXeoQai 1 * olvoyoelv 
hthdoKovaiv oijjoiroielv. TavT avev tov jxaOelv 
ovk €gtl ^/T^ai/zcus 7TOL6LV, St' o 8e TavTa rravTa, 
to ev piovv, dSloaKTOV Kal dXoyov Kal aTeyyov 
Kal avTOfiaTov ; 

2. T Q avQpcuTTOi, tl T7]V dpeTrjv XeyovTes dSl- 

1 elra] eh* ov Reiske. 

2 f.ivp" Wyttenbach, confirmed by one ms. : fivpla 8\ 

3 Kal aKepaiov after dperTjv deleted by Wyttenbach. 

4 ovfr] Kal in some mss. 

5 fiiov Pohlenz : j8iou or filov Kal aKepaiov, 



CAN VIRTUE BE TAUGHT ? 

1. When we discuss Virtue we debate the question 
whether Prudence, Justice, and the Good Life can be 
taught ; then we are surprised that the achieve- 
ments of orators, pilots, musicians, architects, and 
farmers are past counting, whereas " good men " is 
only a name and a mere term, like " Centaurs," 
" Giants/' or " Cyclopes " ! And it is impossible to 
find any deed that is faultless as regards its virtue, 
or any character undefiled by passion, or any life 
untouched by dishonour ; but even if Nature does 
spontaneously produce something that is excellent, 
this excellence is obscured by much that is foreign 
to it, like wheat mixed with wild and impure stuff. a 
Men learn to play the harp, to dance and to read, 
to farm and to ride the horse ; they learn to put on 
shoes and to don garments, they are taught to pour 
wine and to bake meat. All these things it is im- 
possible to do properly without instruction ; but shall 
that for the attainment of which all these things 
are done, that is, the Good Life, be unteachable, 
irrational, requiring no skill, and fortuitous ? 

2. O mortal men ! Why do we assert that virtue 

i.e. tares; cf. Moralia, 51 a. 

6 After l7T7T€V€lv some mss. add Kai rt feivov; 
7 TrepLpdWecrdai] Kal aAet<£ecr0ai added in some mss. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(439) Sclktov etvat rroiovfiev avvrrapKrov ; el yap rj 
fJLddrjcris yeveais eoriv, r) rod fiadeXv kwXvois 
dvaipeoig. Kairoi y , ojs (frrjcriv 6 riAarcov, 8ta rrjv 
rod 7T080S 1 7rpos rrjv Xvpav dfierpiav /cat dvap- 
[xooriav ovr d8eX<f)6s d8eX(f)tp rroXepieX ovre (f)iXos 
(j)iXcp 8iacf)eperai, ovre 7r6Xeis rroXeai hi direxOeias 
yivdjievai rd eoyara /ca/ca 2 8pa>ai re /cat rrd- 

D oypvoiv vri* aAA^Aaw ov8e Trepl rrpoaa)8iag eyei 
Tis elirelv orderly ev rroXei yevojjbevrjv, 3 rrorepov TeA- 
jfivas* rj TeA^cvas 1 dvayvayoreov oi)S' ev ot/cta 
oia(f)opdv dvSpos /cat yvvaiKos vrrep KpoKrjg r) 
orr)fjLovos. dAA' opicos ovr dv lorov ovre fiifiXiov 
r) Xvpav 6 jir) fiadcbv pierayeipiaairo, Kaiirep els 
ovSev fxeya fiXafirjaofJievos , aAA' atSetrat yeveadai 
KarayeXaaros (" dfxaOirjv " yap, Hpa/cAetrds 
(j)rjGi, " Kpvirreiv dfieivov"), oikov 8e /cat ydpiov 
/cat TToXireiav /cat dp^rjv oierai KaXcbs \ierayeipi- 
aeadai 5 fir) yvvaiKi piaOdbv avpicfrepeodai* jir) 
depdrrovri pirj TroXirrj pirj dpxofieva) p,r) dp^ovri; 

FlatSos" 6\jjo(j)ayovvros 6 Aioyevrjs ra> 7rai8ayoj- 
ya> kovSvXov eSwKev, opOcos ov rod fir) jiaOovros 

E aAAa rod fir) 8i8d£avros rd dpidprrj pia Troirjoas. 
elra 7rapoipi8os fiev r) kvXikos ovk eon Koivojveiv 

1 TOV TTohos] €V TW TTobl PlatO. 
2 €OX aT0L KCLKa] €(JX aTa Pl^tO. 

8 y€voiiev7]v Emperius and a few mss. : ywopUvqv. 

4 rj TeA^tva? added by Xylander. 

5 fi€Tax€i<pi0€crdcu] most mss. have -aaodai or -fcaflcu. 

8 fiaOcbv GvyL<f>€peaBai added by W.C.H. after Pohlenz. 



CAN VIRTUE BE TAUGHT ? 439 

is unteachable, and thus make it non-existent ? 
For if learning begets virtue, the prevention of learn- 
ing destroys it. Yet truly, as Plato a says, just 
because a foot of verse is out of measure with the lyre 
and fails to harmonize with it, brother does not war 
with brother, nor does friend quarrel with friend, nor 
do states conceive hatred toward other states and 
wreak upon each other the most extreme injuries and 
suffer them as well ; nor can anyone say that civil 
strife has ever broken out in a state over a question 
of accent, as, for instance, whether we should read 
Telchines or Telchmes, & nor that a quarrel has ever 
arisen in a household between husband and wife as 
to which is the warp and which the woof. Yet, for all 
that, no one, unless he has received instruction, would 
attempt to handle a loom or a book or a lyre, though 
he would suffer no great harm if he did so, but he is 
merely afraid of becoming ridiculous (for, as Hera- 
cleitus c says, " It is better to conceal ignorance ") ; 
but everyone thinks that without instruction he will 
handle successfully a home, a marriage, a common- 
wealth, a magistracy — though he has not learned how 
to get along with wife, or servant, or fellow-citizen, 
or subject, or ruler ! 

Diogenes, when he saw a child eating sweet-meats, 
gave the boy's tutor a cuff, rightly judging the fault 
to be, not that of him who had not learned, but of 
him who had not taught. Then, when it is impossible 

a Cleitophon, 407 c ; c/. Moralia, 534 f. 

b The latter, according to Herodianus Technicus, i. p. 17 
(ed. Lentz). 

c Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , i. p. 172, Frag. 95; the 
fragment is given more fully in Moralia, 644 f and in a 
different form in Frag. 1 of That Women Also Should be 
Educated (Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 125). 

7 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ernhe^lojs, av firj fiddr) tls evdvs ei< rraioojv 
dp^afxevos, d)S 'ApiOTOcfrdvrjs, 1 

fir) KlxhtE>€W fJLT)8 y 6lfjO(f>ay€LV fJLTjh' lox €LV TOJ 

tt68' erraAAa^ 2, 

olkov 8e /cat iroXeojs /cat yd\xov /cat fiiov /cat dpx^js 
Koivoiviav dveyf<Xr)TOV eVSe'^crat yeveodai, p/rj 
piadovTCov ovrcva XPV Tpdrrov aAAr^Aots' ovpb<f>epe- 
adai; 6 * ApioTiTTiros ipcorrjdels vrro twos, ': ttov- 
raxov av dp* el; " yeXdoas, V ovkovv," ecfrr), 
" TraparroXXvpLi to vavXov, el ye Ttavraypv et/zt." 
ri ovv; ovk av elrrois /cat avros, " el p,rj ylvov- 
F rat fiadrfaei fieXrioves avdpcoiTOi, TTaparroXXvTaL 
6 puodos row iraihayoiyoyv 'A; rrpojTOi 3 yap ovtoi 
TrapaXapbfidvovTes e/c ydXaKTOs, tooirep at rtrflat 
rat? X € P° l T ° vcofjua TrXaTTOvonv, ovtoj to rjdos 
pvd/JLL^ovoi rots' edeoiv, els tyyos tl nptoTov dpeTrjs 
KaOiuTavTes. /cat 6 Adhcojv epcoT7]9els tl 7rapex ei 
7rai§ayo)ya)v , " ra KaXd," €<f>rj, " tols iraiolv rjoea 
TrbUa." /catrot 4 tl 5 SiSdoKovotv oi 7ratSaya>yot; 
KeKV(f)OTas ev tols SSols TrepLTrarelVy evl SolktvXoj 
tov Taptxovs difjaodou, oval tov IxOvos, oltov, 
440 Kpeajs* ovtoj KaOrjodat, to t/xartov ovtojs ava- 
Xafielv. 

1 Wyttenbach would add faoLv. 

2 cVaAAaf mss. of Aristophanes. 

3 npcoroL Reiske : npcorov. 

4 Kairoi Emperius : koX avrolv. 

5 ri added by Pohlenz. 

8 W.C.H. : to rapiypv aifsaoQai Sval tov IxOvv alrov Kpdas. 

a Adapted from Clouds, 983. 

b Cf. Juvenal, viii. 97 : furor est post omnia perdere 
naulum, which indicates the proverbial character of the 
8 



CAN VIRTUE BE TAUGHT* 439-440 

to eat and drink politely in company if one has not 
learned from childhood, as Aristophanes a says, 

Not to laugh like a clown, nor dainties gulp down, nor to 
cross one leg on the other ; 

yet can men enter without censure the fellowship of a 
household, a city, a marriage, a way of life, a magis- 
tracy, if they have not learned how they should get 
along with fellow-beings ? When Aristippus was 
asked by someone, " So you are everywhere, it seems, 
aren't you ? " " Well then," he replied with a laugh, 
" I am wasting my fare, 6 if indeed I am everywhere." 
Why, then, would you also not say, " If men do not 
become better by teaching, the fee given to their 
tutors is wasted " ? For these are the first to receive 
the child when it has been weaned and, just as nurses 
mould its body with their hands, so tutors by the 
habits they inculcate train the child's character to take 
a first step, as it were, on the path of virtue. So the 
Spartan/ when he was asked what he effected by his 
teaching, said, " I make honourable things pleasant 
to children." And yet what do tutors teach ? To 
walk in the public streets with lowered head ; to 
touch salt-fish with but one finger, but fresh fish, 
bread, and meat with two e ; to sit in such and such 
a posture ; in such and such a way to wear their 
cloaks/ 

expression. Aristippus, having the entree everywhere, need 
waste no money in transit. 

c Cf Moralia, 3 e ; Plato, Republic, 377 c. 

d Cf. M or alia, 452 d, infra. 

* The point is obscure and the text corrupt. 

1 Cf. Moralia, 5 a and 99 d. See Aristophanes, Clouds, 
973 ff., for the way good boys should sit and walk in public; 
Birds, 1568, for the proper way to wear a cloak. 

9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(440) 3. Ti ovv; 6 Xeyajv Aeixfjvos larpiKrjv elvai Kai 
iraptovvxias , irXevpiTihos Se Kal irvperov Kal 
<j)peviTihos fJLTj elvcu, ri otacpepet rod XeyovTos otl 
tcov fJUKptov Kal TraioiKcov Ka9r) kovtcov 1 elol St- 
SaaKaXela Kal Xoyot Kal inroOrJKai, tcov Se pueya- 
Xojv Kal TeXelcov aXoyos rptprj Kal rrepLTTTCoois 
icrTLv; d)$ yap 6 Xeycov otl Set KcoTrrjv iXavveiv 
fiadovra Kvflepvav he Kal (jltj pcaOovra 2 yeXoZos 
iarcv, ovtcos 6 fiev tcov dXXcov aTroXeiircov re- 
Xycov fiddrjatVy dperrjs 8' avaipcov rovvavriov koiKe 
rots ^Kvdais rroieZv. eKeZvoi pcev yap, cog cfrrjoiv 
*Hp68oTos, tovs OLKeras €KTVcf>XovaLV oVa)? irvap z 
B TTapaSiScoaLV 4 avrols' ovrog Se rals SovXats Kal 
v7rr)p€Ti<JL rivals tooirep o/x/xa tov Xoyov ivTidels 
rrjs ap€T7Js acpatpeZ. 

Katrot y 6 urparrjyog ^YcfuKpanqs 77009 KaAAtav 
tov Xaptou 5 ipcoTcovTa Kal Xeyovra, '• tis €t; 
to£6tt]s; ireXraaTris ; Itttt€Vs; orrXLTrjs; " " ovo- 

€LS, Zip 7 ]* TOVTCOV, aAA O TOVTOLS TTaOlV €771- 

TaTTWv. ,, yeXoZos ovv 6 Xeycov on ro^LKrj Kal 
orrXinKrj Kal to acf>evSovav Kal to Irnreveiv StSa- 
ktov ioTLy GTpaT7]yLKrj 6 8e Kal to GTpaTrjyeZv cos 
eTvye napaylveTai Kal ols ert^e pur] fiadovaw. 
ovkovv €TL yeXoioTepos 6 fJLovrjv ttjv cfipovrjcnv pjr\ 

1 KaOrjKOVTwv] KaOrjKovTtos in most mss. 

2 Kvfiepvav Sc Kal /jlt) fxadovra added by Iannotius. 

3 nvap added by Capps; c/. Solon apud Aristotle, Atlu 
Pol., xii. 5 : irvap i^elXev ydXa. 

4 irapaoihcocjiv W.C.H. ; ydXa Scoglv Salmasius ; TrapapiivcooLV 
Canter ; yaAa Sovtomv Stephanus : 7rapaSa>aiv. 

5 KaAAiav rov Xapi'ou Dittenberger : tov XajSptou KaAAiav. 

6 GTpaTTjyLKri Wyttenbach : orparrjyla. 

a Herodotus, iv. 2, which passage is not at all explicit, but 
10 



CAN VIRTUE BE TAUGHT ? 440 

3. What then ? He who says that the physician's 
art concerns itself with rashes and hang-nails, but 
not with pleurisy or fever or inflammation of the 
brain, in what does he differ from one who says that 
schools and lectures and precepts are for instruction 
in trifling and childish duties, but that for the great 
and supreme duties there is only brute knocking 
about and accident ? For just as he is ridiculous 
who declares that one must be taught before pulling 
at the oar, but may steer the boat even without 
having learned ; so one who grants that the other 
arts are acquired by learning, but deprives virtue of 
this, appears to be acting directly contrary to the 
practice of the Scythians. For the Scythians, as 
Herodotus a says, blind their slaves that these may 
hand over the cream to themselves ; but such a man 
as this gives Reason, like an eye, as it were, to the 
subservient and ancillary arts, while denying it to 
virtue. 

Yet when Callias, son of Charias, asked the general 
Iphicrates, b " Who are you ? Bowman, targeteer, 
horseman, or hoplite ? " Iphicrates replied, " None 
of these, but the one w r ho commands them all." 
Ridiculous, therefore, is the man who declares that 
the art of using the bow, or of fighting in heavy 
armour, or of manipulating the sling, or of riding 
a horse may be taught, but that the art of com- 
manding and leading an army comes as it chances 
and to whom it chances without previous instruction ! 
Surely he is yet more ridiculous w T ho affirms that 
prudence alone cannot be taught, for without pru- 

appears to mean that the slaves are blinded to prevent their 
stealing that part of the milk considered most valuable by 
their masters. b Cf. Moralia, 99 e, 187 b. 

11 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(440) StSa/cr^v a7ro(f)aiv<jov, rjs dvev rtov dXXcov reyyGyv 

ocpeAos ovoev ovo ovqais eoriv. ei o rjy€[jLajv 

avrrj Kal koo/jlos ovaa rraacov kclL rd^is els to 

Xprjvifiov eKCLGTov Kadiarrjcnv, avriKa rts SetWou 

C X^P L ^> rjCFKr]fi€va)v Kal fjLefjLaOrjKorajv Tralhcov 

Sairpevcrat Kal 2 orrrrjaaL Kal olvoxorjaai, 

el firj SidOecns fJbrjSe rd£is e'lrj rrepl* rovs Sta- 
Kovovvras ; 

1 ct S'] €i ye Stephanus. 

a Kal] re Kal Homer. 

* TT€pl Wyttenbach : npog. 



12 



CAN VIRTUE BE TAUGHT ? 440 

dence there can be no gain or profit from the other 
arts. But if prudence is in command, the principle 
which orders all the arts, which assigns each person 
to a place of usefulness, a what joy, for instance, can 
one have at a banquet, though the servants are well- 
trained and have learned to 

Carve the meat and roast it well and pour the wine, b 

if there be no system nor order in the servitors ? c 

° There is, perhaps, a lacuna at this point, as indicated by 
Pohlenz, who supplies " how, then, must one not pay even 
more heed to prudence than to the other arts ? " 

6 Homer, Od. xv„ 323. 

c Possibly a large part of the essay is missing. 



13 



ON MORAL VIRTUE 
(DE VIRTUTE MORALI) 



INTRODUCTION 

If the present essay is the work of Plutarch, a we 
may, perhaps, be surprised at the diffuseness with 
which the author permits himself to wander at leisure 
over the preserves of Aristotelian psychology, while 
almost completely neglecting the promises made in 
such high-sounding terms in his first sentence. The 
purpose of the essay is apparently to refute certain 
tenets of Stoic psychology, and these are, to be sure, 
attacked with some spirit, but at such length and 
with so little attention to logic or to their intended 
meaning, that complete success is not to be ex- 
pected. The point which is continually belaboured 
is that there are two parts of the soul, the Rational 
and the Irrational ; for Moral Virtue to arise, the 
Rational must control the Irrational. So much our 
author has gleaned from Aristotle and to this he 
adds very little ; nor can he apply his vast reading 
in poetry and philosophy with much effect to the 
deni3lition of Stoic dogma, which he appears in 
several points to have misunderstood. On the whole, 

° The only recent attempt, that of Hart man, to show that 
it is not, relies on the looseness of the reasoning, the tedious- 
ness of the argumentation, and the absence of anything that 
might be called structure. But all three of these are by no 
means unusual in admittedly genuine works. The language 
and phraseology appear to the present editor, at any rate, to 
be Plutarchean. 

16 



ON MORAL VIRTUE 

whether from the standpoint of popular or from that 
of serious philosophy, this is one of the least successful 
of Plutarch's works. a 

A word on the terminology is necessary : Aris- 
totelian usage is probably intended throughout the 
greater part of the work. I have, therefore, followed 
most English Aristotelians in my rendering of many 
terms, with Swa/zis "capacity" or "faculty" or 
"power," <f)p6vq<ris "prudence," and the like. e£i? 
I have rendered " acquired state," but irdQos and 
its forms and derivatives I have translated " emo- 
tions," " passions," " experiences," according to my 
interpretation of the context. b 

It is interesting to notice that Pope in the Essay 
on Man (ii. 51 if.) has apparently drawn his philosophy 
from Plutarch's diluted Aristotelianism rather than 
from the fountain head. c 

The ms. tradition is fairly good. The work has been 
well edited by Mr. Pohlenz in the Teubner series ; 
from this edition most of the critical notes and the 
parallel passages have been taken. 

The work is No. 72 in Lamprias's catalogue of 
Plutarch's writings. 

a But Hartman's words are no doubt too harsh : " Multo 
. . . Chaeronensi indignior hie libellus, quern, ut ad finem 
perlegas quantum tibi est taedii devorandum ! " 

b See Mr. H. Rackham's very just remarks in the preface 
to his recent (L.C.L., 1935) edition of the Atheniensium 
Respublica. 

c Cf. T. Sinko (Eos, xv. 1909, pp. 119-122), who further 
holds this essay to be the product of Plutarch's youth, com- 
paring the more mature attitude toward the passions to be 
found in De Cohibenda Ira and De Tranquillitate Animi. 



17 



(440) nEPI THL H0IKHS APETHS 

D 1. Ilept rrjs rjdtKfjs Xeyopbevrjs aperfjs /cat So- 
kovgtjs, to 8^ ndXiora rfjs OecoprjTiKfjs oia^epei 
tw to [lev tt&Oos vXtjv €)(€iv tov Se Xoyov etSos", 

€L7T€LV TTpOKeiTOLl TLVOL T OVOIOLV €^€t KOI 7TC0S 
V(f)LOTao9ai 7T€(f)VK€' Kdl 7TOT€pOV oIk€ICQ Xoytp K€~ 

KocrjjLrjrai to SeSeyfievov clvttjv fioptov 1 ttjs ^XV 9 
rj fieTcox^Kev dXXoTpiow /cat el pLeTeax^Ke, iro- 
Tepov cos to, fJL€fJuyfJL€va rrpos to jSe'Artov fj fi&XXov 
cos eTTioTaoia tlvI xP c ^l levov KCLL ^PXV i LC€T€ X etv 
Ae'yerat ttjs tov dpxovTOS Swdpuecos* ort fiev yap 
Svvoltoli /cat dpeTrj yeyovivai /cat pbiveiv iravTa- 

E TTOLOLV CtvXoS /Cat CLKpCLTOS, 2 Ol/ZCH SrjXoV €LVOLL. 

/3eArtov Se fipaxeoos eVtSpa/zetv /cat tol tlov eTepcov, 
oi>x loTopias eW/ca fiaXXov ?} tov oacjieaTepa yeve- 
oOai tc\ ot/ceta /cat /?e/3atoT€pa, TrpoeKTeOevTtov 

€K€LVC0V. 

2. MeveSrjfjLos puev 6 i£ 'EpeTplas dvrjpei tcov 
dpeTcov /cat to ttXtjOos /cat Tag 8ta(f)opds, cos pads 
ovo7]s /cat XP 00 ^^ 7 ]^ ttoXXoZs oVo/zacrr to yap avTo 

1 avr-qv /jLopiov Sieveking : fiopiov avrfjv. 
2 dvXos koll cLKparos Pohlenz : dvXov (or dXoyov) Kal a/cparov. 
18 



ON MORAL VIRTUE 

1. It is my purpose to speak of that virtue which is 
called " moral " and reputed to be so, which differs 
from contemplative virtue chiefly in that it has as 
its material the emotions of the soul and as its form 
reason, and to inquire what its essential nature is and 
how, by its nature, it subsists ; whether, also, that 
part of the soul which receives it is equipped with its 
own reason, or does but share in the reason of some 
other part ; and if the latter, whether it does this 
after the manner of elements that are mingled with 
what is better than themselves, or rather, whether 
this portion of the soul is guided and governed by 
another part and in this sense may be said to 
share in that governing part's power. For that it is 
possible for virtue also to have come into being and 
to remain entirely independent of matter and free 
from all admixture with it, I think is quite obvious. 
It is better, however, to run summarily through the 
opinions of the philosophers holding opposing views, 
not so much for the sake of inquiring into them as 
that my own opinions may become clearer and more 
firmly established when those of the philosophers in 
question have been presented. 

2. In the first place, Menedemus of Eretria de- 
prived the virtues of both plurality and differences by 
asserting that virtue is but one, though it goes under 

19 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

oaxf)poovvrjv /cat dvSpeiav /cat Sikcliogvvtjv Ae'ye- 
adai, Kadairep fiporov /cat avOpcoirov. 'AptaTOJV S' 
o Xto? rfj [lev ovoia fxiav /cat auTO? dperrjv eVotet 
F /cat vyUtav 1 wvopbal^e' ra> Se 77/009 rt 7760? Sta- 
(f)6povs /cat TrXeiovas, cos tt ris eWAot rrjv opacriv 
rjfiojv XevKcov ptev dvTLXapiPavopLevrjv XevKoOeav 
KaXecv, pceXdvcov Se pieXavdiav 2 rj tl tolovtov eVe- 
pov. /cat yap rj dperrj 7TOi7]rea puev imoKorrovoa 
/cat /xt) 7TOirjT€a /ce'/cA^Tat (frpovrjaLs, imdvpiiav Se 
441 Koapbovaa /cat to puerpiov /cat to evKaipov iv 
rjSovcus 6pit,ovaa oto^poavvrj , Koivojvrjjxaai Se /cat 
ovpifioXaiois opuXovoa rots irpos iripovs St/cato- 
ovvr]' Kaddrrep to jita^atptov eV /xeV eortv aAAore 8' 
aAAo Statpet, /cat to 7rup eVepyet 7rept tJAas" Sta- 
<j>6povs pad cf)va€i xpoopievov. eot/ce Se /cat Zt^vojv 
et? tovto itcjs vTro(/)€ peod at 6 KtTteus*, opt^o/xeyo? 

T7]V (j)p6v7]GLV iv pi€V d7TOV€fJLr)T€OlS §LKCUOGVVr]V, iv S' 

atpeTe'ots 3 oaxfipoavvqv, iv S' vrropLeveriois dvSpeiav 
diToXoyovpievoL S' a^toucrtv eV TOirrots" rrjv em- 
orrjpLrjv c/)p6vrjoLV vtto rod TLtjvcovos (bvopidodai. 
B yLpvoiimos Se Kara to 7rotov dperr)v tSta 4 ttoi6tii)ti 
ovvioraodai vopLt^cov, eXaOev avrov Kara rov 

1 uytetav] vyelav in most mss. 

2 fjieAavOeav] fieXavodeav in two 3iss. 

3 alpertois Wyttenbach, confirmed by G : hiaipereoLs. 

4 iSta] Ihiav in some mss. 

Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., i. p. 86. 

b Of. for example, Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, vi. 6. 1 : 
prudence is " concerned only with things which admit of 
variation." 
20 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 440-441 

many names : the same thing is meant by temper- 
ance and courage and justice, as is the case witli 
" mortal " and " man." And Ariston of Chios ° him- 
self also made virtue but one in its essential nature 
and called it health ; but in its relative aspect he 
made certain distinctions and multiplied virtues, just 
as though one should wish to call our sight " white- 
sight " when it is applied to white objects, or " black- 
sight " when applied to black objects, or anything else 
of the sort. For instance virtue, when it considers 
what we must do or avoid, is called prudence b ; when 
it controls our desires and lays down for them the 
limitations of moderation and seasonableness in our 
pleasures, it is called temperance ; when it has to do 
with men's relations to one another and their com- 
mercial dealings, it is called justice — just as a knife is 
one and the same knife, though it cuts now one thing, 
now another, or as a fire retains its single nature 
though it operates upon different substances. More- 
over it appears likely that Zeno c of Citium also 
inclines in some measure to this opinion, for he defines 
prudence as justice when it is concerned with what 
must be rendered to others as their due, as temper- 
ance when concerned with what must be chosen or 
avoided, as fortitude when concerned with what must 
be endured ; and those who defend Zeno postulate 
that in these definitions he uses the word prudence in 
the sense of knowledge. Chrysippus, d however, by 
his opinion that corresponding to each several quality 
a virtue is formed by its own distinctive attribute of 
quality, unwittingly stirred upa" swarm of virtues," 

c Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., i. p. 48 ; cf. also Moralia % 
97 e and 1034 c. 

d Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., iii. p. 59. 

VOL. VI B 21 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(441) YlXdrcova Gfirjvos dpercov ov awqdcov ovhk yvco- 
ptfiojv 1 iyeipos' ci? yap rrapd rov dvopelov dvSpeiav 
Kan rrapa rov rrpdov rrpaonqra Kal SiKatOGVvrjv 
irapd rov olkcliov, ovtco Trapd rov ycLpUvra yapiav- 
TOTrjras Kal irapd rov iordXop iaOXorrjras Kal 
Trapd rov pueyav jJbeyaXorrjrag Kal rrapd rov KaXov 
KaXorrjras, erepas re rotavras imSe^Lorrjrag, ev- 
a7ravrrj<jLas } evrpaTreXias dperds TiOefxevos, ttoXXcov 
/cat arorrajv ovopbdrcov ov8ev SeofJLevrjv ifXTT€TrXrjK€ 

TTjV 2 (f)l,Xo(70(f)LaV. 

3. KoivcLg §' arravres ovtol ttjv dperrjv rod 

rjyefJLOVLKov ttjs ipvxfjs Siddeacv rtva Kal Svvapuv 

yeyevrjpLevrjv vrro Xoyov, fiaXXov Se Xoyov ovoav 

avTTjV 6/JLoXoyovfJLevov Kal fieftaiov Kal dpLeraTrrcoTov 

V7TOTL0€VTai* Kal VOjJLL^OVGLV OVK elvai TO TTaOrjTLKOV 

Kal dXoyov hia<^opa tlvl Kal <f)vo€L 3 rov XoyiKov 
SiaK€KpLjjL€vov, dXXd ravro rrjs faxVS p<epos, o 8rj 
koXovgl Stdvoiav Kal j]ye\xoviKov , 8t' oXov rpeTropie- 
vov Kal fjLerafidXXov ev re rols Trddeai Kal rals Ka6* 
e£iv rj hiddeoiv fiera^oXaig KaKiav re yiveaOai Kal 
apenqv, Kal firjSev e^civ dXoyov iv eavra), Xeyeadai 
8' dXoyov, orav rw TrXeovd^ovri rrjs oppLrjs lo-gapca 
yevojjLevto Kal KparrjaavrL rrpos tl twv droTTtov rrapd 
D rov atpovvra Xoyov iKcfreprjTac Kal yap to rrdOos 
etvac Xoyov rrovrjpov Kal aKoXaarov £k (jyavXrjs Kal 

1 ovvqdwv ovhk yvcoptfjicov Capps : ovvqdes ovhk yvcbpiyLOv. 

2 r-qv added by Hartman. 

3 ^Xys before rod deleted by Hartman. 

a Meno, 72 a ; cf. Moralia, 93 b. 
22 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 441 

as Plato a has it, which were not familiar nor even 
known ; for as from the adjective " brave " he de- 
rived " bravery,'' from " mild " " mildness,' ' and 
"justice" from "just," so from "charming" he 
derived " charmingnesses," from " virtuous " " vir- 
tuousnesses," from " great " " greatnesses, " from 
"honourable" " honourablenesses," postulating also 
the other qualities of the same sort, dexterousnesses, 
approachablenesses, adroitnesses, as virtues, and 
thus filled philosophy, which needed nothing of the 
sort, with many uncouth names. 

3. Yet all of these men agree b in supposing 
virtue to be a certain disposition of the governing 
portion of the soul and a faculty engendered by 
reason, or rather to be itself reason which is in accord 
with virtue and is firm and unshaken. They also 
think that the passionate and irrational part of the 
soul is not distinguished from the rational by any 
difference or by its nature, but is the same part, 
which, indeed, they term intelligence and the govern- 
ing part ; it is, they say, wholly transformed and 
changes both during its emotional states and in the 
alterations brought about in accordance with an 
acquired disposition or condition and thus becomes 
both vice and virtue ; it contains nothing irrational 
within itself, but is called irrational whenever, by the 
overmastering power of our impulses, which have 
become strong and prevail, it is hurried on to some- 
thing outrageous which contravenes the convictions 
of reason. Passion, in fact, according to them, is a 
vicious and intemperate reason, formed from an evil 

b Cf. von Arnim, Stoic, Vet. Frag., i. pp. 49, 50 : iii. p. 111. 
c For the phrase cf. Plato, Parmenides, 141 d : Marcus 
Aurelius, ii. 5. 

23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(441) SirjpLapTrjpLevrjs Kpioecos a(f)o8p6r7]ra /cat poopaqv 
7rpoo\af5ov<jr]s } 

"Eot/ce Se XaOelv tovtovs anavras, fj Slttos rjpioov 
cbs dXrjOcos eKaoTos eoTt /cat avvOeros* ttjv yap 
erepav SlttXotjv ov KarelSov, dXXd ttjv iftvxrjs /cat 
ocopLaros pu£cv ipuc/xivecrTepav ovoav otl S' avrfjs 
eon rrjs ijjvxfjS *v eavrfj avvderov tl /cat Selves 
/cat avofjLoiov, tooirep erepov acbpLaros tov dXoyov 
rrpos tov Xoyov dvdyKT] rivl /cat (fivaei avpLpayevTog 

E /cat avvappLOcrOevTOS , clkos /xeV ecrrt pL7]8e Tlv- 
Oayopav dyvorjaou, Te/c/zatpo/zeVots" rfj Trepl pcov- 
glktjv G7Tov$f) rod dv8pos t rjv eiriqydyeTO rfj ifjvxfj 
KrjArjaeaJs efve/ca /cat irapapLvduas, cos ov ttolv ixovarj 
StSaor/caAta /cat pLaOrjpLaaiv vtttjkoov ov8e Xoyco 
pLera^Xrjrov e/c /ca/cta?, aAAa twos eTepas tt€l9ovs 
ovvepyov /cat TrXdottos /cat TiOaoevoeoos 8e6pLevov, 
et purj TTavTairaai /xe'AAot </>tAocro(/>ta SucrjLteTa^etpt- 
crrov etvat /cat dneiOes. 

y Efi(f)ava>s puevTOL /cat /3e/3ata>? /cat dvapufiiSo^tos 
HXaTCov orvveTSev, otl tovtov re 2 ro£ Koopiov to 

F epufjv)(ov ovx dirXovv ouS' dovvdeTOV ov8e /zovoetSe's 
eoTiv, dXX e/c ttJ? tclvtov kcli tt)s tov eTepov 
pbepnypLevov Swa/zea>9 3 7777 tzei> act /cara raura 
KoopbeiTai /cat TrepLTToXel pad ra^et /cparo? ixovcrrj 

XpCOpLCVOV, 7T7) 8' Ct? T€ /Ctl^C/etS' /Cat /CU/cAot'S' 

ax^dpievov vnevavTiovs /cat rrXavrjTOVS dpxty Sta- 

1 7TpoaXapovcrr]s] 7rpoo\aB6vTa in many mss. 

2 re Pohlenz : ye. 

3 StW/xeajs] (j>vG€cos Plato and Moralia, 1012 c. 

» C/. Moralia, 943 a and 1083 c. 
24 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 441 

and perverse judgement which has acquired addi- 
tional violence and strength. 

But it seems to have eluded all these philosophers 
in what way each of us is truly two-fold and com- 
posite. For that other two-fold nature of ours they 
have not discerned, but merely the more obvious one, 
the blend of soul and body. But that there is some 
element of composition, some two-fold nature and 
dissimilarity of the very soul within itself, since the 
irrational, as though it were another substance, is 
mingled and joined with reason by some compulsion 
of Nature — this, it is likely, was not unknown even 
to Pythagoras, if we may judge by the man's 
enthusiasm for the study of music, which he intro- 
duced to enchant and assuage the soul, 6 perceiving 
that the soul has not every part of itself in subjec- 
tion to discipline and study, and that not every part 
can be changed from vice by reason, but that the 
several parts have need of some other kind of per- 
suasion to co-operate with them, to mould them, and 
to tame them, if they are not to be utterly intract- 
able and obstinate to the teaching of philosophy. 

Plato, c however, comprehended clearly, firmly, and 
without reservation both that the soul of this universe 
of ours is not simple nor uncompounded nor uniform, 
but that, being compounded of the potentialities of 
sameness and otherness, in one part it is ever governed 
in uniformity and revolves in but one and the same 
order, which maintains control, yet in another part it 
is split into movements and circles which go in con- 
trariety to each other and wander about, thus giving 

b Cf. Plato, Euthydemus, 290 a. 

c Timaeus, 35 a ff. ; cf. also the treatise De Animae Pro- 
creatione in Timaeo (Moralia, 1012 b ff.). 

25 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(f)opdg Kal jjLerafloXrjs Kal dvojJLOLorrjTOs eVSi'Scocri 
rai? rrepl yrjv cfrOopals 1 Kal yeveoeoiv r\ t dvOpwirov 

faXV ^pOS TL V* f Ji ^ r ]f Xa rfs T °V TTCLVTOS OVOCL KCU 

avvy]p\LOG\iivy] Kara Xoyovs Kal dpcOpLovs eocKoras 
442 €K€ivols ovx drrXrj ris eoriv ovS' 6p,oi07ra6rjs, dAA' 
erepov fxev eyei to voepov Kal XoyioriKov, a> /cpa- 
relv rod avdpcjTTOV Kara (fivoiv Kal apyew Trpoor\Kov 
ioriv, erepov oe to TradrjrLKov Kal dXoyov Kal ttoXv- 
7rXaves Kal araicrov e^eraorov 3 Seopievov. ov irdXiv 
Sc^tJ fiepL^o/jievov, to [Lev dec oayfjcart /3ovXeo9ai 
ovvelvai Kal creo/za Oepaneveiv Tre^VKos eTtidvpsq- 
tlkov KeKXrjraL, to 8' eon piev fj tovtco TrpooTiOe- 
fievov, eon 8' fj rep XoyiopLtp napeypv ioyyv Kal 4, 
Svvapuv, 6vjJLoei8es. aTroheiKwoi Se rrjv hia<f>opdv 
fidXiora rfj rod XoyL^ofievov Kal ^povovvros dvn- 
j3doei rrpos to eiridvpLodv Kal to 5 dvp,ovf.ievov, ojs 
rep 6 erep* elvai iroXXaKis drteidovvra Kal Svo- 
B fiaxovvra rrpos to fieXnov. 1 

Taurat? exprjoaro rats appals errl TrXelorov 8 
' ApiOToreXr)s y d>s SrjXov eonv e£ wv eypai/jev 
vorepov Se to fxev OvfioeiSes rep eiridvpir^nKip 
Trpoaeveipbev, co? eTTiOvybiav riva rov Qvpiov ovra Kal 

1 Kal ixeraPoXfjs . . . <f>dopais omitted in most mss. 

2 rt rj W.C.H. : r\ rt. 

3 igeTCLGTOv van Herwerden ; i^rjyr]rov Apelt : e'£ iavrov, 

4 im rovro before Kal deleted by Hartman. 

5 to added by Hartman. 

8 d)s T(h Apelt : (Lore. 

7 fiiXriov] fieXrioTov in all mss. but A. 

8 ttXzlgtov] tt\4ov in most mss., perhaps rightly. 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 441-442 

rise to the beginnings of differentiation and change 
and dissimilarity in those things which come into being 
and pass away on earth ; and also that the soul of 
man, a since it is a portion or a copy of the soul of the 
Universe and is joined together on principles and in 
proportions corresponding to those which govern the 
Universe, & isnot simple nor subject to similar emotions, 
but has as one part the intelligent and rational, whose 
natural duty it is to govern and rule the individual, 
and as another part the passionate and irrational, the 
variable and disorderly, which has need of a director. 
This second part is again subdivided into two parts, 
one of which, by nature ever willing to consort with 
the body and to serve the body, is called the appeti- 
tive ; the other, which sometimes joins forces with 
this part and sometimes lends strength and vigour to 
reason, is called the spirited part. And Plato c shows 
this differentiation chiefly by the opposition of the 
reasoning and intelligent part to the appetitive part 
and the spirited part, since it is by the very fact that 
these last are different that they are frequently dis- 
obedient and quarrel with the better part. 

Aristotle d at first made use of these principles to a 
very great extent, as is obvious from his writings. 
But later e he assigned the spirited to the appetitive 
part, on the ground that anger is a sort of appetite 

a Cf. Timaeus, 69 c ff. 

b Cf. Themistius, Paraphrasis Aristotelis de Anima, i. 5 
(p. 59 ed. Spengel). 

c Republic, 435 a ff. 

d Cf. 448 a, infra, and the note. 

* Cf. Be Anima, iii. 9 (432 a 25) ; Magna Moralia, i. I 
(1182 a 24) ; Ethica Eudemia, ii. 1. 15 (1219 b 28) ; Ethica 
Nicomachea, i. 13. 9 (1102 a 29) ; Iamblichus, Protrepticus, 
7 (p. 41 ed. Pistelli). 

27 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(442) ope^iv avTiAv7TT)(j€a)s. rep fxivroi iradiqnKcp /cat 
dXoycp ue^pt 7Ta ^ r os d>s hia^epovn rod XoyioriKov 
Xpcofji€V09 Stere'Aecrev, oi>x on TravreX&s dXoyov 
eonv cx)07Tep to alodrjnKov rj to dpzirnKov /cat 
<f)VTLKov rfjs fax^S /xepo? (dAAa ravra fxev oXoos 
dvqKoa Xoyov /cat KCocf)d rporrov nvd rrjs crap/cos 
eK^e^XdcrrrjKe /cat 7Tepl to acofia TravreX&s kclto.- 

C 7T€(f)VK€) TO 8e TTaO^TLKOV OLK6LOV X6yOV OT€p€T<ll 

/cat dfJLOLpov ioriv, aXXcos 8e rod Xoyi^ofievov /cat 
<f>povovvTOS eloaKoveiv /cat rperreoOaL irpos e/cetvo 
/cat V7T€iK€iv /cat /caTacr^/xart^ea^at 7T€(f)VK€V, idv 
firj reXeov fj 8t6</>#ao/xeVov vcj)' rjSovrjs afiadovs /cat 
OLKoXdorov StatTT}?. 

4. Ot §e davfid^ovTes orrojg dXoyov \xiv ion 
Xoyco 8' VTrr\Koov 3 ov (xol Sokovol rod Xoyov 
irepivoelv rrjv SiW/ztv 

OUT) 7T€(f)VK€ Kac/)* 1 OOOV 8l€p)(€TCU 

Tip Kparelv /cat d'yetv ov cr/cA^pats 1 ouS' avnrvrrois 
dyojyalg, dAAa tvttikoXs /cat to evhooipbov /cat net- 
Orjviov d7rdar)s dvdyKrjs /cat /Jta? e^ouaat? dvucrt- 
pLcorepov, inel /cat rryetyxa Stjttov /cat vevpa /cat 
D octtci /cat rd Aot7rd /xe'077 rou owpbaros dXoy* eoriv, 
dXX otclv 6pfJLrj yevrjrou, oeloavros djoirep rjvtas 
rod Xoyiofxov, rrdvra rerarau 2 /cat ovvrJKTOLL /cat 
vrraKovei' /cat 770869 re 0etv SiavorjOevros evrovoi? 
/cat X € W € S € ^ Zpyov Kadioravrai /3aActv 7; Aa/3etv 

1 /ca^' Diibner : /cat i<j>\ 

2 rerarai] reraKrai in many MSS. 

3 eurovoi] zttovtcli in some mss. 

28 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 442 

and desire to cause pain in requital a ; to the end, 
however, he continued to treat the passionate and 
irrational part as distinct from the rational, not 
because this part is wholly irrational, as is the per- 
ceptive part of the soul, or the nutritive and vegetative 
part (for these parts are completely unsubmissive 
and deaf to reason and, so to speak, mere off-shoots 
of our flesh and wholly attached to the body), but 
though the passionate part is wanting in reason 
and has no reason of its own, yet otherwise it is 
by nature fitted to heed the rational and intelligent 
part, to turn toward it, to yield to it, to conform itself 
thereto, if it is not completely corrupted by foolish 
pleasure and a life of no restraint. 

4. Those who wonder how it is that this part is 
irrational, yet subservient to reason, do not seem to 
me to reflect thoroughly upon the power of reason, 

How great it is, how far it penetrates, 6 

through its mastery and guidance, not by harsh and 
inflexible methods, but by flexible ones, which have a 
quality of yielding and submitting to the rein which 
is more effective than any possible constraint or 
violence. For, to be sure, even our breathing, our 
sinews and bones, and the other parts of the body, 
though they are irrational, yet when an impulse 
comes, with reason shaking the reins, as it were, they 
all grow taut and are drawn together in ready 
obedience. So, when a man purposes to run, his feet 
are keyed for action ; if he purposes to throw or to 
grasp, his hands fall to their business. And most 

a Cf. Aristotle, Le Anima, i. 1 (403 a 30) ; Seneca, Be 
Ira, i. 3. 3. 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 648, Euripides, Frag. 898. 
vol. vi B 2 29 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

opfjLTjGavrog. apiara S' 6 TTOirjTrjS TO GVfJLTTadoVV 
/cat avyKaraax^fJiCLTi^oiJLevov rep Xoyto rod dXoyov 

7Tapl(JT7]<JL 8l6\ TOVTOOV 

o)S rfjs rrjKero KaXa 7rapr)ia SaKpvx^ovorjs, 
K\aiovo*qs eov dvSpa Trapy]\ievov avrdp 'OSua- 

orevs 
dv/jLO) [lev yoocooav irjv iX&upe yvvaiKa, 
E ocfjOaXjiol S' a)? €l /cepa earaaav rje aiSrjpos 
arpefias iv /3Ae</>apotcrt, SoAco S' 6 ye 1 SaKpva 

KevOev. 

ovtco KarrjKoov eiye rfjs Kpioeojs /cat to 7Tvevfia 
/cat to at/xa /cat to haKpvov. 

AtjXovol Se /cat irapd KaXaZs kcli kolXoIs, olcov 2 
ovk id Aoyos 1 ouSe vojjlos dcyelv, aihoiojv (fyvyal /cat 
dva)(OjprjO€Ls T)ovylo<v dyovTCOV /cat aTpepiovvTcov. 
o jitaAtara avfi^atveL toZs ipcocrtv, evr aKovaaoiv 
d>s dbeXc/yrjs ipd)VT€S rj OvyaTpos r\yvor\Kaoiv a/xa 3 
yap €7TTr}£e to 67tl8vijlovv dipapievov tov Xoyov /cat 
to owfJLa ra (Jteprf cyvvevax^jf^ovovvTa Trj Kpioei 
F 7rapea)(€. gitiois ye fjbrjv 7roAAa/ct9 /cat oifjois /xaA' 
rjSecos Trpocrev€)(9<=vT€s dv aloOcovTai /cat fidOcooiv 

CLVTOVS TLOV fJL7] KCiOaptOV TL fJLTjSe VOjJLLfJLCOV €$rj- 
SoKOTCLS, OX) T7J KptO€L (JLOVOV €77eTat 5 TO XviTOVV KCll 

8aKvov, dXXd /cat to crcotxa ttj So^-ry ovvhiaTpeTTO- 
fievov /cat dvaTri\iTrXd\x€vov e/xerot /cat SiaTpoirou 
vavTicoSeis loypvoi. 

AeSot/ca Se fir) So£at/xt TravTairaoLV irrayajya /cat 
443 veapd tco Xoyco irepaiveiv, ifjaXTvpta Sce^uhv /cat 

1 8* o ye] hi ye in all mss. but G. 2 otcov Capps : <Lv. 

3 a/xa Reiske : dAAa. 4 (JLtprj] fxtXr) ? Bernardakis. 

5 eVerou Naber ; imriOerai Reiske : iinTidtvrai. 
SO 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 442-443 

excellently does the Poet a portray in the following 
words the sympathy and conformity of the irrational 
with reason : 

Thus were her fair cheeks wet with tears, as she 
Wept for her lord, though he sat by. In heart 
Odysseus pitied his lamenting wife, 
But kept his eyes firm-fixed within their lids 
Like horn or iron : with guile he hid his tears. 

Under such subjection to his judgement did he keep 
his breathing and his blood and his tears. 

An evident proof of this is also the shrinking and 
withdrawal of the private parts, which hold their 
peace and remain quiet in the presence of such 
beautiful maidens and youths as neither reason nor 
law allows us to touch. This is particularly the case 
with those who first fall in love and then hear that 
they have unwittingly become enamoured of a sister 
or a daughter ; for lust cowers as reason asserts itself 
and, at the same time, the body brings its parts into 
decent conformity with the judgement. Indeed, 
very often with foods and meat, when men have 
partaken of them with gusto, if they then perceive 
or come to know that they have eaten something 
unclean or unlawful, not only is this judgement of 
theirs attended by displeasure and remorse, but the 
body itself, revolted and sharing the mind's disgust, 
falls a prey to the retchings and vomitings of 
nausea. 

But I fear that I shall be thought to be rounding 
out my discourse with instances which are altogether 
seductive and exotic, if I recount in full how harps and 

a Homer, Od., xix. 208-212 ; cf. Moralia, 475 a, 506 a-b, 
and De Vita et Poesi Homeric 135 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. 
p. 409). 

31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALTA 

(443) Xvpas Kal TrrjKrlSas Kal avXovs, kcll ogcl piovGiKrjs 
TTpoocooa Kal TrpoGTjyopa /jLrjxavrjGafjLevqs dvOpo)- 
ttlvols TradeGiv difw^a Gvvrjoerat 1 Kal GVveiriOprjvet 
Kal GwaSei Kal GwaKoXaGracvet, Tas KpiGtis 
dva(f)€povra Kal tol TrdOrj /cat ra rjdrj ra>v xpa>- 
fievcov. /catrot koX Tjifjvcovd </>acrtv els Bearpov 
dviovra KiOapcooovvros * Apioifieajs rrpos tovs 
fjLaOrjrds, * Icopbev" elirelv, " ottcos Karajidd ajpiev 
olav evrepa Kal vevpa Kal £vXa Kal oara Xoyov 
Kal pvOpLOV 2 jieraG^ovra Kal Ta£ea)s epLpLeXeiav Kal 

(j)a)V7]V d<f)L7JGlV." 

'AAAa ravr eaGas, rjSeajs av avra>v rrvdotfji^v, et 
B Kvvas Kal Ittttovs Kal opviQas oiKovpovs opcovres 
edei Kal rpo(/)fj Kal StSacr/caAta <f>CDvds re Gvverds 
Kal rrpos Xoyov vtttjkoovs KivrjGeis /cat cr^eaets' 
aVoStScWas' /cat irpd^eis to [lerpiov /cat to XPV~ 
GifJiov rjjjuv e)(ovGaSy 'OfJLTjpov t' 3 aKovovTes tov 
'A^iAAea XeyovTOs 

OTpvveiv Ittttovs t€ Kal dvepas 

€77t T7]V fJid)(r)V, €TL OaVfJid^OVGL Kal oiaTTopovGiv et 
to OvjJLOvjjLevov ev rjpLLV Kal eTnOvfiovv Kal Xvttov- 
fievov Kal rjSofJLevov vrraKovetv re tw (f>povovvTL /cat 
naGyeiv vtt* avTov Kal GWOiaTideGOai 7Tecf>VKev, 
ovk airoiKovv ov& aTT€GyiG[iivov* L ovSe TrXaGGopievov 
C e^a>9ev ovSe TVTrovjJievov dvdyKais tlgIv r) 7rXr)yaTs, 

1 owqbzTai Reiske : awfjXOe. 

2 pvdfiov] apiOfiov in all mss. but two. 

8 t Reiske : S\ 

4 a7T€C7^tc7/xeVov] a7T€oxoLviofi€vov in some mss. 

S2 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 443 

lyres, pipes and flutes, and all the other harmonious 
and consonant instruments which musical art has 
devised, void of soul though they be, accord in songs 
of both joy and grief, in stately measures and dis- 
solute tunes, with human experiences, reproducing the 
judgements, the experiences, and the morals of those 
who use them. And yet they say that even Zeno a 
on his way to the theatre when Amoebeus b was sing- 
ing to the lyre, remarked to his pupils, " Come, let us 
observe what harmony and music gut and sinew, 
wood and bone, send forth when they partake of 
reason, proportion, and order." 

But, letting these subjects pass, I would gladly 
learn from my opponents whether, when they see 
dogs, horses, and domestic birds, through habituation, 
breeding, and teaching, uttering intelligible sounds 
and moving and assuming postures in subordination 
to reason, and acting in a manner conformable to due 
proportion and our advantage ; and when they hear 
Homer declaring that Achilles 

Urged on both horses and men e 

to battle — whether, I say, they still wonder and are 
in doubt that the element in us which is spirited and 
appetitive and experiences pain and pleasure, does, 
by its very nature, harken to the intelligence, and is 
affected and harmoniously disposed by its agency, and 
does not dwell apart from the intelligence, nor is it 
separated therefrom, nor moulded from without the 
body, nor formed by any extraneous violence or 

° Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., i. p. 67 ; cf. also Moralia, 
1029 e. 

b Cf. Life of Aratus, xvii. (1034 e) ; Athenaeus, xiv. 
623 d ; Aelian, Varia Historia, iii. 30. 

c Adapted from //., xvi. 167. 

S3 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(443) aAAa, (f>vo€L fikv i^rjpTrjLievov del 8' olilXovv koli 
avvrp€(f)6fJi€Vov /cat dvaTTLLiTrXaLievov vtto avvrjdelas. 
Ato /cat kclAojs (hvojAaorai to rjdos* eart pbkv ydp, 
cog TV7TCO elirelv, 7toi6t7]s tov dXoyov to rjdog* 
cbvofxaaraL 8' on rrjv TTOLorrjra ravrrjv koX tt)v 
8ia<f>opdv €0<el XajjL^dvei to dXoyov vtto rod Xoyov 
TrXaTTOfievov, ov fiovXojJLevov to rrdOog e^aipelv 
Travrdiraoiv (ovre ydp Svvarov ovt aLieivov), dAA' 
bpov Tcvd /cat rd^tv iTTiTiOevros avrtp /cat Tag 
7]6tKag dperds, ovk aTradeiag ovoag aAAa gvli- 
D fierplas iraOcov /cat fxeaor^ras , €Llttolovvtos' e/x- 
7ro66t 8k rfj (f)povrjcr€L rrjv rod 7ra8r)TLKov Svvapuv els 
k£iv dare cav KaOiords. rpia yap 8r) ravrd <j>aoi 

7T€pl TTjV lf*V)(f)V VTTO.pX^V, SvVCLLllV TTaOoS €^LV. Tj 

Liev ovv 8vvaiiig dpxrj /cat vXrj rod TrdOovg, olov 
6pyiX6T7]s aloxvvTrjXia dappaXeorrjs' to 8k rrdOog 

KLVr)GLS TLS 77S77 T7]S 8vvaLl€COg , OLOV OpyTj atSoj? 1 

9d,poog* rj 8' e£ig 1&XVS /cat KaraaKevrj rfjs rrepl to 
dXoyov SvvdfJLeojs i£ edovg iyyevoLievr], /ca/cta Likv 
dv (f>avXcog, dperrj 8' dv kolXqjs vtto tov Xoyov 
rraihay toyrjOf) to rrdOog. 

5. 'E7T66 8' OV TTaoaV dp€T7]V fJL€OOTr]Ta TTOLOVOLV 

E ouS' rjdiKrjv kclXovoi, XeKTeov dv elrj rrepl Trjg 
8tacf)opag dp^aiievoig dvcodev. k'oTi tolvvv tcov 

1 Opdaos or Odpoos before alS<bs deleted by Bernardakis after 
Reiske. 

a Cf. Moralia, 3 a, 551 e ; Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, 
ii. 1. 1 (1103 a 17). 

b Cf. 452 b, infra. 

c Cf. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, ii. 5 (1105 b 19); 
Stobaeus, Eclogae, ii. 7. 20 (vol. ii. p. 139 ed. Wachsmuth). 

d " The capacities are the faculties in virtue of which we 
can be said to be liable to the emotions, for example, capable 
34 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 143 

blows, but that by its nature it is dependent upon the 
intelligence and is always in association with it and 
nurtured together with it and influenced by familiar 
intercourse. 

Therefore, also, ethical, or moral, virtue (ethos) is 
well named, a for ethical virtue is, to but sketch the 
subject, a quality of the irrational, and it is so named 
because the irrational, being formed by reason, ac- 
quires this quality and differentiation by habit (ethos), 
since reason does not wish to eradicate passion com- 
pletely (for that would be neither possible b nor 
expedient), but puts upon it some limitation and 
order and implants the ethical virtues, which are not 
the absence of passion but a due proportion and 
measure therein ; and reason implants them by using 
prudence to develop the capacity for passion into a 
good acquired disposition. For these three things 
the soul is said to possess c : capacity, passion, 
acquired state. Now capacity d is the starting-point, 
or raw material, of passion, as, for instance, irasci- 
bility, bashfulness, temerity. And passion is a kind 
of stirring or movement of the capacity, as anger, 
shame, boldness. And finally, the acquired state is 
a settled force and condition of the capacity of the 
irrational, this settled condition being bred by habit 
and becoming on the one hand vice, if the passion 
has been educated badly, but virtue, if educated 
excellently by reason. 

5. But inasmuch as philosophers do not make 
virtue as a whole a mean nor apply to it the 
term " moral," we must discuss the difference, start- 
ing with first principles. Now in this world things 

of feeling anger or fear [mss. read pain] or pity." (Aristotle, 
I.e., Rackham's translation adapted.) 

35 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

irpaypLdrcov ra piv drrX&s 1 exovra ra 8e rrcos 
exovra rrpbs r)pias' drrXcbs 1 ptev ovv exovra t yrj 
ovpavos dor pa OdXaoaa' 77009 S exovra rrpos rjfJL&s, 
dyaOov kclkov, alperov (f>evKrov, rjBv dXyecvov apbc/xx) 
Se rod Xoyov Oeojpovvros, 2 to puev rrepl ra drrXcos* 
k'xovra puovov emarrjpiovLKov Kal Oeajp-qriKov eon, 

TO 8' iv Tols 7TOJS k'xOVOl TTpOS TjpL&S fiovXeVTLKOV 
KOLL TTpCLKTLKOV dp€T7] §€ TOVTOV pLeV Tj (j)p6vrjOLS, 

€K€ivov S' rj ao(j)La. hia<f)epei Se oocfrlas <f)p6vr)ais 
fj rod 6ea>prjTLKov rrpos to rrpaKriKov Kal rra8r)- 

F TIKOV €7TlOTpO(f)rjS KCil 0n£6(7€C0? TWOS yeVOpbeVTJS 

v^iorar ai Kara Xoyov rj (jtpovqois. Sco (f)povr}ois 
p,ev tvx7)S Setrai, aoc/)La S' ov Set/rat Trpos to 

OiK€LOV TeXoS OlfSe fiovXrjS* €GTL ydp 7T€pl TOL del 

Kara ravra 4, kcll 5 cooavrws k'xovra, Kal KaOdrrep 
444 6 yecopLerprjs ov fiovXeverai rrepl tov rpiycLvov, el 
Svetv opOals* loas e^et ras evros yoovias aAA* ofSev 
(at yap fiovXal rrepl rd>v dXkor oXXojs exovrcov, ov 
irepl Ttov /3e/3ata>v Kal dpLerarrrwrcov) , ovrcos 6 
OeajprjTLKos vovs rrepl ra rrpcora Kal fjLovip,a Kal 
/xtav aet <f)vaiv exovra pirj SexojJLevrjv pLerafioXas 
evepydov, drrrjXXaKrai rod fiovXeveodai. rr)v Se 
(jypovrjoLV els rrpdy\xara rrXdvrjs fxeora Kal rapax^js 
KaOcelaav emplyvvoQai rots rvx^pols rroXXaKis 

1 anXws Gesner's " Stobaeus " : ottojs. 

2 dpucfxt) . . . Oeojpovvros W.C.H. : dfji(f)olv . . . OecoprjTiKov 

OVTOS. 

3 anXtos " Stobaeus " : rrws or oncus. 

4 Kara ravra Wyttenbach, cf, Plato, Phaedo, 78 c, for 
example : Kal ra aura. 

5 Kal added by Wyttenbach. 

6 opdals] opdalv Reiske. 

36 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 443-444 

are of two sorts, some of them existing absolutely, 
others in some relation to us. Things that exist 
absolutely are earth, heavens, stars, sea ; things that 
exist in relation to us are good and evil, things desir- 
able and to be avoided, things pleasant and painful. 
Now reason a contemplates both of these, but when 
it is concerned merely with things which exist abso- 
lutely, it is called scientific and contemplative ; and 
when it is engaged with those things which exist in 
relation to us, it is called deliberative and practical. 
The virtue of the latter activity is called prudence, 
that of the former wisdom ; and prudence differs from 
wisdom in that when the contemplative faculty is 
occupied in a certain active relationship with the 
practical and passionate, prudence comes to subsist in 
accordance with reason. Therefore prudence b has 
need of chance, but wisdom has no need of it, nor yet 
of deliberation, to attain its proper end ; for wisdom is 
concerned with things that remain ever the same and 
unchanging. And just as the geometer does not 
deliberate whether the triangle has its internal angles 
equal to two right angles, but knows it to be true (for 
deliberation concerns matters that are now one way, 
now another, not things that are sure and immutable), 
just so the contemplative mind has its activity con- 
cerning first principles, things that are permanent 
and have ever one nature incapable of mutation, and 
so has no occasion for deliberation. But prudence 
must often come down among things that are 
material and are full of error and confusion ; it has 
to move in the realm of chance ; to deliberate where 

° Cf. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, vi. 1. 5 (1139 a 7). 
b Ibid, iii. 3. 4-9 (1112 a 21); vi. 5. 3-6 (1140 a 31); 
contrast also Moralia, 97 e-f. 

37 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(444) avayKalov Iotl koll tco fiovXevTLKco xpfjoOai rrepl 
tcov dSrjXoTepcov, tco Se TrpaKTLKco to fiovXevTLKov 
eKSexofJLevrjv ivepyelv 7]8rj Kal tov dXoyov avfirrap- 
B ovtos koll avvecpeXKOfievov rat? Kpioeoiv opfjurjs 
yap hlovTai. tt)v 8' opjxrjv tco rrdOeL noiel to rjdog, 
Xoyov Seo/jLevrjv Spl^ovTog, orrcog /xerpta rrapfj /cat 
lirjd* V7T€pfidXXri \xryr eyfcaraAe 17777 tov Katpov. to 
ydp Srj TradrjTLKov Kal dXoyov klvtjcj€ol ^p^rat rats' 
[lev dyav acf)oSpaXg koX o^elais tclZs ok jxaXaKco- 
Tepais r) TrpoorjKei Kal dpyoTepais . 6'Oev eKaoTOV 

COV TTpaTTOfJLeV del IXOVa^COS fJL€V KCLTOpdoVTOLL 

irXeov aytog S' d/xaprdVeTat 1 • to ydp fiaXetv tov 

GKOTTOV €V €(JTL KOL dnXoVV , aGTO)(OVUi S' aAAoT* 

aAAa;?, vrrepfiaXXovTeg to pieTpiov rj TTpoarroXeL- 

7TOVT€S. TOVT OVV TOV TTpOLKTLKOV X6yOV /Card 

C cpvoLV epyov ioTL, to i^aipelv Tag dpLCTplag tcov 
ttclOcov koll ttXtj fifxeXe lag . ottov fJLtv yap vtt dp- 
pcooTLas Kal jxaXaKLag rj oeovg Kal okvov rrpoev- 
SlScoctlv 2 r) op/JLTj Kal TTpoairoXeLTTeL to KaXov, 
ivTavOa rrdpeoTLV i^eyeipcov Kal dvappLTTL^cov ottov 
Se rrdXLV €K(f)€p€TaL pveloa rroXXr) Kal aTaKTog, eKel 
to ocfioopov dcpaLpel Kal lottjglv. ovtco S' opi^cov 
ttjv TraOrjTLKrjv klvtjglv, IpmoLti Tag r)9LKag dp€Tag 
rrepl to dXoyov, iXXetijjecog Kal vrrep^oXrjg jjl€- 
GOTTjTag ovaag. ov yap arraoav dpeTrjv \xeaoTt\Ti 
yiveodaL prjTeov dAA' r) fxev aTTpocrSe^g tov dXoyov 

1 ajxaprdverai Emperius : afxaprdvci, 
2 7TpoevhiSa)criv Turnebus : irpoozv'&ihcDoiv. 

38 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 444 

the case is doubtful ; and then at last to reduce 
deliberation to practice in activities in which de- 
cisions are both accompanied by and influenced by 
the irrational, whose impulsion they, as a matter of 
fact, need. The impulsion of passion springs from 
moral virtue ; but it needs reason to keep it within 
moderate bounds and to prevent its exceeding or 
falling short of its proper season. For it is indeed 
true that the passionate and irrational moves some- 
times too violently and swiftly, at other times 
more weakly and slothfully than the case demands. 
Therefore everything that we ever do can succeed 
but in one way, while it may fail in many ways a : 
for to hit the mark there is but one single, uncom- 
plicated, way, yet it can be missed in several ways, 
according to whether we exceed the mean, or fall 
short of it. This, then, is the natural task of 
practical reason : to eliminate both the defects and 
the excesses of the passions. For wherever, through 
infirmity and weakness, or fear and hesitation, the 
impulsion yields too soon and prematurely forsakes 
the good, & there practical reason comes on the 
scene to incite and rekindle the impulsion ; and 
where, again, the impulsion is borne beyond proper 
bounds, flowing powerfully and in disorder, there 
practical reason removes its violence and checks 
it. And thus by limiting the movement of the 
passions reason implants in the irrational the moral 
virtues, which are means between deficiency and 
excess. For w r e must not declare that every virtue 
comes into being by the observance of a mean, 
but, on the one hand, wisdom, being without any 

a Cf. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, ii. 6. 14 (1106 b 28). 
b The good is the mean. 

39 



PLUTARCH'S MOHALIA 

(444) /cat 7repl tov elXiKptvr) /cat drradrj vovv GwiGTap^ivr^ 
D oo^ia 1 avTorzXrjs ris iuriv aKporrjs rod Xoyov /cat 
Svvapus, fj to Oecorarov iyytvercu rfjs €7TiaTrjiMrjs 
/cat fxaKapLcorarov rj S' avay/cata Sta to ocofxa /cat 
SeofJievrj V7] Ata 2 rfjs 7ra6r]TU<fjs coorrep opyavLKrjs 
VTrrjpealas errl to TrpaKTiKov, ovk ovaa cf>9opd tov 
dXoyov TTJs ipvxfjs oz5S' avalpecns aAAa ra^t? /cat 

hiaKOGpLTjUlSy OLKpOTTjS fl€V €GTL TJj SwdfJieL /Cat Tjj 
TTOlOTTjTly TCp TTOGCp 0€ fJL€OOTrjS yLV€TCU TO V7T€p- 

fidXXov i^aipovoa /cat to eXXeinov. 

6. E7T€t Se TroXXaycos to fieuov (/cat yap to 

K€Kpa[JL€VOV TCOV aKpaTCOV pi€GOV, 60? XeVKOV /Cat 

fJLeXavos to cbaiov /cat to TTG.pii.ypv /cat irtpizyp- 

E fievov tov Trepieyp\xevov /cat TrzpUyovTOS , go? tcDv 

ScoSc/ca /cat TeTTapcov to\ oktco' /cat to fjbrjSeTepov 

tcov aKpcov [JLeTexov, cos dyaOov /cat /ca/cou to 

d8id(f>OpOv) , TOVTCOV fJL€V OvSeVi TCOV TpOTTCOV 7] ap€T7] 

7rpocrpr]T€a 3 pLeaoTrjs* ovt€ yap fiiypLa tcov /ca/ctcov 

€GTLV OVT €fJL7T€pL€)(OVGa TOvXaTTOV e/X77ept6^€Tat 
TCp TrXeOVaL^OVTi TOV TTpOGTjKOVTOS, OVT* aTTT^AAa/CTat 

navTarraGi tcov TraOrjTiKcov oppucov, iv al$ to jjl&XXov 
/cat to tjttov €Gtl. ytveTat oe fJL€GOTr]s /cat XeyeTat 
fidXiGTa ttj rrepl cf)86yyovs /cat ap/xovtas* 6{jlolcos* 
€K€lvt] t€ yap ifJLfJbeXrjs ovaa epeovrj, KaOdrrep rj vrjTr] 

1 koX (jypovrjois after cro^ia deleted by W.C.H. (Patzig would 
write GwioTCLfMzvr) vovv, deleting oo<f>la koX (frpovrjais.) 

2 vrj Aia Reiske : Sia. 

3 TTpoaprjrea] €lt) dv in many mss. 

a Some would render, more naturally, "extreme and 
potentiality " ; but, in Plutarch's view, neither "extreme" 
nor " potentiality " could be called " self-sufficing." 
40 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 444 

need of the irrational and arising in the activity 
of the mind, pure and uncontaminated by passion, 
is, as it were, a self-sufficing perfection and power a 
of reason, by which the most divine and blessed 
element of knowledge becomes possible for us ; 
on the other hand, that virtue which is necessary 
to us because of our physical limitations, and 
needs, by Heaven, for its practical ends the service 
of the passions as its instrument, so to speak, 
and is not a destruction nor abolition of the ir- 
rational in the soul, but an ordering and regula- 
tion thereof, is an extreme as regards its power 
and quality, but as regards its quantity it is a 
mean, since it does away with what is excessive and 
deficient. 

6. But since a " mean " b is capable of various in- 
terpretations (for that which is a compound is a mean 
between the simple uncompounded substances, as 
grey is of white and black ; and that which contains 
and is contained is a mean between the contained and 
the container, as eight of twelve and four ; and that 
which partakes of neither of the extremes is a mean, 
as the indifferent is a mean between good and bad), 
in none of these ways can virtue be called a mean, for 
it is not a mixture of the vices, nor, encompassing 
what falls short of due measure, is it encompassed by 
that which is in excess of it ; nor is it entirely exempt 
from the impulses of the passions, wherein are found 
excess and deficiency. But it is a mean, and is said 
to be so, in a sense very like that which obtains in 
musical sounds and harmonies. For there the mean 
or mese, a properly-pitched note c like the neie and 

h Cf. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, ii. 6. 4-9 (1106 a 24). 
c Cf. Moralia, 1007 e ff„ 1014 c, and 451 f, infra. 

41 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kal V7T(XT7], T7]g fJL€V TTjV O^VTTjTa TTjg Se TTJV 

F fiapvrrjTa ttjv dyav oiairec^evyev avrif re Ktvrjcrtg 

OVGCL Kal SvVOLfJLLS TTepl TO dXoyOV y TOLS €k\vG€LS KCll 

Tag eTTiTaoeig Kal oXa>g to fi&XXov Kal to tjttov 
445 e^aipel ttjs opjjirjg, elg to \xeTpiov koX dvapApTTjTov 
KaOiOTaoa tcov naOchv eKaoTov. avTiKa ttjv [Jiei 
dvopeiav [leooT-ryrd <paoiv elvai heiXLas Kal 6pa- 
gvt7]tos, cbv rj jiev eXXeiipcg rj S' VTrepfioXr] tov 
OvpLoecSovg icrTC ttjv S' iXevOepioTrjTa puKpoXoy lag 
Kat, aaajTcas, TrpaoTTjTa S' dvaXyrjolag Kal wpLOTT)- 
Tog- avTTjV T€ oa)(j)poovvrjv Kal oiKaioovvr)v , tt)v 
p.ev rrepl tol cru/x/3oAaca pLijTe ttXIov vefiovoav avTrj 
tov npoor)KOVTOS \m\t eXaTTOv, ti)v S' elg to fxeoov 2, 
avaiGOrjaias Kal aKoXaoiag del ra? eTTiOvfiiag 
KadiOTaoav. 

'Ei> cS Sfj Kal fidXioTa SoKel to dXoyov Trjg irpog 
B to XoyiKov Stacfyopag avTOV 3 irapeyeiv KaTavorjoiv, 
Kal SeiKvvetv to rrddog wg eTepov tl KopuSfj tov 
Xoyov Iotiv. ov ydp dv Scefiepe aojfipoovvrjg iy- 
KpaTeta Kal aKoXaoiag aKpaota irepl Tag rjSovag 
Kat Tag eTnOvpLLag, el TavTov rjv Trjg ijjvxfjg 4* cm- 
OvfjieTv aS 4 T€ Kpiveiv 7recj)VKe. vvv oe oaxfipoovvrj 
[lev eoTLV ov to 7Ta9rjTLKov toGirep evrjvcov dpepifMa 
Kal TTpdov 6 XoycopLog tjvlox^ f<al p.eTayeipl'^eTai^ 
nepl Tag e77i6vpuiag -^pajpievog vireiKovTi Kal 8e%o- 
jjLevcp to pceTpiov koX to evG^qp^ov eKovoicjog' 6 S' 

1 avrrj Reiske : avrrj. 

2 aTTadtlas after jxeoov deleted by Pohlenz. 

3 avrov Dubner : avrov. 

* to . . . <3 Wyttenbach, confirmed by mss. : 8 ... 5. 

° The highest and lowest sounds of the heptachord ; pre- 
sumably the rnese is the fourth note of a scale of seven. 

42 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 444-445 

the kijpate, 0, escapes the sharp highness of the one 
and the heavy deepness of the other ; so virtue, 
being an activity and faculty concerned with the 
irrational, does away with the remissions and over- 
strainings of the impulse and its excesses and defects 
altogether, and reduces each passion to moderation 
and faultlessness. So, for instance, they declare 
courage b to be a mean between cowardice and rash- 
ness, of which the former is a defect, the latter an 
excess, of the spirited part of the soul ; so, likewise, 
liberality is a mean between parsimony and pro- 
digality, and gentleness between insensibility and 
cruelty ; and temperance itself and justice are means, 
the latter distributing to itself in contracts neither 
more nor less than what is due, the former ever 
regulating the desires to a mean between lack of 
feeling and intemperance. 

In this last instance, indeed, the irrational seems, 
with particular clearness, to allow us to observe the 
difference between itself and the rational, and to 
show that passion is essentially quite a different thing 
from reason. For self-control c would not differ from 
temperance, nor incontinence from intemperance, as 
regards the pleasures and desires, if it were the same 
part of the soul that we naturally use for desiring as 
for forming judgements. But the fact is that temper- 
ance belongs to the sphere where reason guides and 
manages the passionate element, like a gentle animal 
obedient to the reins, making it yielding in its desires 
and willingly receptive of moderation and propriety ; 

Thus A (mesS) is to D above (nete) as A is to E below 
(hypate). 

' b Cf. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, ii. 7. 2-4 (1107 a 33); 
Stobaeus, Eclogae, ii. 7. 20 (vol. ii. p. 141 ed. Wachsmuth). 

c Cf. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, vii. 9. 6 (1151 b 33). 

43 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(445) iyKparrjs ayei /xev ippcoLievco 1 rep Xoycapbcp /cat 
Kparovvri ttjv eTTidvpLiav, ayei 8' ovk dXvirtos ovhe 
TreiOopLevrjv dXXd nXayiav /cat avrireivovaav olov 
C vno TrXrjyrjs /cat ^aXivov Kara^ia^opLevog /cat clvcl- 
Kpovtov, dytovos tov iv iavrcp kcll Oopvftov /zeoToV 
olov 6 IIAaTcuv e^et/covt^et irepl ra rrjg ipvxfjs 
vnol^vyLa, rod x € ^P OV0 ^ Trpos to fieXrLOV £>vyo- 
pLCLXOVVTOS apLCL KOLL TOV f]VLO)(OV StaTapdVrovTO?, 
CLVT€X€LV OTTLOLO KCLL KCLTCLT€LV€LV VTTO OTTOvStJS 

dvayKac^opLevov del 

pLTJ fidXrf (f)OLVLKCLS €K ^etpCOV IpaVTCLS 

Kara 2t/zaWSryv. odev ouS' dperrjv d^LovuLV clvto- 
reXrj 3 rrjv iyKpdreLav aAA' eXarrov* dperrjs etvar 
fieaorrjs yap ov yeyovev €/c avpb^tovias rod ^ctpovos' 
Trpos to JUXtlov ouS' dvfjprjTCLL tov irddovs to 
virepfidXXov, ovSe TT€L06pLevov ov$* opioXoyovv tco 

D (fypOVOVVTl T7]S $VXT)S TO €7TldvpLOVV dXXd XvTTOVV KCLL 
Xv7TOVpb€VOV KCLL Ka9eLpy6pi€VOV V7T* dvdyKTjS LOCTTTZp 

ev OTaaeL Svopueveg kclI iroXepuov avvoLKel' 

TToXlS 8' SpLOV pL€V dvpLLCLpLaTLOV y€fJL€L, 

opiov Se iraidvcov T€ /cat GTevaypidTCOV 

r) tov eyKpcLTovs fax'?) Sta tt]v dvtopLaXicLV /cat TTjV 
Stac/>opdV. /cara raura 8' otovTat /cat ttjv aKpaoiav 

1 to fxirpLov . . . ippco/xevo)] omitted in almost all mss. 

2 ^dXrj] y TTofiakr) Edmonds. 

3 avroTeXrj a^iovoi all mss. except G. 

4 kXarrov] eXarrov n Fasi. 



a Phaedrus, 253 c ff. 

b Frag. 17 (ed. Bergk and ed. Diehl) ; Frag. 48 (ed. 
Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, ii. p. 311). 
44 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 445 

but the self-controlled man, while he does indeed 
direct his desire by the strength and mastery of 
reason, yet does so not without pain, nor by per- 
suasion, but as it plunges sideways and resists, as 
though with blow and curb, he forcibly subdues it and 
holds it in, being the while himself full of internal 
struggle and turmoil. Such a conflict Plato a portrays 
in his simile of the horses of the soul, where the worse 
horse struggles against his better yoke-fellow and at 
the same time disconcerts the charioteer, who is ever 
forced to hold out against him and with might and 
main to rein him in, 

Lest he let fall from his hands the crimson thongs, 

as Simonides b has it. That is the reason why they 
do not account self-control even a virtue c in the 
absolute sense, but less than virtue. For it is not 
a mean which has been produced by the harmony of 
the worse with the better, nor has the excess of 
passion in it been eliminated, nor has the desiderative 
part of the soul become obedient and compliant to 
the intelligent part, but is vexed and causes vexation 
and is confined by compulsion and, though living with 
reason, lives as in a state of rebellion against it, 
hostile and inimical : 

The city reeks with burning incense, rings 
Alike with prayers for health and cries of woe d 

even so is the soul of the self-controlled man because 
of its lack of consistency and its conflict. And on the 
same grounds they hold that incontinence also is 

c C/. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, iv. 9. 8 (1128 b 33) : it 
is rather " a mixture of virtue and vice.'' 

d Sophocles, Oedipus Tyr -annus \ 4-5 ; quoted also in 
Moralia, 95 c, 169 d, 623 c. 

45 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

eXarrov tl kolkicls elvai TravTeXr) Se kclklclv rrjv 
a/coAacrtW. avrrj pcev yap epuaa /cat TrdOos 
<j>avXov /cat Xoyov, vdj? ov jxev i^dyerat rep 1 Ittl- 
dvjjieXv npos to alaxpov, ycf? ov Se rep /ca/ctos- 
Kpiveiv tt pound epAvov reus imdvpLicus ko\ ttjv 
E aioOrjoLV a77o/3aAAet rcov apLapravopLevcov . rj S' 
aKpaola rep piev Xoycp ocp^ei ttjv Kpioiv 6p9r)v ovaav, 
rep Se 7T(x9ei (f>eperai rrapd rrjv Kpioiv lo^yovri rod 
Xoyov pu&XXov. oOev Sta</>epet rfjs d/coAacrt'as" ottov 
piev ydp rjTTaraL rod iradovs 6 Xoyiopios ottov S' 
ovhe pLOLxerou, /cat ottov piev dvriXeycov errerai rats 
emdvpiiais ottov S' u^yetrat ovvayopevaiv, koI 
ottov puev rjSopievtp KOivwv€iV VTrdp^ei rcov apiap- 
ravopievcov ottov S' d)(dopL€va), /cat ottov pcev e/cajv 
tfieperai rrpos to alaxpov ottov Se 77poSt8a>atv a/cojv 
to KaXov. 

'Q.S TOLS TTpCLTTOpLeVOLS VTT* OLVTOJV OV^ TjTTOV Se 

/cat rots' Xeyopievois eveonv r) Siacjyopd KardSrjXos' 
F aKoXdorojv piev ydp at'Se cf)a>vai' 

ris Se xapts', 2 tl Se reprrvov aVeu 3 xp v(7r ]s 'A</>po- 

Slttjs; 
reOvalrjv ore pLoi ^77 /cert ravra /ze'Aet. 4 

teal erepos 

to fiayelv to ttl€lv to ttjs 'A^poSiTTjs Tvy- 

xdveiVy 
rd S' aAAa Trpoodr^Ka? aTravT iyw /caAco 

1 ra>] to in most mss. 2 xaois-] ]8to? Stobaeus. 

8 dvev] drep Stobaeus. 4 fxiXti] jue'Aoi Stobaeus. 

» Cf. Moralia, 705 c-e. 

b Mimnermus, Frag. 1, w. 1-2 (ed. Bergk and ed. Diehl); 
Edmonds, Elegy and Iambic, i. p. 89. 
46 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 445 

something less than a vice, but that intemperance is a 
full-fledged vice. For intemperance possesses both an 
evil passion and an evil reason ; under the influence 
of the former, it is incited by desire to shameful 
conduct ; under the influence of the latter, which, 
since its judgement is evil, is enlisted with the desires, 
intemperance loses even the perception of its errors. 
But incontinence, 05 with the aid of reason, preserves 
its power of judgement intact, yet by its passions, 
which are stronger than its reason, it is swept along 
against its judgement. That is why incontinence 
differs from intemperance, for in it reason is worsted 
by passion, whereas with intemperance reason does 
not even fight ; in the case of incontinence reason 
argues against the desires as it follows them, where- 
as with intemperance reason guides them and is 
their advocate ; it is characteristic of intemperance 
that its reason shares joyfully in the sins committed, 
whereas with incontinence the reason shares in them, 
but with reluctance ; with intemperance, reason is 
willingly swept along into shameful conduct, whereas 
with incontinence, it betrays honour unwillingly. 

So also the difference between them is not less 
manifest in their words than in their actions. These 
are, for instance, the sayings of intemperate persons : 

What pleasure can there be, what joy, without 

The golden Aphrodite ? May I die 

When things like these no longer comfort me. 6 

And another says, 

To eat, to drink, to have one's way in love c : 
All other things I call accessory, 

c Alexis, Frag. 271 ed. Kock, vv. 4-5; the whole fragment 
is quoted in Moralia, 21 d. 

47 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

446 <f>7](iLv, ojoTrep i£ oXrjs rrjs ifjv)(f)S ovven lv€vo)v tolls 
rjSovcus koll vTrepenroLievos . ouy rjrrov Se tovtcdv 

O €L7TCOV 

ka p? OLTToXeaOat' rovro yap [jlol ovpicj>epei 

T7JV KpiOlV €)(€L TO) TtdOeL GVVVOOOVOaV. 

At Se rrjs aKpaaias erepai koX hiatf>epovoai 



yvcvp,rjv k\ovrd jjl* rj envois /3ia£erar 



/cat 



atat, roS' rjSrj 1 6elov avdpdmois kolkov, 
otclv tls elSfj rayadov xprrrai Se pJ]' 



KQL 



etK€L yap rjor) UvpLos ovo er avrex^i, 
Otvwbes cos ayKiorpov dyKvpas odXcp- 

divtooes ayKtarpov ov cpavXcos Xeycov to pirj Karoypv 
rod AoytapLov /x^S' dpapos, dXXd p,av6rr]TL rrjs 
foxys Kai /^aAa/cta TTpo'Cepievov ttjv Kploiv. ov 
B rroppco he rrjs €lkovos ravrrjs KaKetva eip-qrai 

vavs cos tls €K pL€V yrjs avripTrniaf fipo-)(ois, 
rrvel S' ovpos, rjpuv §' ov 4, Kparel rot 7T€ta/xara' 

TrelopLara ydp Xeyet rds dvrexovaas Kpioeis irpos 
to alo^poVy elff cooirep vtto rrvevpLaros ttoXXov 

1 rd8' 17877 Moralia, 33 e : to 877. 

2 €lk€l F. G. Schmidt : cA/cct. 

8 dvTJpTTjfxat,] avr)pT7)Tai in all mss. but G. 

4 8' ov Turnebus : 8' ev. 

a Kock, Com. ^. Frag., iii. p. 450, ades. 217. 
6 Nauck, Tra<7. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 634, Euripides, Frag. 840 = 
Aeschylus, Frag. 262 ed. wSmyth (L.C.L.). 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 446 

as though with all his soul he were acquiescing in 
pleasures and were being subverted thereby. Not 
less than these does he a who says 

Leave me to die, for that is best for me, 

have his judgement suffering with the same ailment 
as his passions. 

But the sayings of incontinence are otherwise and 
different : 

A mind I have, but Nature forces me b ; 

and 

Alas ! from God this evil comes to men 
When, knowing what is good, they do it not c ; 

and 

The spirit yields and can resist no more, 
Like anchor-hook in sand amid the surged 

Here not inaptly the poet terms " an anchor-hook in 
sand " that which is not under the control of reason, 
nor firmly fixed, but surrenders its judgement to 
the loose and soft part of the soul. Very close to 
this imagery are also those famous lines e : 

I, like some ship, am tied by ropes to shore, 
And when winds blow, our cables do not hold. 

For here the poet calls " cables " the judgements 
which resist shameful conduct and then are broken 

c Euripides, Frag. 841 ; quoted also in Moralia, 33 e. Cf. 
St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, vii. 19, in the King James 
Version; Ovid, Metamorphoses, vii. 21: video meliora 
proboque, | deteriora sequor. 

d Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 911, ades. 379 ; quoted 
also in Moralia, 782 d. Some ascribe this and the following 
quotation to Euripides. 

* Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 911, ades. 380. 

49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(446) prjyvvfJLevas rod TrdQovs* rco yap ovtl ttAtjolotlos 
pbev €7tl Tas rjbovas 6 olkoAolgtus vtto tojv em- 
dvfjuajv (freperai Kal SlSojglv eavrov Kal crvyKar- 
ev6vv€L' TrXdyios 3' 6 aKparrjs, olov i^avcxfxEpeiv 
yXi)(6fjLevo? Kal oiojOeiudai to nddos, vrroGvperai 1 

KCU TT€pL7TL7TT€l TTCpl TO OLOXpOV' COS ^ Kvd^ap)(OV 

ioiAAawe Tificov 

iv Se to BapoaAeov T€ Kal ifAjJieves 2 ottttt] opovoai 

(jyaLveT* 'Ava^dpxov Kvveov pcevos' b's z pa Kal 

elScos, 

C cos (f)daav, clOAlos €oi<e, envois Se jjllv eparaAiv 

rjyev 

rjoovo7rArj£ , r\v TrAeloToi viroTpeiovoi* oo<J)iotcov . 

ovt€ yap 6 oo(f)ds iyKparfs dAAa ad)(j)poov, ov9* 6 
dpiaOrjs aKpaTTfS aAA' aKoAaoTos' 6 pikv yap rfSeTai 
tols KaAols 6 S' ovk a/^ercu tols alaxpois. goc/)l- 
otlktjs ovv i/svx'fjs t) dKpaoia Aoyov ixovorjs ots 
eyvojKev opdcbs ipbfJLeveiv firj Swdpcevov. 

7. f H fjiev ovv aKpauia TOiavTas* €^et Scacfropas 
irpos ttjv aKoAaoiaVy rj S' eyKpaTeia rrpos ttjv 
GO)cf)poovvrjv avdis av tols dvTLUTpoc^ovs avaAoycos '. 
to yap SaKVov Kal to Avttovv Kal to dyavaKTovv 
ovuco ttjv iyKpaTeiav arroAiAoi7Te % ttjs oe ococfypovos 
D ijwxfis to 7TavTaxddev opcaAes Kal cLo^vktov Kal 
vyialvov, cS ovvr\p\xoGTai koX ovyKeKpaTai to 

1 viroovperai Reiske, confirmed by three mss. : viroovpzi. 

2 ifxfji€ves] ifjLjjLavks in some mss. 

3 os Xylander from 705 d : ov. 

4 r)8ovo7rAr)£] 'qSovo7rXrjy i ? 

5 vnoTpeLOvoi] virorpo}xiovoi Nauck. 

6 roiavras Reiske : ravras. 

a Frag. 9 (ed. Wachsmuth, p. 106) ; portions are quoted 
50 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 446 

by passion, as by a great gust of wind. Truly the 
intemperate man is swept along to his pleasures 
by his desires with sails full-spread and delivers 
himself over to them and steers his course directly 
thither ; whereas the course of the incontinent 
man zigzags here and there, as he strives to 
emerge from his passion and to stave it off and is 
yet swept down and shipwrecked on the reef of 
shameful conduct. Just as Timon a used to lampoon 
Anaxarchus : 

The Cynic might of Anaxarchus seemed 
Steadfast and bold, wherever he wished, to spring ; 
Well did he know the truth, they said, and yet 
Was bad : for Nature smote him with desire 
And led him back from truth — 'twas Nature's dart, 
Before whom trembles many a Sophist heart. 

For neither is the wise man continent, though he is 
temperate, nor is the fool incontinent, though he 
is intemperate. For the wise man takes pleasure in 
what is honourable, but the fool is not vexed by 
shamefulness. Incontinence, therefore, is the mark 
of a sophistic soul, which has, indeed, reason, but 
reason which cannot stand firm by its own just 
decisions. 

7. Such, then, are the differences between incon- 
tinence and intemperance ; and again between con- 
tinence and temperance, these differences being the 
counterpart of the former. For continence is not yet 
free from remorse and pain and indignation ; but in 
the soul of the temperate man there is serenity on all 
occasions, freedom from violent changes, and sanity, 
by which the irrational is harmonized and blended 

again in Moralia, 529 a and 705 n ; cf. also Diels, Frag, d. 
Vorsokratiker 5 , ii. p. 238. 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(446) dXoyov rrpos rov Xoycofiov evrreideia /cat irpaonqri 
davfiaarij KeKoo\ir\puivov . eiTrois S' 1 dv impXeifjas 

hrj tot 2 eireir* dvefios puev erravaaro , rj Se yaXrjvrj 
eVAero vrjvejjLLT], Koifjurjoe 3 Se Kvpcara Sat/xa>v 

ra G(j)oSpa /cat Trepifjiavfj /cat olarpcoSrj /ctv^txara 
tG)v iTnQufJUcov rod Xoyov KaraofieaavTOS , cbv 8' 
77 envois avayKCLicos Setrat, ravd* o/JLOTradr) 4 ' /cat 
v-nr\Koa /cat c/>t'Aa /cat owepya, TreTToirjfievov rats 
77pa/CTt/cat9 TTpoaipeoeow loots firj rrpoeKdelv rov 
E XoyLGfjiov pLTjo* VTrevSiSovai /ztqS' draKrecv pnqS* 
aTTtiOelVy aAAa, tt&gclv oppirjv evdycoyov ovoav 

aO'qXov L7T7Tq) ttloXov cog a/xa Tpeyz.iv> 

emfSefiaiovoav rov HevoKpdrovs Xoyov, ov eKeivos 

€L7T€ 7T€pl TLOV dXrjOtOS tf>lXoOOtf)OVVTOJV , OTL jJLOVOl 
TTOLOVOIV €KOVOIOJS 6\ 7TOLOVOLV CLKOVT€S ol XoiTTOL St(Z 

rov vofioVy coarrep vrro TrXrjyfjs Kvves fj yaXal 5 
ip6(f)cp 6 rcov tjSovcov OLTrorpeTTOfJievoL /cat rrpog to 

S € LVOV V7ToPX€7TOVT€S. 7 

"Ort jjiev ovv yiveral rig iv rfj fax?} TOiavrr)s 

irepoTrjTos 8 aioOrjois /cat Stac^opas 9 irepl rag em- 

BvfJLLas, cog tivos fjLaxojJLevov /cat rdvavria Xeyovros 

F ai5rat9, ovk dSrjXov iortv. eVtot Se tbaaiv ovy erepov 

elvciL rov Xoyov to ttolOos ovSe Sveiv Stac/>opav 

1 8' added by Capps. 2 St; tot] avrW Homer. 

3 KoliJLTjoe] KoifjLiaoe in most mss. 

4 ofionaOrj] ofjioiorraOr} in all MSS. but G. 

5 kvvgs rj yaXal Bernardakis, confirmed by G (kvvcs iam 
Reiske) : kvvos rj yaXfjs). 

6 i/jo^o)] most mss. have ipofov or <f>6f$ca. 

7 VTTofiXeTTOvres] aTrojSAeVovTes' in all mss. but G. 

8 €T€poTrjTos Wyttenbach, confirmed by G : GTepporrjTos. 

9 oia(f)opas Reiske : Sia</>opa. 

52 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 446 

with reason, when this is equipped with great persua- 
sion and a wonderful gentleness. And you would 
say, as you looked at the man, 

Then, indeed, ceased the gale ; a windless calm 
Arose ; some god had laid the waves to rest, a 

since by reason the violent, raging, and furious 
movements of the desires had been quenched and 
those movements which Nature absolutely requires 
had been made sympathetic, submissive, friendly, 
and, when the man chose a course of action, willing 
to co-operate, so that they did not outstrip the 
dictates of reason, nor fall short of them, nor mis- 
behave, nor disobey, but so that every impulse was 
easily led 

As new-weaned foal beside his mother runs, 6 

and confirmed the remark of Xenocrates c about 
true philosophers, that they alone do willingly what 
all others do unwillingly because of the law, even as 
dogs by a blow and cats by a noise are turned from 
their pleasures and regard with suspicion the danger 
that threatens them. 

It is quite obvious, then, that there is in the soul 
a perception of some such distinction and difference 
as regards the desires, as though some force were 
fighting against them and contradicting them. But 
some affirm d that passion is not essentially different 
from reason, nor is there quarrelling between the 

° Homer, Od. 9 xii. 168. 

5 Semonides, Frag. 5; cf. Moralia, 84 d, 136 a, 790 f, 
997 d; Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 150 (=Stobaeus, vol. v. 
p. 1024 ed. Hense). 

c Frag. 3 ; cf. Moralia, 1124 e. 

d Von Arnim, Stoic, Vet, Frag., iii. p. 111. 
vol. vi c 53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kal araaiVy dAA' kvos Xoyov rpoTrrjv eV d/x^drepa, 
447 Xavddvovoav rjpias o^vttjtl Kal Ta^ei ^ra^oXrjs, ov 
ovvoptovTas 1 otl ravrov ioTi rrjs iftvxrjs to 2 rrecf>VK€V 
€7Tl8v[jl€lv Kal pueTavoetv, opyi^eodai Kal Seoievat, 
<f)€p€(j9ai Trpos to alaxpov vfr rjoovrjs Kal cpepo- 
pLevrjs TraXiv avrrjs e77iAa/x/3dvecr#ar Kal yap eVt- 
Ovpiiav Kal opyrjv Kal cfiofiov Kal tol rotavra rravra 
86£as ehai Kal KpLaeis novrjpds, ov irepl iv n 
yivop.iva$ rfjs 1/0^779 fiepog, dAA' oXov rod rjye- 
fiovLKov porras Kal ei^eis Kal ovyKaTadioeis Kal 
oppuds, Kal o\a)s ivepyeias nvds ovoag iv oXiyco 
/jberaTrrwrds , coonep at tlov Traloajv iiriopopial to 
payhalov Kal to a<po8pov iTTiocfraXes vit* daOeveias 
Kal d(3ef3aLov exovtri. 

Taura Se irptoTOV puev irapd ttjv ivdpyeidv z ioTi 
B Kal tt]v alodrjOLV. ovSels yap iv iavTw tov em- 
OvfJiovvTOS aloddv€Tai pLeTafioXrjv eus to Kplvov ovSe 
tov KpLvovTos av TraXiv els to inidvpLOVv, ovSe 
TraveTai \xev ipcov, 6Ve Xoyl^eTai KadeKTeov elvai 
tov epa)Ta Kal SiaptaxeTeov irpog avTov, e^tararat 
8e TraXiv tov Xoyi^eodai Kal Kpiveiv, 6'rav ivhthco 
piaXaooofjLevos vrro tt\s zttlOv pitas* dAAd Kal tco 
Xoyto irpos to nddos avTifiaivtov iv tco irddei 
ioTlv €TL, Kal ndXiv KpaTOVfievos vtto tov irdOovs 
Siopa to) Xoyiopicp to dp.apTav6p.evov Kai ovtc tco 
TrdSei tov Xoyov dvrjpr]Kev ovtc tco Xoyi^eod ai tov 
Trddovs airiqXXaKTai, cpepopievos S' eKaTepcooe pbiaos 

1 ovvopwvTas Iannotius, confirmed by a few mss. : aw- 
opa>vT€s. 2 4>] o in many mss. 

3 ivdpyeiav] ivipytiav in many mss. 

54 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 446-447 

two and factious strife, but only a conversion of 
one and the same reason to its two aspects ; this 
escapes our notice by reason of the suddenness 
and swiftness of the change, for we do not perceive 
that it is the same part of the soul with which we 
naturally desire and change to aversion, are angry 
and afraid, are swept along by pleasure to shameful 
conduct, and then, when the soul itself is being 
swept away, recover ourselves again. In fact, they 
say, desire and anger and fear and all such things are 
but perverse opinions and judgements, which do not 
arise in one certain part of the soul, but are inclina- 
tions and yieldings, assents and impulses of the whole 
directive faculty and, in a word, certain activities 
which may in a moment be changed this way or that, 
just as the sudden assaults of children a have an 
impetuosity and violence that is precarious and 
inconstant because of children's weakness. 

But this doctrine is, in the first place, contrary to 
the clear evidence of our perceptions. For no one 
ever perceives in himself a change from desiring to 
judging, nor again a change from judging to desiring ; 
nor does the lover cease loving when he reasons that 
he must restrain his love and fight against it, and 
then give up again the process of reasoning and 
judging when he is softened by desire and yields to 
love ; but both while by reason he still continues to 
oppose passion, he continues in the passion, and 
again, when mastered by passion, he plainly sees his 
error by the light of reason : and neither through 
passion has he done away with reason, nor through 
reason is he rid of passion, but being borne back and 
forth from one to the other he lies between them and 
° Cf. Moralia, 458 d, infra. 

55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(447) dfi(f)olv /cat koivos iortv. ol 8e vvv jxev iTndvfJitav 
C yiveadai to rjyepiovLKov, vvv Se tov dvTLTaTTopievov 
rfj iTndvfJLLa Xoyiajxov vnoXapL^dvovTeg, ov8ev 
dnexovoL to)v fir] 8vo rov Kvvrjyov elvai /cat to 
OrjpLov vTToXafJL^avovrojv, aAAa ravro ocopua XP^' 
jjievov fjLerafioXfj vvv fiev elvai drjplov vvv Se 
yiveaOai Kvvrjyov. e/cetvot re yap i {leaves tl 
TTapoptocriv ovtol re 77009 rrjv alcrdrjoLV avrtjiap- 
Tvpovaiv, oi>x zvos tlvos pieTaftoXfjs aAAa Sveiv a/xa 
fJLOLXVS K(xl Sta^opa? iv avrois 1 alodavopbivrfv. 2 

1 t ovv ; (pacnv, ou^t /cat to povAevofJievov 
rov dvOpcorrov 77oAAa/ct9 Sixocfropel /cat 77/30? ivav- 
tlcls dvOeXKerai Solas' nepl rod avpLcfxEpovTos aAA' 
ev eon; ttclvv [lev ovv, (pTjoofjiev, aAAa to 

Gvufiacvov ovx ofJLOiov" • ov yap /xa^erat 77009 eauro 
rijs ifjvx^j? to <j)povovv, dXXd pud xpwftzvov Svvdpiei 
Siacfyopcov e\/>a77T€Tat XoycopLcbv pudXXov S' ety 
AoytojLcos" €Otlv iv 77pay/xaat yivoptevos irepois 
djOTTep t>Aat? Sta^eoouoat?. 69 zv ovre Xvttt) toZs 
dvev rrddovs XoytopboZs eveariv, ov8* cboirep e/c/3ta- 
£,6pL€V0i irapa yvooprqv aipovvrai Odrepov, dv purj vrj 
Ata XavOdvrj Trddos tl 7Tpoorjprr]fjievov tooirep eirl 
£vyov. /cat yap rovro GvpLpalvei 77oAAa/cts*, ov 
Xoytcrpiov tlvos 7rpos XoyLopuov aAAa ^tAort/xta? 7} 
<j>LXov€LKLas rj ^aptro9 7} tprjXoTvnLas 7) oeovs dvTL- 

1 avrois] all mss. but G have iavrots, 
2 alodavoii4vr]v] some mss. have aladavofxcvot, or -ofieOa, 

56 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 447 

participates in both. For those who assume now 
that desire becomes the controlling faculty, now that 
it is reason which arrays itself against desire, are in 
the same position as those who assume the hunter 
and the beast to be not two, a but one and the same 
body which, by a change, is now the beast, and 
now becomes the hunter. For just as those persons 
overlook something quite plain, so these testify 
against the evidence of perception, which tells us 
that we have in these cases, not a changing of some 
one thing, but two things struggling and fighting 
against one another. 

" What then ? " they object. " Is it not true that 
man's deliberative faculty also is often divided and 
distracted toward contrary opinions regarding what is 
expedient, but that it is yet one and the same ? " 
" Quite so," we shall say, " but the process is not 
parallel. " For the intellectual part of the soul does not 
here oppose itself, but, using one and the same faculty, 
applies itself to different lines of reasoning ; or rather, 
there is but one single reason, which functions on 
things essentially different, as though on different 
matters. Therefore neither is pain present in reason- 
ing where passion is absent, nor are men forced, as it 
were, to choose a course contrary to reason, unless 
indeed some emotion is furtively attached, as it were, 
to one pan of the balances. This, in fact, happens 
often : when it is not reasoning that opposes reason- 
ing, but ambition or contentiousness or the pursuit of 

° Of. Emerson, Brahma : 

If the red slayer think he slays, 

Or if the slain think he is slain, 
They know not well the subtle ways 

I keep, and pass, and turn again. 

57 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

E fiaivovTOs, o'UoOat Xoycov 1 elvcu Svetv 8ta<£o/>dV 

a)G7T€p iv TOVTOIS' 

ai'Seodev fiev dvrjvaoOai, Scicrav 8' U77o8e^0af 

/cat 

to {lev acfyayrjvat Seivov evK.Xeiav 8* ^X €i > 
to fir] uavecv oe OetAov rjoovrj o evu. 

/cat rrepl ra? Kpioeis tojv 2 ovpL^oXalcov viroTpe^ovTa 

TOL TTadr) TTJV TrAeiOTTjV €[JL7TOL€L Starpt/^V KCLL 7T€pl 

tol ov/Jb^ovXta to)v ^aoiXecov oi irpos x&piv XeyovTts 
ov Svelv Kpcaecov Tjj €Tepa ovvayopevovcrcv, dXXd 
TrdOet, tlvI TrpooTidevTai rrapd top tov avpi^ipov- 
tos Xoyiofiov. Sto tovs prjTopas iv tols dpiOTOKpa- 
Tiais ol dpxovTes ovk icooi rradaiveoQai' perrei yap 
IT evOelav pOTrrjv 6 aTraO-qs XoyLopios irrl to Slkcuov 
dv Se rrddos iyyivrjTai, p^dyrp; Troiel /cat Sta</>opdi> 
to rjSofxevov /cat to dXyovv rrpos to Kplvov /cat to 
povXevopievov, iirel Std tl tol? iv <})iXooo(f)ia ok€jjl- 

fJLOLOlV OV TTpOOeGTl TO jJb€Ta XvTTTjS VTTO TOJV €T€pOJV 

dyeoOai /cat /xeTart^caftat rroXXaKis, dAA' avTog t 
448 'ApiOTOTeXrjs A^/xo/cptros' re /cat XpvoLTTTros eVta 
tcov TTpouOev avTols dpeoKovTOJv ddopvj3a>s /cat 
dSrjKTCOS /cat /xe#' rjSovfjs dcfyeloav; otl tcD deojprj- 
rt/caj /cat fjLaOrjjjLCLTLKtp 3 ttjs faxys Trddos ovSev 
dvOeoTrjKev aAA' dr pejiel /cat ov TToXvrrpaypiovel to 

1 Xoycov Bernardakis, confirmed by G : Sid Aoycov. 

2 tcov] some mss. have 8e tojv, perhaps rightly. 
3 iiadr)}xaTLKa>] ^aOrjriKco Jaeger, perhaps rightly. 

a Homer, II., vii. 93. 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 638, Euripides, Frag. 854. 

c Cf. W. Jaeger, Hermes, lxiv. 22 f. ; Eusebius, Praepar. 
58 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 447-448 

favour or jealousy or fear that opposes, we think it is 
a difference between two reasons, as in the verse a : 

To refuse they were ashamed, but feared to accept; 

and this : 

To die is dreadful, yet it brings fair fame ; 
Not to die is craven, yet there's pleasure there. b 

And in the judgement of suits concerning business 
affairs the passions rush in unawares and cause the 
greatest waste of time. So also in the councils of 
kings those who speak to obtain favour are not 
advocating one or the other of two decisions, but are 
submitting to some emotion which is contrary to their 
calculation of what is expedient. Therefore in 
aristocratic states the magistrates do not allow 
political speakers to make passionate harangues, for 
reason, if not influenced by passion, inclines to a just 
balance toward what is right ; but if passion inter- 
venes, the part of the soul that feels pleasure and 
pain fights and opposes the part which forms judge- 
ments and deliberates. Otherwise, why is it that in 
philosophical speculations no feeling of pain is present 
when, under the influence of those who hold different 
opinions, we change our views again and again, but 
that Aristotle c himself and Democritus and Chry- 
sippus have recanted without any dismay or pain, and 
even with pleasure, some of the dogmas they pre- 
viously held ? It is because passion has set up no 
opposition to the contemplative and scientific part 
of the soul and the irrational part remains quiet and 

Evang., xiv. 6. 9, where Cephisodorus attacks the young 
Aristotle by an onslaught on the Platonic Ideas, olrjdeis 
Kara IIAaTcova tov 'AptcrroreAryv (fciXooofclv. See also 442 B, 
supra. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(448) dXoyov iv tovtois. Sto Trpos 1 rdXrjOes 6 XoytopLos, 
orav <f>avfj, 2 Trpoifievos to ifjevSos dapbivajs OL7T- 
e'/cAtvev iv avrcQ yap kariv ovk iv daripo) 3 to 
7T€l66ijl€Vov /cat fieTaTreiOofJievov. at Se Trpay- 
piaTLKal fiovXal /cat Kpioets /cat Statrat tcjv ttoXXcov 
ipLTradets ovcai hvoohiav rco Xoyco irapiypvui /cat 
SuovcoAtav, ivioyppuiva) /cat TapaTTopbiva) trepl to 

B dXoyov, avrcupov avTco fied' rjSovrjs twos r) Seovs 
rj Xvtttjs fj imdvpLias . /cat tovtojv Kpiriqpiov rj 
aioOrjoLS ioTiv y d^orepcov icfxtTTTOfievr)- /cat yap 
dv irepiyivrjTai Odrepov, ovk dvrjprjKe Odrepov, aAA' 
e^eA/cerat /cara/3ta ^ofxevov /cat avrirelvov, 6 yap 
vovQztojv avrov iptovra xprjrai rco Aoytcr/xaJ Trpos 
to rrddosy d>s dfi(f)OT€pa)v ivovrcov a/xa rfj ifjvxfj, 
KaOdrrep xetpt ^Xtypbalvov erepov fxepos mi^ojv 
/cat Suetv ovtojv /cat hia^epovraiv irraLoOavopievos . 
iv fJLevroL rals drraOeoi fiovXats /cat GKeifjeoiv, ocas 
e^et fidXtora to deatprjTiKov, dv fiev taat fievajcnv, 

C ov yiyove Kpiois aXX drropia, or do is ovaa /cat 

piovrf Siavolas vtt* ivavnayv mdavajv 5, dv Se porrrj 

yevqrai Trpos Odrepov, r) Kparrjaaoa rrjv irepav 

XiXvKev, chare per) Xvuelv parjS^ VTrevavriovaOai 

Trpos ttjv 86£av. SXojs Se Xoytapiov fiev aVrt/cetcr#at 

XoyLOfJLO) ookovvtos, ov yiverai Suetv /cat iripajv 

1 8to irpos] hioTTtp in most mss. 

2 <f>avfj] (fraivr) in most mss. 

3 Oarepco W.C.H. : irepcp. 

fiovr) Basel ed. of 1542, confirmed by G: plovtj. 

5 TnOavoJv Wyttenbach, confirmed by G : 7raQa>v. 

Cf. Moralia, 71a, and Euripides, Frag. 665 there cited. 
60 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 448 

does not meddle with these matters. Therefore 
reason, as soon as the truth appears, dismisses the 
false and gladly inclines toward the truth ; for it is in 
reason, not in its opposite, that the faculty resides 
which yields to persuasion and, through persuasion, 
changes opinion. But with most people, their deli- 
berations, judgements, and decisions which are to be 
converted into action are in a state of emotion and 
therefore offer obstructions and difficulties to the path 
of reason, for reason is checked and confused by the 
irrational, which, with some emotion of pleasure or 
fear, pain or desire, rises up to oppose it. In such 
cases the senses make the decision, since they have 
contact with both ; and if, in fact, one gains the 
mastery, it does not destroy the other, but forces it 
to comply and drags it along resisting. For the 
lover who admonishes himself a uses reason against 
his passion, since they both exist at the same time 
in his soul, as it were pressing with his hand the 
other member, which is inflamed, and clearly per- 
ceiving that there are two distinct forces and that 
they are at variance. On the other hand, in those 
deliberations and speculations where passion is absent 
(and these are the sort in which the contemplative 
faculty most commonly engages), if they be equally 
balanced, no judgement has taken place, but merely 
a perplexity has arisen, which is a rest or suspension 
of intellectual activity brought about by opposing 
probabilities ; but if the inclination falls to either 
side, the winning opinion has cancelled the other, 
with the result that there is no pain nor any 
opposition left. In general, when it appears that 
reason is opposing reason, there is no perception of 
them as two distinct things, but as a single thing 

vol. vi c 2 61 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(448) aiodrjois aXX ivos tlvos iv Sta</>opot9 yivo\iivov 
(fxivTaoLais* otclv Se to dXoyov \i6jyr\Tdi rep Xo- 
yiojxa), jjLTjre /cparetv dXvrrajs \jjfyre KpareloQai 
rrecfyvKos €v9vs els 1 8vo ouaTrjat, rfj jJidxjj tt)v tpvxty 
Kal TToiel ttjv 8iacf)opav Trp68r)Xov. 

8. Ov jjlovov Toivvv drro Trjs pax^S ^XX' ovhev 
D rjrrov and rrjs aKoXovOlas /cartSot tls dv ttjv 
TraOrjTLKrjv dpxty rrjs XoyiarLKrjs 2 erepav ovaav. 
€7T€L yap kari jxev ipdv evc/)vovs rrpos dperrjv Kal 
yevvaiov ttclioos eort Se cf>avXov /cat olkoXolcftov, 
GVpLfiaiveL Se Ovjjlo) xPV G ^ aL t 1 ^ dXoyojs Trpos 
rratoas avrov /cat yovels XPV a ^ aL ^ vrrep yovecov 
/cat 7rai8u)v Slkollcos Trpos rroXepiiovs /cat Tvpdvvovs' 
CDGTrep e/cet fidx^jS /cat 8iacf)opas rod rrddovs Trpos 
tov XoyicFfjidv atodrjms eartv, ovtojs ivrav8a 7ret- 
6ovs /cat aKoXovdias, olov eTnppeiTOVTos 3 Kal 
ovv€7Ti8i86vTos. ert 4 toivvv Kal yvvalKa yr\\xas 
E Kara vojjlovs dvrjp i7TieiKr)s Stavoetrat 7repteVetv 
Kal ovvelvai St/cata)? /cat oaxfrpovojs , ^povoj °^ T7 )s 
avvrjdeias ivT€KovG7]s rrdQos alaOdverai rep Ao- 
yio\x<h to </>iXeLV Kal to ayairav imTeivopLevov. 
o)G7T€p av Kal veot 8i8aoKaXoLS iirvrvx^VTes 
doT€LO is vtto xpetas* to npGiTov eirovi at, Kal £rj- 
Xovglv, VGTepov Se /cat (jyiXovaiv aVrt yvojpipbojv Kal 
fjiadrjTajv epacrrat KaXovpuevoi Kal ovt€s. to S' 
avTo ovpLpalveL Kal Trpos dpxovTas iv iroXeai XP 7 }' 
gtovs Kal yeiTovas Kal /c^Seoras" dp^dfievoi yap 

1 ds Reiske : d>s. 

2 XoyiGTLKrjg] AoyLKrjs in most mss. 

3 €7tlpp€7tovtos Wyttenbach : inLppeovTos* 

4 en Reiske : eVeu 

C2 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 448 

which arises in different impressions made upon the 
senses. Yet when there is a struggle against reason 
on the part of the irrational, which, by its very 
nature, can neither conquer nor be conquered with- 
out pain, straightway the irrational splits the soul in 
two by its battling and makes the distinction between 
the two perfectly obvious. 

8. It is not only from their dissension, however, but 
no less from their agreement, that one can perceive 
that the source of passion is essentially different from 
that of reason. For since it is equally possible to love 
a noble youth, well-formed by nature for virtue, and 
to love an evil and profligate one, and since it happens 
that one both becomes angry irrationally against 
one's own children or parents, and angry justly on 
behalf of parents and children against enemies and 
despots ; just as in the one case there is perception of 
struggle and dissension of passion against reason, so 
in the other there is perception of persuasion and 
agreement on the part of passion, which inclines the 
scales, as it were, in favour of reason and increases its 
power. Yet again, when a good man has lawfully 
married a wife, his intention is to treat her respectfully 
and consort with her honourably and soberly ; but as 
time goes on, his intimacy with her has given birth to 
passion, when he perceives that his love and affection 
increases by the exercise of his reason. So again, 
when young men happen upon cultivated teachers, 
they follow them and admire them at first because of 
their usefulness ; but later they come to feel affection 
for them also, and in place of familiar companions and 
pupils they are called lovers and are actually so. 
The same thing happens also in people's relations to 
good magistrates in cities and good neighbours and 

63 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

vno xpeias twos KadrjKovTtos 1 dXXrjXoig o/xtAetv, 

€TT€lTa XavOdvOVOLV €tV TO (f)lXeiV VTTO([)€p6fJi€VOi } 

F ovvemoTraaaixivov tov Aoytoyxou /cat avvavarrei- 
oavTos to iraOiqTLKov. 6 8* elirtov 

alSws re* Staaat S' elalv, rj fxev ov kclkt) 
tj S' d^dos olkojv 

dp' ov 8rjX6s €otl avvrjoOrjfjLevos iv iavTco tovto to 

TTaOoS TToXXdhClS [JL€V dl<oXov9oVV TO) XoyCp KOI 

ovyKOJTCU<.oo\Lov\xevov , TtoXXaKis ok 2 rrapd tov Xoyov 
449 okvols koX fjLeXXrjaeai Kaipovs /cat TrpdyjJLCLTa 
Xv/jLatvofievov; 

9. Of? /cat avTol 3 Tpoirov Ttvd Sid tt)V evdpyeiav* 
vtt€ikovt€s , at§£ta#at to alo)(vv€oOai /caAoucrt /cat 
to yjSeodai yalpeiv /cat tovs <j)6fiovs tvXafitLas* 
tclvttjv fxev ovSevog dv CLLTiCLoaLievov ttjv evcfrrjfjLLav, 
el TavTa Trddy] 77pooTt#e/zeva /xev tlo XoyLOfito tov- 
tols koXovol toZs ovopLaoL, /za^o/xeva Se /cat /3ta£o- 
fieva tov Xoyiopiov e/cctVot?. 6Vav Se Sa/cpuot9 
eXey)(dfji€VOL /cat Tpofiois /cat xpoa? tzerajSoAats 
dvTt Xvnrjs /cat cfroftov Srjyfiovs Tivas /cat aw- 
6porjcr€LS 5 Xiycooi /cat Trpodvpiias Tag cmflu/ztas' 

VTTOKOpL^aJVTCLL, CJO(/>tC7Tt/cds , SoKOVGLV OV (friXoGO- 

B cf)ovs Sta/cpoua€t9 6 /cat dirohpaaeis e/c twv irpay- 
fxaTcov pjr\yavdoQai Sta rdiv oVo/zara>v. 

Katrot 77aAtv aurot ra? T€ papas' e/cetVa? /cat Ta? 
fiovXijaecs /cat Tas* evXafiecas evrraOeias kolXovgiv 

1 /ca^K-ovTcos] KadrJKovTos in most mss. 

2 /nev . . . 8e] omitted in most mss. 

3 of? /cat aurot Turnebus : ot koX olvtois. 

* eVaoyeiav] ivepyeiav in all mss. but G and E, 

5 avvdporjoeis Haupt : ovvzopveis. 

6 Sta/cpouCTCts Xylander : Sta/cauaet?. 

61 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 448-449 

relatives by marriage ; for in the beginning they 
dutifully associate with one another from some con- 
sideration of usefulness, but later they are carried 
unconsciously into genuine affection, reason drawing 
along, and aiding in the persuasion of, the passionate 
element. Is it not obvious that he a who said, 

And modesty. Two kinds there are : the one 
Not bad, the other burdening our homes, 

has perceived in himself that this emotion often 
follows the lead of reason and is arrayed at reason's 
side, but often, contrary to reason, by hesitations and 
delays ruins opportunities and actions ? 

9. But my opponents, though forced to concede in 
a manner these arguments because of their obvious 
truth, yet persist in calling shame "modesty/' 5 plea- 
sure "joy," and fears "precautions." No one would 
blame them for this euphemism if they would but call 
these same emotions by these soft names when they 
attach themselves to reason, and call them by those 
harsher names when the emotions oppose and offer 
violence to reason. But when, convicted by their 
tears and tremblings and changes of colour, in place 
of grief and fear they call these emotions " compunc- 
tions " and " perplexities " and gloss over the desires 
with the term " eagernesses," they seem to be de- 
vising casuistic, not philosophic, shifts and escapes 
from reality through the medium of fancy names. 

And yet these very men, c to cite another instance, 
call those "joys," " volitions," and " precautions " of 

a Phaedra is the speaker : Euripides, Hippolytus, 385-386. 
b Cf. Moralia, 5 C 29 d ; von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., iii. 
p. 107. 
c Ibid. iii. pp. 105-108. 

65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(449) ovk dnadeias, opdcvs ivravda xP<*>f JLevOL T0 ^ ovo^ 
LiaoL. ycverat ydp evirdd eta rod XoyLOLiov to tt&Oos 
ovk avaipovvros dAAd kocjllovvtos /cat tclttovtos iv 
rots acochpovovoLv. ol 8e cbavXoL /cat aKpareis tl 
iraoxovoiv, orav tov irarepa koX ttjv LirjTepa 
KpLvavres cpLXelv dvrl rod ipcoiievov /cat ttjs epoo- 

fl€VT)S LIT) SvVQJVTOLl, TTJV 8' €TCLLpaV /Cat TOV KoXdKCL 

Kpivavres, evdvs /cat c^lXooolv ; el ydp to irddos rjv 
Kpiois, eoeL rfj rod <f)i\elv xpT} vai ^at p-iGelv Kpi- 

C G€l TO SiXelv €7T€o9oLL KCLL TO 1 LLLOelv VVvl §€ OVLlfjal- 
V€L TavaVTLOL, TOLLS Ll€V TTpOGTLdeiieVOV TOV TT&doVS 
KpLG€GL TCLLS S' OL7T€l9oVVTOS . fj KCLL CpaOLV CLVTOL, TtOV 
TTpayLLCLTOJV lKf$Lat ) Op.ivU)V y 01) TTCLOaV €LVCLL KpLOLV 

Trados dAAa ttjv klvtjtlktjv 6pp.rjs (Slcllov /cat TrXeo- 
va^ovarjs, opioXoyovvTes eTepov elvaL to Kplvov koX 

TO TTCLO)(OV €V TjLUV 0)07T€p TO KLVOVV KCLL TO KLVOV- 

fxevov. avTos re Y^pvoLTTiros, iv 7roXXols SpL^opievos 

TTjV KCLpTepLOLV KCLL TTJV lyKpCLTeLCtV €^€L£ OLKoXovOrj- 
TLKCLS TCp CLLpOVVTL XoyCp, 8rjX6s ioTLV VTTO TCOV 

TrpayLLOLTCov oLioXoyelv dvayKa^oiievos , cos eTepov 

e<JTL TO CLKoXovOoVV iv TjLlLV TOV CO OLKoXovOeZ 

D TreLOoLievov rj ttolXlv fidx^raL litj TreLdoiievov. 

10. "Icra tolvvv tol d/xapT^aara ttclvtcx /cat iraoas 
TL^eiievoL tols diiapTLas, el Liev aXXrj 7777 TrapoptooL 
T&XrjOes, ovk eoTL KoiLpos ev tlo irapovTL SteAey^etv 
1 /cat to] Sieveking would delete to. 

a Cf. von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag.,, iii. p. 93. 
b Ibid. iii. p. 119. 
66 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 449 

theirs " right sensibilities to emotion," not " insensi- 
bilities,' ' in this case using the terms correctly. For 
a " right sensibility " arises when reason does not 
destroy the emotion, but composes and sets it in 
order in the souls of temperate persons. But what 
it is that happens in the case of evil and incon- 
tinent persons when, though their judgement tells 
them to love father and mother in place of a 
favourite or mistress, they cannot do this ; yet when 
their judgement bids them to love courtesan and 
flatterer, they immediately do that very thing ? 
For if emotion and judgement were one, love and 
hate would follow upon our judgement of what we 
ought to love and hate ; but as it is, the contrary 
happens : with some judgements the emotion joins 
forces, others it disregards. Therefore even these 
very men a affirm, since the evidence forces them to 
do so, that not every judgement is an emotion, but 
only that which sets in motion a violent and excessive 
impulse, thereby acknowledging that in us the faculty 
of judging and the faculty of feeling emotion are 
different, in the sense that the one is that which sets 
in motion, the other that which is moved. And 
Chrysippus himself in many places, by defining endur- 
ance and continence as states which follow the con- 
victions of reason, is obviously forced by the evidence 
to acknowledge that that within us which follows is 
different from that which it follows when persuaded, 
or, on the other hand, fights against when it is not 
persuaded. 

10. Now if, by positing h that all errors and faults 
are equal, they are in some other way overlooking 
the truth, this present discourse is not the proper 
occasion to confute them ; but in the case of the 

67 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(449) iv 8e rots irdOeoi 1 <f>aivovrai KOfJuSfj rrapa rrjv 
ivdpy eiav eviOTapievoi ra> Xoyco. irav (lev yap 
irddos dfxapria kolt olvtovs iart, /cat iras 6 
XvTTOvjAevos 77 (/>oj3ou/xevos > rj €7ndvpLa)V dfiaprdveL' 
fieydXat Se tcov rradcov Sta</>opat Kara to jjl&XXov 

/Cat TO TjTTOV OpOJVTCLL. TLS ydp aV (f)CLL7] TOV 

AoXwvos cfrofiov loov elvac tlo A'lavTOS " ivTporraXi- 

^ofMevov " /cat fidSrjv diriovTos e/c tcov 7ToXefJLia)v 

E " oXiyov yovv yovvos dpLeLfiovTos " ; fj ttj U Aa- 

TO)VOS €776 TiO)KpdT€L TeXeVTrjOCLVTL XviTT] TTjV 

'AXe£;dv8pov Sta, KAetrov, clvtov dveXelv opfir)- 
aavTos; eiriTelvovTai yap ov fieTplojs Kal tco irapa 
Xoyov 2 at Au77at, /cat to Trap* eAm'Sa avfJL7TTO)jJLa 
tov /caret Xoyov oSvvrjpoTepov el rrpooSoKwv 
evrjfiepovvTa Tiva? /cat Oavpua^ofievov oifjeadai ttv- 
Oolto* KaTeGTpefiXajfiivov, ws OtAa>rav Uapfievtajv, 
Ovficp 8e tls dv enrol irpbs ' * Kvai^apyov lgco Ke^pf)* 
adai NtKo/cpeovra /cat 77p6? OtA^ova Mayav 
dfJL(/)OT€povs XocSoprjOevTas vtt* avTtov; 6 jxev yap 
vrrepoLS oi8r)pols KaTeiTTioe koX /care/co^ev 5 eKeivov 
6 Se tco <$>lXt)ijlovi tov Stjjjliov eKeXevoev eVt tov 
F Tpdx^jXov €77t#€tVat yvjjivrjv ttjv \xdyaipav etr' 

1 TraQeoi Reiske : irXtioai. 

2 napa Xoyov] TrapaXoyco or irapdXoyov in most MSS. 

3 Tiva added by W.C.H. 4 -nvdoio Madvig. 

5 KarimLoe Kal Kar€Koip€v] ko.t€tttioo€ and kclt€K07tt€v in 
almost all mss. 

a Cf. Homer, II., x. 374 if. ; Moralia, 16 a. 

b Cf. II., xi. 547 ; Be Vita et Poesi Homeri, 135 (Ber- 
nardakis, vol. vii. p. 409). 

c Cf. for the slaying of Cleitus by Alexander Plutarch's 
Life of Alexander, li. ; and for Alexander's grief ibid. lii. 
(694 d-e). 
68 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 449 

emotions they certainly appear to be in opposition to 
reason and contrary to plain evidence. For, accord- 
ing to them, every emotion is an error, and every one 
who grieves or fears or desires is guilty of error. Yet 
there are seen to be great differences in the emotions 
according to their greater or lesser intensity. For 
who would declare that Dolon's a fear was no greater 
than that of Ajax, 6 who " often faced about " and 
departed slowly from the midst of his enemies, 
" scarcely changing knee for knee " ? Or that the 
grief of Alexander, who attempted to kill himself 
because of Cleitus, was equal to Plato's grief for the 
death of Socrates ? For griefs are increased im- 
moderately by unpredictable circumstances/ and an 
unexpected occurrence is more painful than one quite 
likely to happen ; if, for instance, one should expect 
to see someone in prosperity and honour and then 
should learn that he had been cruelly tortured, as 
Parmenion e did of Philotas. And who would affirm 
that the rage of Nicocreon against Anaxarchus^ 
was equal to that of Magas g against Philemon, 
though they had both been reviled by their op- 
ponents ? For Nicocreon with iron pestles ground 
Anaxarchus to powder, but Magas merely ordered 
the public executioner to place his naked blade on 
Philemon's neck and then to let him go. That is the 

d Cf. 463 d, infra ; 474 e-f, infra (Carneades). 

e Philotas, the son of Alexander's general Parmenion, was 
suddenly executed on suspicion of conspiracy; cf Life of 
Alexander, xlix. (693 b). 

1 A friend of Alexander who insulted Nicocreon, tyrant of 
Cyprus, so markedly that the latter took his revenge after 
Alexander's death ; cf. Diogenes Laertius, ix. 58-59. 

9 Cf. 458 a, infra ; see Hartman, Be Plutarcho, p. 205, 
for the absurdity of this comparison. 

69 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

a<f)€Lvcu. 8lo koll vevpa rrjs ijjv)(rjs tov Ovpuov 6 

TLXdrOJV 7TpO(J€L7T€V d)S iTTLT€tv6jJL€v6v T€ TTlKpiCL KOLL 

7Tpa6rrjTL ^aAco/xevov. 

Taura tolvvv koI tol tolclvtcl SiaKpovojJLevoi rag 

€7TlTaO€LS TCOV TTdOcbv KCU TCt? <J(f)oh pOTTjT CIS OV (fxiOl 

450 yiveoOai Kara ttjv Kpioiv, iv fj to dfjeapT^TLKov, 
dAAa ro\$ Suets' 1 koX ras ovuroXas koli rag Sta- 
XVG€is eivac rag to fxaXXov kolI to tjttov tco dXoyco 2 
Se^o/xeVa?. Kavroi ko\ rrepl to,? KpLoeis (fiaLvovTai 
yivojxevai Sca^opar ttjv re yap ireviav ol [lev ov 
KaKov ol he Kal jieya KpLvovui Kai<6v, ol Se ye Kal 
fieyiGTOv, ojgt€ Kal Kara twv TreTpwv Kal Kara ttjs 
daXaTTrjg ojOelv eavTovs' tov t€ OdvaTov ol pcev 
ayaOtov GTepiqaei jjlovov ol Se Kal Tip.ojpiais aicu- 
vlois vtto yrjv Kal KoXaapLols (fypiKcoSeon KaKov elvai 
vofjLt^ovcriv rj re tov oojjiaTos vyieia* toZs fxkv d>s 
Acara <f>voiv Kal xprjcripLov ayarraTai, toZs §€ tcov 
ovtojv SoKel pueyiGTOv dyadov ovt€ ydp 

B ttXovtov x&pt'S* V tzkcojv 

OVT€ 

ras laohaipiovos avdpdmois /JacriA^tSo? apx&S? 

TeXevTcovTes 8e Kal ttjv dpeTrjv dvaxfieXfj Kal dv- 
ovtjtov rjyovvTai, tov vyialveiv pA] rrapovTos' ojgt€ 

1 Srjgeis Amyot, confirmed by G : A^ets. 
2 dXoya) Meziriacus, confirmed by G : \6ya>, 
3 vyieia Bernardakis, confirmed by G : vytla* 

4 X^P LS Pohlenz : ^aptv. 
5 ras . . . apx&s Aldine ed. : rds . . . dp\ds. 

a Republic, 411 b ; contrast Moralia, 457 b-c, infra. 

70 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 449-450 

reason why Plato a also called anger " sinews of the 
soul " on the ground that it is intensified by harshness 
and relaxed by gentleness. 

So to elude these and similar difficulties my oppo- 
nents b deny that these intensities and violences of 
the emotions come into existence in accordance with 
the judgement, in which lies the liability to error ; 
but maintain that the irritations, contractions, and 
diffusions admit of increase and diminution through 
the operations of the irrational element. Yet there 
obviously are differences in judgements also ; for 
some adjudge poverty not to be an evil, others to be 
a great evil, still others to be the greatest evil, so that 
they even hurl themselves down from precipices c or 
throw themselves into the sea. Some think death to 
be an evil merely because it deprives them of the 
good things of life, others because there are eternal 
torments and horrible punishments beneath the earth. 
By some the health of the body is cherished because 
it is in accordance with Nature and useful, to others 
it appears the greatest good in the world ; for neither 
do they value 

Joy in wealth or children, 
nor 

In that kingly rule that makes man like to gods * 
in comparison therewith ; and finally they think even 
virtue to be useless and unprofitable if health be not 

6 The Stoics, as generally throughout the essay ; cf. von 
Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag.,, iii. p. 119. 

c Cf. Moralia, 165 a, 1039 f, 1069 d ; Theognis, 173-178, 
and the references cited by Edmonds, Elegy and Iambus, i. 
p. 249, note 5. 

d Ariphron, Paean to Health, vv. 3-4 (Bergk, Poet. Lyr. 
Graec, iii. p. 597, or Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, iii. p. 401) ; cf 
Moralia, 497 a, infra. 

71 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(450) (fyaiveoOoa, kolI rrepl ras Kpiaeis avras tovs fiev 
jjl&AAov tovs 8' rjrrov djxapT dvovT as . 

'AAA' ov tovto vvv SieAeyKreov, 1 eKelvo 8' e/c 

TOVTOV Xrj7TT€OV, OTL GVyXOOpOVOL KCLL CLVTOl TTjS 

Kpiaeoos erepov elvai to dAoyov, kclO* 6 <f>aoi 
yiveadai to Trados ocfiohpoTepov kolI ju-ei^ov, ept- 

l,OVT€S TTpOS TOVVOjJLCL KCLL TO pfj/JLCL, TCt 8<E 7Tpdy\iaTa 
8l8oVT€S TOLS 8lCL(f)€p€lV TO TTaOrjTLKOV Kdl aXoyOV 

tov Aoyi^ofJLevov /cat KpivovTos aTrocfraivo fxevo is . ev 
C 8e tols rrepl ' AvopboAoylas 2 6 Xpvonnros elrroov 
otl "tv(J)A6v eoTiv rj opyrj Acat TroAActACts 1 /xev ovk ea 
opdv To, €K(f)avrj 7toAAolkls Se toZs /caraAa^avo- 
pievois €TTL7Tpoo8el i }> fMLKpov TrpoeAdoov, " tol yap 
eTTiyivopieva," <\>y\Gi y " Trddrj eKKpovet tov? Xoyi- 

GjJLOVS, KOLI TOL COS €T€pOO$ (f)OH,v6fJL€VOL, jStatCUS" TTpO~ 
C060VVTOL €7TL TOLS ivOVTiaS TTpd^eiS " ' €ITCL XPV TaL 

fidpTvpt too WlevdvSpcp XeyovTi, 

OLfjLOL TaAas eyooye, ttov ttoO' at 3 <f)pev€s 

rjjjLCov €KeZvov rjvav iv too aa>/xart 

tov xpovov, 6V 4 ov tclvt aXX iKe.lv* fjpovfxeda; 6 

D KOLI TT&AlV 6 ^KpVOLTTTTOS TTpoeXOoOV, " TOV XoyiKOV ," 

(/>7]ol, " ^ooov <f>voiv €xovtos TrpooxprjcrOaL els 
c/cacrra too Xoyoo kcli vtto tovtov Kvfiepvaodai, 
TToAAaKis OL7TOcrTpe(f)€crdoLL avTov rjfJL&s dXXrj jStaio- 

1 SieXeyKrcov] StaAe/creov in some mss. 

2 dvofjioXoylas] ' AvcofMaXlas Reiske, cf. Diogenes Laertius, 
vii. 192. 

3 noO y at Grotius : nore. 

4 or added by Xylander ; ov Reiske. 

5 eVetv' rjpovfxcOa Xylander : €K€iva alpov/jLeda, 

72 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 450 

present. Hence it plainly appears that some make a 
greater, some a lesser, error in their judgements also. 
This doctrine, however, need not be confuted at 
present, but that other point maybe assumed from this 
discussion: that my opponents themselves also concede 
that the irrational part is essentially different from 
judgement, the irrational, in accordance with which 
they say that emotion becomes greater and more 
violent ; their contention is concerning the name and 
the expression, but they really surrender the point at 
issue to those who assert that the passionate and 
irrational element is different from the reasoning and 
judging. In his book On the Failure to Lead a Consist- 
ent Life Chrysippus a has said, " Anger is a blind 
thing : often it prevents our seeing obvious matters, 
and often it obscures matters which are already appre- 
hended " ; and, proceeding a little further, he says, 
" For the passions, when once raised, drive out the 
processes of reasoning and all things that appear 
otherwise than they would have them be, and push 
forward with violence to actions contrary to reason." 
He then uses as evidence the words of Menander b : 

Ah woe, alas for me ! Where ever were 
My wits awandering in my body then 
When I made choice to do not this, but that ? 

And again, Chrysippus proceeds to say that every 
rational creature is so disposed by nature as to use 
reason in all things and to be governed by it ; yet 
often reason is rejected when we are under the im- 
pulse of some other more violent force. Thus in this 

a Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., iii. p. 94 ; the title was 
interpreted by Xy lander as De Dissensione Par Hum Animi. 

b Frag. 567, Kock, Comic. Att. Frag., iii. p. 173 (Allinson, 
p. 497). 

73 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(450) repa (fropa ^pco/xeVo^;9/ , ofioXoytov to ovfi^alvov 
€K rfjs Trpos tov Xoyov tov rrdOovs hia<f>opds. 

'E77€t KOI yeXoLOV €(JTLV, fj cj)7]GL UXoLTCOV, CLVTOV 

nva Xeyetv avrov Kpetrrova /cat rrdXiv yeipovciy /cat 

TOV [JL€V KpCLTOVvd* itXVTOV TOV §€ fJLT] KpCLTOVVTCL. 
(l 1 .) 77609 yCLp oloV T€ TOV CLVTOV CLVTOV KptlTTOV 

etvat, /cat yeipova r\ KpaTelv dfia kcu KpaTeloQai, 

(JLTj TpOTTOV TLVCL OLTTOV 7T€(/)Vk6tOS £kCIOT0V /Cat TO 

E fxev yelpov iv eavTco to Se /3eArtov e^ovTos ; ovtojs 
yap 6 [lev tov fieXTiovos VTrrjKctp tco yelpovi 
Xpcbfievos iyKpaTTjs eavTov /cat KpeiTTtov iuTLV, o 

8e TCO OLKoXdoTLp KOLL dXoyCp TTJS ^X^ €7t6jJL€VOV 
7T€piOpCOV KCLl VTT7]p€T0VV TO KpeiTTOV TfTTCOV €CLVTOV 

koI aKpaTTjs Aeyerat koX rrapd (f>voiv hictKeipitvos • 
Qvoei ydp rrpoorjKeL detov ovtcl tov Xoyiojiov 
rjyelodai /cat dp-^eiv tov dXoyov tov 1 ttjv yevecnv 
avToOev €xovtos e/c tov GtofiaTOS' to /cat ovve£- 
O[ioiovo8ai /cat Koivoweiv ttclOlov /cat dva7TLjJLTrXacr9aL 
7T€(f)VK€V, ivSeSvKos ctVTLp /cat /cara/xe^tty/xeVov, cos 
SrjXovoiv at opfial Trpos ret aco^taTt/ca kivov\L€.vcli 
/cat loTdfievcu, /cat ocfaoSpoTrjTCLs iv rat? tov cjlo- 
F jjlcltos fieTa^oXacs /cat dveoecs Aa/x/3dVoucrat. Sto 
veoi [lev 2 d^ets /cat LTafiol rrepi T€ Tas dpe^eus 
Sidrrvpoi /cat oloTptoheis at/xaro? rrXrjOei /cat 9ep- 
/xdr^rt, tlov Se TrpeofivTtov rj rrepl to rjrrap dpx'rj 
tov €7Ti9viJLr]TiKov /caraa/JeWurat /cat ytWrat piiKpd 

1 tov] koI in most mss. 
2 koX after fiev deleted by Pohlenz. 

° Republic, 430 e. 

6 Cf. Plato, Timaeus, 86 n. 

c Ibid, 71 a. 

74 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 450 

passage he plainly acknowledges what conclusion is 
to be drawn from the difference which exists between 
passion and reason. 

Why, it would be ridiculous, as Plato a says, for 
a man to say that he is now better than himself 
and again worse than himself, and sometimes master 
of himself and sometimes not. (11.) For how is it 
possible for the same man to be both better and 
worse than himself, or to be master of himself and 
at the same time be mastered, if in some way or 
other each man were not by nature double and had 
not both the worse and the better within himself ? 
This being the case, he who holds the worse in sub- 
jection to the better is self-controlled and better than 
himself, but he who permits the better part to follow 
and be in subjection to the intemperate and irrational 
part of his soul is called worse than himself and in- 
continent and in a state contrary to Nature. 

For, in accordance with Nature, it is proper that 
reason, which is divine, should lead and rule the 
irrational, which derives its origin directly from the 
body to which Nature has designed that it should bear 
a resemblance and share in the body's passions and 
be contaminated by it, since it has entered into the 
body and has become merged with it ; that this is so 
is shown by our impulses, b which arise and are set in 
motion toward corporeal objects and become violent 
or relax in keeping with the changes of the body. 
For this reason young men are swift and impetuous 
and fiery in their appetites, and stung by madness, as 
it were, through the abundance and heat of their 
blood ; but in old men the source of desire, which is 
seated about the liver, 6 is in the process of being 
extinguished and becoming small and weak, whereas 

75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kal aadevrjs' layyti Se jjl&XXov 6 Adyo9 tov Tradr)- 
TLKOV TCp OcbfJLCLTl ovvaTto\iapaivo\Ls.vov . TOVTO 
S' dfieXet Kal tcls tcjv Orjptajv r^donoieZ TTpos ra 
451 Trddrj <f>vo€LS* ov yap opdonqri 8o£u)v ovSe cj>avX6- 
ttjtl Stjttov rots [lev dA/cat Kal 6p{JLal irpos ra 
<f)aiv6fji€va Setvd TrapioTavrai, rot? §' dpLrix avoL 
TTTolai Kal (fro/Sot 1 rrjs ipvxrjs' dAA' at nepl to alfia 
Kal to rrvevfia Kal to ocofia Swdfietg Tas twv 
Tradcov 8ia<j)opds ttolovolv, cooTrep Ik pL&)S tov 
TradrjTLKov ttjs oapKos dvafiXaoTavovTOS Kat ovv- 
avacf)epovTos ttjv uoioTTyra Kal ttjv Kpaoiv. 2 tov 
S' dvOpamov TaZs /xev TradrjTLKals SpfiaZs to acjfJia 
avjiTraOovv Kal avyKivovjievov iXeyxovoiv a>xpoT7]- 
T€9 epvOrniaTa TpopLOL TrrjSrjoeLs KapSlas, Sta^vaeis" 
B av irdXiv eV eXrrioLV rjSovcov Kal irpoohoKiais* OTav 
Se pLrj pL€Ta rrdOovs dAA' avro Ka9* avTO KivrJTai to 
hiavorjTtKov, rjovxtav dyei to aaj/xa Kal Ka6eoT7]Kev 

OVT€ KOLVOJVOVV OVT€ fJL€T€XOV aVTO 3 T7)S €V€py€taS 

tov (bpovovvTOSy et tov TradrjTLKov firf ovvec/)- 
aTTTOLTO fJLrjSe ovpLTrapaXafJiftdvoL to aXoyov ajare 
Kal tovto) Su' ovTa SrjXovoOai Kal SiacfrepovTa 
TaZs SvvdjJieoiv dXXrjXojv. 

12. "KadoXov Se tlov ovtojv avToi re (f>aoi /cat 
SrjXov ioTLV, otl ra fiev e£et Stot/cetrat, tcl Se <f>vo€i, 
ra S' dXoyco iftvxfj, ra Se /cat Xoyov ixovor] /cat 

1 Soften,] <t>vyal in two mss. is perhaps right. 

2 Kpaoiv Camerarius : KpLoiv. 

3 fJL€T€XOV aVTO] fl€TOV CLVTtp OT fJ,€<7T0V CLVTCp IU SOIIie MSS. 

4 TradrjTLKov pr) Reiske, confirmed by a few mss. : iiaOr)- 

fJLCLTlKOV. 

76 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 450-451 

reason increases more and more in vigour as the 
passionate element fades away together with the body. 
And this, of course, is what determines the natures 
of wild beasts also as regards the passions. For it 
is not, I presume, by the rightness or wrongness of 
their opinions that some of them oppose apparent 
dangers with valour and impetuousness whereas others 
have helpless flutterings and fears in their souls ; but 
the faculties which control the blood, the breath, and 
the body in general cause the difference in their 
affections, since the emotional part springs up from 
the flesh as from a root and carries with it its quality 
and composition. But that in man his body is 
affected and moved together with the impulses of his 
passions is proved by his paleness a and blushing, his 
trembling and palpitations of the heart, and again by 
his cheerful and relaxed expression when in hope and 
expectation of pleasures. But whenever the intellect 
acts, not accompanied by emotion but by itself alone, 
the body remains in repose and at rest, neither sharing 
nor partaking in the activity of the mind, so long as the 
body does not have to deal with the emotional element 
or include the irrational in such activity. Consequently, 
this fact also makes it plain that there are two parts 
within us which differ from each other in their 
faculties. 

12. And in general, both as my opponents 5 them- 
selves admit and as is quite obvious, in this world some 
things are governed by an acquired disposition, others 
by a natural one, some by an irrational soul, others 
by a rational and intellectual one ; and in practically 

° Cf. De Libidine et Aegritudine, 6 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. 
p. 5). 

6 The Stoics ; cf. von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., ii. p. 150. 

77 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(451) hidvoiav cov ojjlov tl Trdvrcov 6 dvdpa>7ros \xer- 
£ayr)K€. kclI yiyovev iv Trdoais rats elprjfjLevous 8ta- 
C (fropcus* kolI yap e^ei avvex^rat Kal <f>vo€i rpe^erat 
Kal Xoyco xprJTOu kclI hiavoia. fxerearLV ovv avrco 
kolI rod dXoyov, Kal gvji^vtov e^€t rrjv rod Trddovs 
®-?xh v > °v K eTT€ia6hiov aAA' avayKaiav ovaav, ouS' 
dvatpereav TTavrdrraoLV dXXa depaireias Kal muS- 
ayaiyias oeofjLevrjv. odev ov QpaKtov ovSe AvKovp- 
yeiov rod Xoyov to epyov ecrrt, o~vv€Kkoitt€lv Kal 
ovvhtacfrdeipeiv rd dx^eXtfJia tols fiXafiepoZs rod 
TrdOovs, aAA' fj^rep 6 cfrvraXfJuos deos Kal o 1 rjfie-- 
piBrjs, to aypiov KoXovoai Kal d^eXelv rrjv d/xe- 
rpiav, elra Tidaaeveiv Kal rrapioTaoB 'at 2 to xprfoifjiov. 
ovre yap olvov oi (f>o^ov[Ji€VOL to pbeOvecv tKyeovoiv 
D ovt€ irddos oi SeStorcs" to TapaKTiKov dvaipovoiv 
dAAd Kepavvvovoi. Kal yap fiocbv Kal Ittttojv rd 
TrrjSrjfjLaTa Kal tovs d^rjviaopLovs ov rd? KLvrjaets 
ovSe Tas ivepyecas dcfraipovoi, Kal toIs rrdOea 
SeSafiaopievois XPV Tai KaL X €L P V@ eGLV ° Xoyiopios, 

OVK €KV€VploaS OuS' €KT€fJL(l)V TTaVTaiTaOl T7]S i/svxfjs 
TO VTTTJpeTLKOV 

1 o added by W.C.H. 

2 TraploTaodai, cf. 451 a, supra] Trepdaraadai in most mss., 
Trapiaravat in one. 

° Cf. Moralia, 15 d-e. Lycurgus, king of Thrace, 
angered with Dionysus, cut down the vines ; cf. Apollo- 
dorus, Bibliotheca, iii. 5. 1, with Frazer's notes (L.C.L., 
vol. i. pp. 327 ff.). 

b Cf. Moralia, 529 b-c. 

c Poseidon : cf. Moralia, 158 d, 730 d. 

d Dionysus : cf. Moralia, 994 a ; both Poseidon and 
Dionysus are said to be lords of rrjs vypds koX yovlfMov apx?}s in 
78 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 451 

all these things man participates and he is subject 
to all the differences I have mentioned. For he is 
controlled by his acquired disposition, nurtured by 
his natural disposition, and makes use of reason and 
intellect. He has, therefore, some portion of the 
irrational also and has innate within him the main- 
spring of emotion, not as an adventitious accessory, 
but as a necessary part of his being, which should 
never be done away with entirely, but must needs 
have careful tending and education. Therefore the 
work of reason is not Thracian, not like that of Ly- 
curgus a — to cut down b and destroy the helpful 
elements of emotion together with the harmful, but to 
do as the god c who watches over crops and the god d 
who guards the vine do — to lop off the wild growth 
and to clip away excessive luxuriance, and then to 
cultivate and to dispose for use the serviceable re- 
mainder. For neither do those who fear drunkenness 
pour out their wine upon the ground, e nor do those 
who fear passion eradicate the disturbing element, 
but both temper f what they fear. It is, in fact, the 
rebellious kicking and plunging of oxen and horses 
that men do away with, not their movements and 
activities ; even so reason makes use of the emotions 
when they have been subdued and are tame, and 
does not hamstring g nor altogether excise that part 
of the soul which should be its servant. For 
Moralia, 675 f. Poseidon's functions as a god of vegetation 
are perhaps to be derived from his position as god of fresh 
streams and fountains ; see Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, 
iv. p. 6. 

e Cf. Plato, Laws, 773 d. 

f See Hartman, De Plutarcho, pp. 203 f., for criticism of the 
ellipsis. Plutarch's meaning is, of course, that wine is 
tempered by water, and passion by reason. 

f Cf. 449 f, supra. 

79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(4:0 1) v<f> apixaoi yap nnros, 

c!)S <f>r](jL UtvSapos, 

iv S' dporpcp jSous" 
Karrpco Se fiovXevovTa 1 (f>6vov Kvva xprj rXadvpuov 
i^evpelv. 

d)V 7ToXif XP r j (JL l Ji ^ )r€ P a T( * Ta ^ V Tf&ft&V OpefJLjJLCLTa TO) 

Xoyia/JLO) avfJLjrapovra /cat ovvevreivovra 2 rals ape- 
E tolls' 6 9vp,6s rrj dvSpeta pLerpcos ojv, rj paao7Tovrjp ta 
rfj SiKouoovvr) , /cat rj vepieais em tovs Trap* d^iav 
evrvxovvras, orav dpi* dvoia /cat vfipa, (^Xeyopuevoi 
tt]v ipvxrjv e77t<r^6crea>9 Seawrat. ^tAtas* Se </>tAo- 
Gropyiav r) (jtiXavdpojTTias eXeov fj to avyx^ipeiv /cat 
ovvaXyeiv evvoias dXrjdcvfjs ov8e fSovXopievos dv tls 
diroGTrdaeiev ouS' aTropp^eiev. 3 el S' oi tov epcora 
rfj ipcoTopbavca avveKpaXXovres apuapTavovaiv , ov& 
oi rrjv ipLnopiav* Sta rrjv <j>iXapyvpiav ifjeyovres 

KOLTOpdoVCTlV' dAA' OfJLOLOV TL TTpaTTOVGl TOt? TO 

rpex €iv 0L0 ^ TO TrpooTTTaUiv /cat to fidXXecv Sta to 
virepfiaXXeiv dvaipovoi, /cat irpos to a'Setv to 
F irapdirav Sta to dnaSeiv direxScos exovatv. °* ov 
yap iv <j>doyyois plovglktj to ipLfieXes ovk dvaipioei 
j3apvT7)TOS /cat o^vttjtos, iv Se ocofiacnv laTpiKrj to 
vyieivov ov <f>6opa OeppLOTTjTos /cat ifjvxpoTrjTog, 
dXXd GvpLfJL€TpLaLS /cat TroaoTrjai KpaOeiacov direp- 

1 fiovXcvovra] ^ovXevovn in some mss. 

2 OVV€VT€LVOVTa] OVV€7TlT€LVOVTa 111 HlOSt MSS. 

3 6.TTOppri^€L€v Reiske : aTTorrj^iev. 
4 cfnropLav Madvig: imdvfilav. 

80 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 451 

The horse is meet for the chariot, 

as Pindar a says, 

the ox for the plough ; 
But if you think to slay a boar, you must find a stout- 
hearted hound. 

Yet much more useful than these beasts are the whole 
brood of passions when they are present in the service 
of reason and help to intensify the virtues : anger, 
if it be moderate, will assist courage, and hatred of evil 
will aid justice, and righteous indignation b will oppose 
those who are prosperous beyond their deserts when 
their souls are inflamed with folly and insolence c and 
they need to be checked. For who, even if he so 
wished, could separate or sever from friendship a 
natural propensity toward affection, from humane- 
ness pity, and from true benevolence the mutual 
participation in joy and grief ? And if those err who 
discard love entirely because love may bring madness, 
neither are they right who blame commerce because 
it may beget covetousness ; on the contrary, what 
they do is somewhat like the action of those who would 
abolish running because one may chance to stumble, 
or shooting d because one may overshoot the mark, and 
dislike any singing at all because some sing off key. 
For as in the realm of sound musical art produces con- 
sonance, not by doing away with the deep low and 
the shrill high notes e ; and in the case of the body, medi- 
cal art produces health, not by the removal of heat 
and coldness, but by the proportionately quantitative 

° Frag. 234 ed. Bergk; 258 ed. Boeckh (p. 611 ed. 
Sandys) ; the quotation is given more fully in 472 c, infra, 
b Cf. von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., iii. p. 100, 1. 37. 
c Cf. Plato, Laws, 716 a. 
d Cf. Moralia, 459 d, infra. e Cf. 444 e-f, supra. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yd^erai, tolovtov ev ^vxfj TO ^Olkov 1 eyyevopbevqg 
vno Xoyov reus TradrjTiKaZs SvvdpLeoc /cat Kivrjoecnv 
452 eVtet/cetas 1 /cat fierpLor^ros. olSovvtl 2 yap eot/ce 
/cat (fyXeyfiaivovrt oxu/xaTt to TreptaXyovv /cat irepi- 
X a pcs KaL rrepi^ofiov* rfjs ipvx?js, ov to x a Lpov ovSe 
to Xvirovpuevov ovSe to (frofiovpbevov. /cat KaXtos 

"OfJLTjpOS €L7TCOV 

tov 8' dyadov ovt dp TpeireTai XP^S ovTe* tl Xir)v 
Tapfiei 

tov (frofiov ovk d<f>eZXev aAAa tov dyav c^o^ov, ottlos 
dvSpela firj dirovoia /cat 6appaXeoT7)s per] OpaavTrjs 
yevrjTCti. Sto /cat irepl ras 1 rjSovds ttjv dyav 
d(f>aip€T€OV €7Ti9vpLLav /cat Trepl Tag dpivvag ttjv dyav 
fjuooTTOvrjplav ovtoj yap 6 fiev ovk dvdXyrjTog aAAa 
aaxfipojv, 6 8e St'/cato? ovk 5 wpuos ovSe niKpos carat. 
B tlov Se TraOcov TravTairaoiv dvaipeOevTOJV, el /cat 
SvvaTov eoTLVy ev ttoXXoZs dpyoTepos 6 Xoyog /cat 
dpifSXvTepos, cooTrep Kvj3epvrjTr]s TrvevpiaTOs emXei- 
ttovtos. TavTa 8' dfieXei /cat oi vop.ode.Tai avv- 
tooVre? epLpdXXovoLV els Tas TroXiTeias* </>tAort/xtav 
/cat £rjXov 7rp6s aAA^Aous" nrpos Se tovs noXepiLovs 
odXTTiy^i 1 /cat avXoZs eireyeipovui /cat av^ovai to 
dvpioeihes /cat pidx^piov. ov yap pcovov ev ironqpLaaiv, 

fj (f)7]OLV 6 HXaTOJV, TOV T€^VtT7^V /Cat 8 L7] KplfiojpLeVOV 

6 pLovaoXrjTTTOs /cat KaTaax^ros dnoSeLKWOL ye- 

1 rjOiKov Camerarius, confirmed by G ; oIk€lov Wyttenbach : 

vlku)v or OLKOV. 

2 olhovvn Bernardakis, confirmed by mss. : oIBcovtl. 

3 7Tept<f>ofiov Turnebus : TTtpLXvirov. 

4 ovre Homer : ouSe. 5 ovk] dXX* ovk Reiske. 
c TToXireLas] TroXntias teal in all mss. but one. 

7 /cat before oaXiriy^i deleted by Sieveking. 
82 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 451-452 

admixture of the two ; so in the soul moral virtue is 
produced when equity and moderation are engendered 
by reason in the emotional faculties and activities. 
For a soul possessed of excessive pain or joy or fear is 
like a swollen and feverish body ; it is not so, however, 
if the joy or pain or fear be moderate. And Homer a 
in his admirable words, 

A valiant man will never change his hue, 
Nor will his fear be over-great, 

does not abolish fear, but excessive fear, in order 
that the valiant man may have not foolhardiness but 
courage, not audacity but daring. In his pleasures, 
therefore, a man must rid himself of excessive-desire, 
and in punishing wrong, of excessive hatred of evil : 
for in this way he will be, in the former case, not 
insensible but temperate, and in the latter case, just, 
not savage nor cruel. But if the passions could in 
reality be entirely done away with, b in many persons 
reason would be too inactive and dulled, like a pilot 
when the wind dies down. It is surely this truth 
that the legislators also have perceived when they 
try to put into their constitutions the emotions of 
ambition and emulation as regards the citizens ' 
relations to each other, but in relation to the enemy 
try to rouse and increase their spirited and fighting 
qualities with trumpets and pipes/ For it is not in 
poetry only that, as Plato d says, he who is inspired 
and possessed by the Muses renders ridiculous the 

a 72., xiii. 284 ; cf. De Vita et Poesi Homeri, 135 (Bernar- 
dakis, vol. vii. p. 408). 
b Cf. 443 c, supra. 
c Contrast 458 e, infra. 
d Phaedrus, 245 a ; cf. Ion, 533 a ff. 

83 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(452) Xolov, dXXd /cat Trepl rag /xa^a? to iradiqTiKov /cat, 1 

C evdovGLOoSes dvvTrourarov iart /cat drjTTrjTov o /cat 

rovs Oeovs "O/Jirjpos ifiuoielv cf)r)OL rols dvdpdmois' 

COS €L7T(hv €fl7rV€VG€ fX€VOS fJL€yCL TTOLfJidvi Xad)V 

/cat 

ov)( 6 y avevde 6eov raSe /xatWrar 
Kaddirep opfJL7]iJLa rep Xoyiopiip /cat o^Ty/za to 7rd0o? 

TTpOGTiOeVTCLS. 

Avrovs ye fJLrjv tovtovs opav eon 77oAAa/ct? fiev 
eiraivois rovs veovs Trapoppicovras rroXXaKis Se 
vovdeo tais KoXd^ovras' <Lv rep p,ev errerac to 
rjSeaOai, tco 8e to Xvirelodai- /cat yap rj vovdeoia 
/cat 6 ifjoyos eparoiel fieTavoiav /cat aloxvvrjv, a>v to 

pL€V XvTTT] Tip y€V€L TO §€ (/)6f3oS €GTL' /Cat TOVTOLS 

jitaAtara ^paWat rrpos ras" eiravopOajoeLs. fj /cat 
D Aioyevrjs, liraivovpuivov YlXaTOJvos , " tl S' e/cet- 
vos," elirev, " €)(ei aepuvov, os tooovtov -^povov 
(f>iXooo(f)a)v ovSeva XeXvnrjKev; " ou yap ovtojs tol 
IxaOrjpiaTa (f>air] tls dv, d)s eXeye Sevo/cparo]?, 2 
Aa/3as* etvat <fciXooo<f>ias , a;? ra 7ra^ tcuv vea>v, 
alvyvvrp? eindvpiiav pb€Tavoiav rjSovrjv Xvtttjv </>tAort- 
piiav' wv ipipieXr] /cat aa)Tr\piov defrrjv dirTopievos 6 
Xoyos /cat 6 vopios els ttjv Tipoor\KOVGav 6S6v 

dvVOipLOJS KaOiOTTjOL TOV V€OV . 6UOT6 pLTj /Ca/CcDs" 

1 /cat] /cat to in most mss. 
2 E,€VOKpoLTr)s] 6 Kpdrrjs in some mss. ; 6 oojKpaTrjs B. 

a //., xv. 262 : Apollo to Hector. 
84 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 452 

man who is an artist equipped with exact knowledge 
of technique, but in battles also the passionate and 
inspired is irresistible and invincible. This quality it 
is that Homer says the gods instil into men : 

So did he speak and breathed great might 
Into the shepherd of the people a ; 

and 

Not without some god does he 
These deeds of madness b ; 

as though the gods were adding passion as an incite- 
ment or a vehicle to reason. 

Indeed we may see these very opponents of mine 
often inciting young men with praise and often chas- 
tising them with admonitions ; and of these, in the 
first case pleasure is the consequence, in the second 
pain (in fact, admonition and rebuke engender repent- 
ance and shame, of which the first is a kind of pain, 
the second a kind of fear c ) ; and of these methods 
they make particular use to improve their charges. 
As Diogenes d also remarked, when Plato was being 
praised, " What is there so august about one who has 
spent so much time talking philosophy, yet has never 
caused anyone pain ? " For surely studies could not 
so properly be called, to use Xenocrates* e words, the 
" grips of philosophy," as could the emotions of young 
men : shame, desire, repentance, pleasure, pain, 
ambition. On these if reason and law obtain a suit- 
able and salutary grip, they efficaciously set the young 
man upon the path that he should take. Therefore the 

b II., v. 185 ; of Diomedes. 

c Cf. von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., iii. pp. 98 f. 
d Cf. Archidamus's remark on Charillus, Moralia, 55 e, 
218 b, 537 d. 

* Cf. Diogenes Laertius, iv. 10. 

VOL. VI D 85 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(452) elrrelv top AaKcova rraihayajyov , otl TTOtrjcrei rov 
77aiSa T019 kclAoIs rjSecrOou /cat a^OeoOaL rots' 
alaxpols, ov /x£i£ov ovhev eartv ov8e kolXXlov 
a7TO<f)7]vou reAos iXevOepci) 7Tpocrr]KOVG7]s TraihzLas. 

a Cf. 439 f, svpra ; Plato, Laws, 653 b-c. 



86 



ON MORAL VIRTUE, 4.52 

Spartan a tutor was not wide of the mark when he 
said that he intended to make a boy entrusted to him 
delight in honourable and be vexed at dishonourable 
things. Than this saying there can be shown no 
greater nor fairer end of such education as befits a 
free-born child. 



87 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER 

(DE COHIBENDA IRA) 



INTRODUCTION 

The subject of this essay is not the emotion of anger 
itself, but the cure best applicable to the passion. 
In form it is a dialogue, but, apart from the beginning 
and the end, it is as undramatic as the later works of 
Plato. The principal speaker, Fundanus, treats the 
subject in a manner partly general and partly specific, 
and concludes with a pleasant history of his own cure. 
Hirzel (Der Dialog, ii. p. 170) has described the work 
as a monument (EhrendenkmaT) to the memory of 
Fundanus, dedicated to Sulla. 

Scholars concerned in the investigation of the 
sources used by Plutarch for this discourse have 
arrived at varying results : some a have imagined 
that Stoic writers were used, others b that the Peri- 
patetic Hieronymus of Rhodes was Plutarch's prin- 
cipal authority. The numerous parallels to Seneca's 
De Ira have been used by both parties to substantiate 
their theories, but it is more likely that Plutarch, 
while borrowing numerous loci communes and examples 

° Wilamowitz, Hermes , xxix. 152 ; Schlemm, Hermes, 
xxxviii. 587 ff. 

b Allers, De Senecae Librorum de Ira Fontibus, p. 9 ; 
Pohlenz, Hermes, xxxi. 321 ff. ; accepted by Daebritz, RE, 
i. 8. 1562. In Hermes, xl. 292, note 1, Pohlenz attempts to 
refute Schlemm's arguments. 

90 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER 

from earlier writers, a constructed for himself the main 
features of the dialogue. The self-portrayal of 
Fundanus and his cure, the frame-work of the whole 
discourse, is clearly Plutarch's own device. The 
author's debt to preceding literature is, as always, 
immense, yet the creation of such a work as this is 
by selection and arrangement ; and for that Plutarch 
is alone responsible. 

The essay was known to Aulus Gellius (i. 26), who 
relates a pleasant anecdote of Plutarch and a rascally 
slave who ventured to reprove the philosopher for his 
anger. Among English writers Jeremy Taylor has 
made admirable use of the essay by paraphrase and 
even translation, in his Holy Living, iv. 8. 

The ms. tradition is good. b The work is apparently 
missing in the Lamprias catalogue, since Utpl opyrjs c 
(No. 93) almost certainly refers to a different work 
from which Stobaeus has preserved a fragment 
(Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 138). 

° Books on " Anger " were very plentiful in Cicero's day 
(Epp. ad Quint. Frat., i. 1. 37). 

b There is extant also a free Syriac translation (ed. Lagarde, 
Analecta Syriaca, Leipzig, 1858) which helps occasionally in 
the constitution of the text. 

c Cf. Patzig, Quaest. Pint., p. 42. 



91 



nEPI AOPrHSIAS 

TA IIPOZQIIA TOT AIAAOrOT 
2YAAA2, SOTNAANOS 1 
F 1. 2TAAA2. KaAcD? fJLOL SoKOVULV, CO <&OVv8dv€, 

7TOL6LV oi ^toypdcfxH Sta xpovov ra epya irplv rj 
avvreXelv €7tloko7tovvt€S' otl ttjv oi/jlv avrtov 
dcf)LardvT€S rfj iroXXaKts /cptcret ttolovol Kaivrjv /cat 
jjl&XXov dTTTOjJLevrjv rrjs 7rapd fJiiKpov 8iacf)opds, TfV 
453 dTTOKpvirrei to avvexes /cat to ovvrjOes. inel toivvv 
ovk k'oTiv avTOV olvtco Sta xP° vov rrpooeXdelv ^a^t? 
yevojjievov /cat SiaoTTjoavTa tt)s auve^etas" ttjv 
aiadrjOLVy dXXd tovt k'oTi to /xaAtcrra ttolovv e/ca- 
otov olvtov chavXoTepov KpiTrjv rj eTepcov SevTepov 
dv elrj to tovs (j)iXovs icfropav hid xpdvov /cat 7rap- 
e^etv ofJLOLtos e/cetVot? iavTov, ovk el yiptov yeyove 
tclxv /cat to GtofJia /3eArtov fj x^P 0V ^(JX r l K€V > dXXd 

/Cat TOV TpOTTOV /Cat TO TjdoS €7TLOKOTT€LV y €L TL 

XpfjVTOV 6 XP° V °S TTpOGTeOecKev r) tlov <f>avXtov 
dcpTjprjKev. eytb yovv iviavTco fxev dtfuypbevos el$ 
'Poj/xt^v SevTepco, ovvtov oe uoi fjurjva tovtovl 
Tre/JLTTTOV, to fxev if; vrcapxovTtov St' €v<f>vtav 

1 TA nPOSanA . . . OOTNAANOE] not in the mss. 

a Sextius Sulla, a friend of Plutarch (cf. Moralia, 636 a, 
and Prosopographia Imperii Romani, iii. p. 239). 

92 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER 

(Speakers in the Dialogue : Sulla and Fundanus) 

1. sulla. a A good plan, as it seems to me, Funda- 
nus, 6 is that which painters follow : they scrutinize 
their productions from time to time before they 
finish them. They do this because, by withdrawing 
their gaze and by inspecting their work often, they 
are able to form a fresh judgement, and one which is 
more likely to seize upon any slight discrepancy, 
such as the familiarity of uninterrupted contempla- 
tion will conceal. Since, therefore, it is impossible 
for a man to contemplate himself from time to time 
by getting apart from himself and interrupting his 
consciousness of himself by breaking its continuity 
(and this is what, more than anything else, makes 
every man a poorer judge of himself than of others), 
the next best course would be for him to inspect 
his friends from time to time and likewise to offer 
himself to them, not to see if he is grown old suddenly 
or if his body is better or worse, but for them to 
examine both his behaviour and his character to learn 
whether time has added some excellence or taken 
away some vice. As for me, since I have returned to 
Rome after a year's absence and this is now the fifth 
month that I have been w r ith you constantly, I do not 

b C. Minicius Fundanus, a friend of Pliny (Epp., v. 16) ; 
cf. Pros. Imp. Rom., ii. p. 377. 

vol. vi D 2 93 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B dyaOtov eirihoaiv yeyovivai tooclvt7)v /cat av^rjatv 
(453) ov 7Tavv Oavfiaarov r]yovpiar to Se o<f)ohpov £k€lvo 

Kdl SlOLTTVpOV TTpOS OpyTjV OptOVTL /XOt TTpaOV OVTCOS 

/cat xeiporjOes rep XoyiujJLtp yeyevrjfievov eWpxerat 

7TpOS TOV OvfJLOV €LTT€IV 

a) ttottol, rj fidXa Srj fiaXaKcorepos. 

avTT) 8' rj pLaXaKorrjs ovk dpyiav ov& €kXvglv, aAA' 
cja7T€p rj KCLTeipyaofievr] yrj Xeiorrjra /cat fiddos 
ivepyov eirl rot? rrpd^ets ecr^Ty/ccv dvrl rrjg <j>opas 

€K€LV7)S KClX TTJS 6£vT7)TOS. OLO KOU OTjXoV loTIV OV 

TrapaKfjifj tlvl ol rjXiKLOLV to dvfioeiSes ovS' clvto- 
fidrcjos dTTOfjLapaivojjievov, aAA' vtto Xoycov tlvcov 
\pr\GTOiv 6€pa7T€v6fJL€vov. KCLLTOi (to yap dXrjdes 
elprjoeraL rrpog ere) ravd* rjfjuv "Epajs 6 ircupos 
C aVayye'AAaw vttotttos rjv rd fir) Trpoaovra irpeTTOvra 
Se TTpoaeivai rolg KaXols KayadoTs St' evvoiav €77t- 
fiapTVpeiv, Kairrep, a*? otcrda y ovSafifj iriOavos cuz> 
rep Trpos X®-P LV vifiUoBqLi tov Sokovvtos. dXXd vvv 

€K€LVOS T€ TtOV IpevSojJLCtpTVpLCOV d(f)€LTaL, /Cat CTV, 

rrjs ohoiiTopias axoXrjv SiSovcrrjs, 8UX9* rjpuv coenrep 
larpetav nvd aeavrov, fj xpr}odpLevos ovtcos eu- 
tjvlov /cat diraXov 1 ko\ tco Xoyto rrpaov /cat vtttjkoov 
eTTOifjoa) tov dvfiov. 

*OTNAANO^. EtV' OV OK07T6LS, to TTpoOvpiOTaTe 
SuAAa, jXTj /cat clvtos evvoia /cat ^tAta tjj irpds rjfJL&s 

1 dnaXov Hartman and Pohlenz : anrXovv. 

a Homer, i7., xxii. 373. 

b This friend of Plutarch is mentioned again in connexion 
with Fundanus in 464 e, infra, 

c See Hirzel, Der Dialog, ii. p. 168, note 4. 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 453 

find it altogether surprising that, of the virtues which 
were already yours by gift of Nature, there has been 
so great an increment and increase ; but when I see 
that that violent and fiery tendency of yours toward 
anger has become so gentle and submissive to reason, 
it occurs to me to say with reference to your temper 

O wonder, how much milder has it grown ! ° 

Yet this mildness has brought about no inactivity or 
feebleness in you, but, like the earth when it has been 
subdued by cultivation, it has received a smoothness 
and depth conducive to fruitful action in place of that 
impetuousness of yours and quickness of temper. 
For that reason it is evident that the spirited part of 
your soul is not withering away through any abate- 
ment of vigour caused by age, nor yet spontaneously, 
but that it is receiving the skilful treatment of some 
excellent precepts. And yet — for I shall tell you the 
plain truth — when our friend Eros b told me all this, 
I suspected that he was bearing witness, by reason 
of his goodwill, to qualities that were not actually 
present in you, yet should be so in men of breed- 
ing, although, as you know, he is by no means 
the sort of man to surrender his own opinion as a 
favour to anyone. But as things are, Eros stands 
acquitted of the charge of bearing false witness, and 
do you, since our journey 6 gives us leisure for con- 
versation, tell me, as though you were recounting 
some medical treatment, what remedy you used that 
you have made your temper so obedient to the rein 
and tender-mouthed, so mild and subservient to 
reason. 

fundanus. Well, what about you, my generous 
friend Sulla ? Are you careful not to let your 

95 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(453) irapop&s tl toov rjjJLerepcov; "Epam piev yap ov$' 
D avTtp ttoWolkls e'xovrt Kara X c ^P av * v T fl 'OfJLrjpLKrj 

7T€LGTj jJLei'OVTCL TOV OvflOV, dXXd TpOL)(VT€pOV VTTO 

pu(j07Tovr)pLas, ecKos eon rrpaorepovs rj(JL&$ (jxxvrjvcu, 
Kaddirep ev hiaypaixiidrajv jxera^oXals vrjral rives 
rrpos erepas vi)ras rdi;iv vrraroov 1 Xapi^dvovoiv . 

2TAA. Qvherepa tovtoov eoriv, co OowSdVe* 
rroiei 8' (Ls Xeyoo, x a P l ^ix€Vos r)puv. 

2. «i»OYNA. Kcu fjbrjv oov ye [xe\ivr\\LeQa Movoco- 
viov KaXcov ev eortv, co ZuAAa, to 8elv del 9epa- 
TTevofJievovs fiiovv rovs oco^eodai [leXXovrag. ov yap 
cos eXXefiopov, otpbat, Sec Oepairevoavra ovveK<f>epe- 
adai 2 too voor\\iaTi rdv Xoyov, dXX e\x\xevovTa rrj 
E faxfj vvvexew ret? Kpioeis Kal ^vXaoaeiv , (j>ap- 
fiaKOLS yap ovk eoiKev aXXd oltIois vyieivols rj 
Svvapas avrov, fier evrovcas 3 e^iv e\iiroiovoa 
XP^ottjv ols dv yevrjrat ovvqdiqs- at oe irpds d/c- 
fid^ovra ret irdOr) Kal olSovvra irapaiveoeis Kal 
vovOecrtai oxoXfj fiev dvvrovoi Kal [jloXls, ouSev 4 
8e toov docbpavTcov Scafiepovoiv, a rovs eTTiXrjTr- 
tikovs eyeipovra TrirrTOVTas ovk airaXXdrTei rod 
voGrjixaros . ofitos 8e rd p,ev dXXa Kal nap' ov 
aKpidt.ei Kaipov djxooayeTroog vireiKei koX 7TapirjoL 

1 vttoltojv Hatzidakis : vnarcov. 

2 owe K(f)€pe ad au Pohlenz ; ovveKpeiv Madvig : ovv€K<f>€p€iv. 

3 evrovias Pohlenz and Kronenberg; ivvoias Apelt: eiryc 
veias or evvoias. 

4 ovoev] ovoevl most mss. 

96 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 453 

goodwill and friendship for me make you overlook 
some of my real qualities ? For since on many 
occasions not even Eros himself can keep his temper 
in its place in that Homeric a obedience, but when it 
becomes too exasperated through hatred of evil, it 
is reasonable to suppose that I appear more gentle 
to him, just as in changes of key certain high notes 
assume the position of low notes in contrast with other 
high notes. 

sulla. Neither of these suppositions is true, 
Fundanus. Please do as I ask. 

2. fundanus. One of those excellent precepts 
of Musonius 5 which I remember, Sulla, is : " He 
that wishes to come through life safe and sound 
must continue throughout his life to be under treat- 
ment." For I do not think that reason should 
be used in one's cure as we use hellebore, and be 
washed out of the body together with the disease, 
but it must remain in the soul and keep watch 
and ward over the judgements. For the power 
of reason is not like drugs, but like wholesome 
food, engendering an excellent state, together with 
great vigour, in those w T ho become accustomed to 
it ; but exhortations and admonitions, if applied 
to the passions when they are at their height and 
swollen, can scarcely accomplish anything at all, 
and that with difficulty. They are no better than 
those aromatic preparations which rouse epileptics 
when they lie prostrate, but do not rid them 
of the disease. Yet the other passions, even at 
their height, do in some sort yield and admit 
reason, when it comes from without to the rescue, 

a Od., xx. 23, cited in full 506 b, infra. 
b Frag. 36 ed. Hense. 

97 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Porjdovvra Xoyov t^todev els rrjv i/jvx^v, 6 Se Ovjxos 
ox>x fj 4>rjGLV 6 MeXdvdios 

Ta Seivd TTpdaaeL ras <f>pevas jxeroiKLoas ', 
aXX i£oiKiaas reXeioJs /cat arroKXeiaas , tboirzp ol 

Y aVV€fJL7TL7Tp(XVT€S €OLVTOVS TOLLS OlKiaiS, TTaVTOL TCL- 

P a Xys KCLL Ka7TV °v KaL iftdfiov fJLeard Troiec rd evros, 
cScrre prfrr tSetv /jltjt a/couaat rcov dxjyeXovvrojv . 
Sto fjL&AAov iv ^et/xcDvt /cat rreXdyei vavs eprjfjios ava- 
454 Arjifjerai KVpepvrjTTjv e^ojSev rj Trpoohi^erai Xoyov 
dXXorpiov avdpamos iv dvpucp /cat dpyfj aaXevcov, dv 
firj TrapecKevaaixevov exjj rov ot/cetov Xoyiafiov. 
dAA' a)G7T€p oi iroXiopKiav TrpoaSexdjJLevoi avvdyovot 
/cat TraparidevraL rd ^p^at^a 1 ras e^coOev iXirihas 
direyvcoKoreSy ovtoj /xaAtara Set rd irpos rov Ovpuov 
^o7]0TJixara noppcodev Xapb^dvovras e/c (jyiXouo^ias 
/cara/co/xt£etv els rrjv iftvxrfvy COff, orav 6 rrjs ^peta? 
d(f>LKr]TCu Kaipos, f^rj paSlaJS irapeiodyeiv Swrjaofie- 
vovs> ovSe yap a/couet rcov €ktos rj ^XV ^ t( * T ° v 
66pvpov, idv fJLTj Kofidirep KeXevcrrrjv evSoOev ex?) 
B rov avrrjs Xoyov o^ews Sexofievov /cat avvievra rcov 
jrapayyeXXofxevajv eKaorov aKovoaaa 8e rcov fxev 
r)p€fJLa /cat Trpdojs XeyojjLevcov Karacfrpovel, rrpos Se 
rovs iviora\xevovs rpaxvrepov ipedi^erai. /cat yap 
VTT€pri<f)avos /cat avddSrjs /cat 6Xa>s ixfS erepov 2 6 
dvpuos 8vcrKLvr]Tos a>v, coairep d^upa Tvpavvls ££ 

1 xpTjat/xa] some mss. have xp^/xara or eVtriySeta. 
2 erepov] €T€pan> Schellens. 

a Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 760 ; quoted again in 
Moralia, 551 a. The poet is not the Athenian tragic poet, 
but Melanthius of Rhodes (circa 150 b.c.)» according to 
Wilamowitz, Hermes, xxix. 150 If. 

98 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 4,53-4,54, 

into the soul ; but temper does not, as Melanthius a 
says, 

Shunt off the mind, and then do dreadful deeds, 

but on the contrary, it shuts out sense completely and 
locks it out, and just like those who burn them- 
selves up in their own homes, it makes everything 
within full of confusion and smoke and noise, so that 
the soul can neither see nor hear anything that might 
help it. For this reason a ship deserted by her crew 
in the midst of a storm far out at sea b will more 
easily be able to take on a pilot from the outside, than 
will a man who is being tossed upon the billows of 
passion and anger admit the reasoning of another, 
unless he has his own powers of reason prepared to 
receive it. But just as those who expect a siege 
collect and store up all that is useful to them if they 
despair of relief from without, so it is most important 
that we should acquire far in advance the reinforce- 
ments which philosophy provides against temper and 
convey them into the soul in the knowledge that, 
when the occasion for using them comes, it will not 
be possible to introduce them with ease. For the 
soul hears nothing from the outside because of its 
tumult unless it has its own reason within, which, like 
a boatswain who directs the rowers, will promptly 
catch and understand every order given. Yet if 
the soul has heard words of advice which have been 
quietly and mildly spoken, it despises them ; and 
toward any who insist in a rougher fashion, it grows 
exasperated. In fact, temper is overbearing and 
stubborn and altogether difficult for anyone other 
than itself to move, and, like a well-fortified tyranny, 

6 0/. Moralia, 1103 c. 

99 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(454) iavrrjs 1 €.x eiv o^elAei ovvoikov koX avyyevks to 
kcltclAvov. 2 

3. H fJL€V OVV (JVVeX €La T y$ OpyfjS KCLl TO TTpOO- 
KpOV€LV TToAAoLKLS €^LV €/JL7TOi€L 7T0V7jpaV TJ] IpV^f] , fjV 

opyiAoTrjra koAovulv, els aKpaxoAlav Kal iriKplav 
KCLL ovoKoAiav TeAevTcooav , orav eAKcoSrjs Kal 
C fJLLKpoAvrros 6 dvjxos yevryrai Kal (f)iAairios vtto tcov 
TvypvTtov cos alSrjpos daOevrjs Kal AenTos dva^a- 
paGCTOfJievos' rj 8e irapaxpyjpLa rat? opyals eviora- 
fjLevT] Kal TTie^ovaa Kplcns ov to irapov Icvrai fiovov, 
dAAa Kal TTpos to Aolttov evTovov iroiel Kal hvarradrj 
ttjv \lsvyr\v. epuol yovv avveftr] Sis rj rpls evaravri 
Trpos opyrjv to tcov ©rjfialcov Tradelv, ot to irpcoTOV 
coadjJbevoL AaKeSaifiovlovs drjTTrJTovs elvai 8okovv- 
Tas, ov8efilav VGTepov rjTTrjdrjaav vtt* avrcov fJidxrjv 
<j>povt)pLa ydp £gxov cos KpaTeZv eoTi tco Aoyiopbcp. 
ecopcov S' ov fxovov ipvxpov KaTaaKe8avvvfievov 
Arjyovcrav opyrjv, cos ' ApiGTOTeArjs laToprjaev, dAAa 
D Kal <f>6fiov 7Tpoaax0€VTOS diroG$ewvpuevy)v Kal vr) 
Ala ^apa? e7Tiyevo[ievy]s d<f)VCO Ka6* "OfjLrjpov 

IdvOrj " Kal Stexvdr] ttoAAols 6 dvpios. cooTe jjlol 
irapluTaTO fir) iravTeAcos d^orjdrjrov elvai tols ye 
fiovAofJLevois to Trados. 

Ovhe yap dpxas ^X €L ^ydAas del Kal lax v pds, 
dAAa Kal GKcofxpLa Kal 77ai8td Kal to yeAdoai Tivd 

1 4avTTJs] eavrov Reiske. 2 koltclAvov] KaraXvaov W.C.H. 

a Cf. Plato, Republic, 411 b-c. 

b At the battle of Leuctra, 371 b.c. 

c This is apparently from a lost work, though not included 
in Rose's collection of fragments. In Problemata, x. 60 
(898 a 4), however, Aristotle observes that fear is a pro- 
cess of cooling ; cf. also De Partibus Animalium, ii. 4 
(651 a 8 if.). 
100 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 454 

must have its destroyer born and bred in the same 
household. 

3. To be sure, when anger persists and its outbursts 
are frequent, there is created in the soul an evil state 
which is called irascibility , a and this usually results in 
sudden outbursts of rage, moroseness, and peevish- 
ness when the temper becomes ulcerated, easily 
offended, and liable to find fault for even trivial 
offences, like a weak, thin piece of iron which is always 
getting scratched. But if judgement at once opposes 
the fits of anger and represses them, it not only cures 
them for the present, but for the future also it renders 
the soul firm and difficult for passion to attack. In 
my own case, at any rate, when I had opposed anger 
two or three times, it came about that I experienced 
what the Thebans did, who, when they had for the 
first time b repulsed the Spartans, who had the reputa- 
tion of being invincible, were never thereafter de- 
feated by them in any battle ; for I acquired the 
proud consciousness that it is possible for reason to 
conquer. Not only did I see that anger ceases when 
cold water is sprinkled on it, as Aristotle c says, but 
that it is also extinguished when a poultice of fear is 
applied to it. And, by Heaven, if joy comes on the 
scene, in the case of many the temper has been 
quickly " warmed," as Homer d says, or dissipated. 
Consequently I came to the opinion that this passion 
is not altogether incurable, for those, at least, who 
wish to cure it. 

For anger does not always have great and powerful 
beginnings ; on the contrary, even a jest, a playful 

d II. , xxiii. 598, 600, al. ; for Plutarch's interpretation of 
laLveadai see Moralia, 947 d : dXeav ra> aa)fxaTL fxcd* r)bovr}<;, 
orrcp "Ofirjpos laivtoQ ai kckXtjkcv ; see also M or alia, 735 f. 

101 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(454) /cat to Siavevacu /cat 7roAAa rocavra ttoXXovs ets 
opyrjv kolOlottjolv, djomep rj 'EAeV^ rrjv d8eX(j)i8rjv 
7Tpoaayopevaaaa, 

napOeve jxaKpov 8rj pbfJKos 'HAc/cr/oa ^povov, 

napcogvvev elnelv, 

6i/j€ ye cj>pov€LS ev, rore Xnrovo* alaxp&S Sd^ous" 

/cat rov *AXe£av8pov 6 KaXXicrdevrjs elircjv, ttjs 
E lieyaXrjs kvXlkos 7re pi^epopbevr]<s , " ov BovAof-iou 
ttlcov 'AXe^dvSpov 1 'Aa/cA^mou heladai." 

4. Y^aOdrrep ovv rrjv <j>X6ya dpi^l Xaycoats dv- 
aTTTOfievrjv /cat OpvaXXiai /cat avpc^ercp paoiov 
iortv €7nax€iV' edv S' emXd^T)Tai rwv orepecov 
/cat fiddos ixovrojv, ra^u 8iecf)deipe /cat ovvelXev 

vifrqXdv r)fir]oaoa 2 reKrovajv ttovov 

cos (f)7)(Jiv Ata^uAos" ovrcog 6 rco dvfiw 7Tpooex<^v ^ v 
dpxfj kcll Kara puKpov e/c twos AaAtas* /cat fiojpLO- 
Ao^ta9 avp(f)€rd)8ovs opcov KanvLtovTa? /cat 8ta- 
KOLLOfievov ov fjLeydXrjs Setrat 7T pay pbar etas, dXXd 
iroXXaKis avTto rco oiamfjoai /cat KarafjLeXrjoai 
F Karerravoe, /cat yap to Trvp 6 pirj rrapaax<^v 
vXrjv ecrfteoe, /cat opyrjv 6 fir) dpeifjos ev dpxfj /cat 
firj (f)Vorjoas eavrov ic^vXd^aro /cat KaOelXev. ovk 
rjpecrKev* ovv fxot, Kaiirep aAAa xp^crt/za Xeycjv /cat 

1 'AAc^avSpou Xy lander from Mor. 9 624 a : aAcfavSpc. 

2 rj^ijaaoa SalmasillS : rjfidaaoa. 

3 /cawiaWa] Ka-nviovra or kolttvi^ovtcl in some MSS. 

4 7Jp€GK€v] rjpK€(J€V in SOHie MSS. 

a Euripides, Orestes, 72, 99. 

b C/. Moralia, 623 r— 624 a ; Athenaeus, x. 434 d. 

c A jibe at Alexander's assumed divinity, ** Alexander " 

103 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 451 

word, a burst of laughter or a nod on the part of 
somebody, and many things of the kind, rouse many 
persons to anger ; just as Helen, by thus addressing 
her niece, 

Electra, virgin for so long a time, 
provoked her to reply, 

Too late you're wise ; but once you left your home 
Disgraced. 

And so was Alexander provoked by Callisthenes, & 
who said, when the great bowl was going its rounds, 
" I do not care to have a drink of Alexander and then 
have to call in Asclepius." c 

4. And so, just as it is an easy matter to check a 
flame which is being kindled in hare's fur d or candle- 
wicks or rubbish, but if it ever takes hold of solid 
bodies having depth, it quickly destroys and consumes 

With youthful vigour lofty craftsmen's work, 6 

as Aeschylus has it ; so the man who at the beginning 
gives heed to his temper and observes it while it is 
still smoking and catching flame little by little from 
some gossip or rubbishy scurrility need have no great 
concern about it ; on the contrary, he has often 
succeeded in extinguishing it merely by keeping 
silent and ignoring it. For he who gives no fuel to 
fire puts it out, and likewise he who does not in the 
beginning nurse his wrath and does not puff himself 
up with anger takes precautions against it and de- 
stroys it. I was therefore not satisfied with what 

taking the place of Dionysus, the wine god, until the physician 
god, Asclepius, would have to be called in ; on the authenticity 
of the story see Macurdy, Jour. Hell. Stud., 1. (1930), 294- 
297. d Cf. Moral ia, 138 f 

e Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 107, Frag. 357. 

103 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTapouvajv, o lepcbvvjjios, iv ols ov <f>r)ai ytvopLevrjs 
dXXd yeyevrjpLevrjs /cat ovarjs atadrjcriv opyrjs elvai 
Sta to ra^o?. ovOev yap ovtoj tcjv Tradcov cruAAe- 
yojxevov /cat SiaKivovpievov e^et rrjv yeveoiv ip,(j)avrj 
455 /cat rrjv av^rjGLV. d>s St) /cat "Ofirjpos ipareipojs 
StSacr/cet, XvirrjOevra jjl€V evdvs iijatyvrjs ttolcjv tov 
'A^tAAea rod Xoyov TrpoaireoovTos, iv ols Xeyei 

cos <f>dro* tov S' a^eo? ve<j>iXrj €KaXvifje jieXaiva* 

dv/JLovjJLevov Se fipahiojs rep 'Aya^e/zvovt /cat Sta 
Xoyujv ttoXXojv iKKatofievov ovg el rt? ixfreiXev 
avrtov iv apxfj Kai SieKQjXvcrev, ovk av 'ioyev ai»^- 
glv rj 8ca(f)opd rrjXiKavrrjv /cat p,iyeSos. 69 ev 6 
TiOJKpdrrjs og&kis alaOoiro Ktvovfiivov rpa^vrepov 
avrov Trpos rtva TO)V (f)tXa)V, 

7Tpo ^ipLaros 1 coot* dvd 2 ttovtlov a/cpav 

B areXXopbevos iveSiSov re rfj cfrajvf) /cat Ste/xctSta rep 

TTpOOCOTTCp /Cat TO /3AcjLtjLta TTpaOTtpOV 77ap€t^6, TO) 

p€7T€LV inl Odrepa /cat 7rp6$ rovvavrlov dvriKLvel- 
odai rep Trddet 8ta(j)vXdrra>v iavrov drrrcdra /cat 

drjTTTjTOV. 

5. "Ecrrt yap tls, c5 iralpe, 7rpd)rrj Kaddnep rv- 

1 x^aros Mor., 129 a, 503 a, infra: kvixoltos. 
2 a>crr' avd i6i(Z. : cSs riva. 

a Of Rhodes, Peripatetic philosopher of the third century 

B.C. 

b But cf. Plutarch, Be Amove, 4 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. 
p. 134). 

c Of Patroclus's death, brought by Antilochus : II. , xviii. 22. 
d II., i. 101 If. • Cf. Seneca, Be Ira, iii. 13. 3. 

f Author unknown : Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Grace, iii. p. 721 ; 

104 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 454-455 

Hieronymus a says — although he contributes other 
useful remarks and advice — in the passage where he 
declares that we have no perception of anger when it 
conies into being, but only when it has already come 
into being and exists, the reason being the swiftness 
with which it acts. For the truth is that none of the 
emotions, at the time when they are gathering and 
beginning to move, has a birth and increase so easy 
to perceive. 6 Indeed Homer also skilfully teaches 
us this lesson when he causes Achilles to be suddenly 
overwhelmed by grief on receiving the report/ in 
the passage where the poet says : 

He spoke, and a black cloud of grief closed round 
Achilles ; 

but Homer portrays Achilles as being slow to lose 
his temper with Agamemnon <* and as becoming 
inflamed only when many words had been spoken. 
Yet if either one of the men had held back their 
words at the beginning and prevented their utter- 
ance, the quarrel would not have had so great a 
growth or have reached such magnitude. That is 
the reason why Socrates, 6 as often as he perceived 
himself being moved to too great harshness against 
any of his friends, betaking himself to coast 

Before the storm along some promontory/ 

would lower his voice, cause a smile to spread over his 
face, and make the expression of his eyes more gentle, 
preserving himself from fault and defeat by setting 
up within himself an influence to counteract his 
passion. 

5. For the first way, my friend, to dethrone temper 

Diehl, Anthologia Lyrica, ii. p. 163 ; Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, 
iii. p. 473 ; quoted more fully in Moralia, 129 a, 503 a. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(455) pdvvov kcltoXvois rod dvpuov, jjltj rreideodai /xt^S' 
vircLKoveiv TrpoardrrovTOs avrov /xe'ya floav /cat 
Setrof fiAerreiv /cat Koirreiv iavrov, aAA' rjovxdl^eiv 
/cat /X17 avv€7TLT<ELV€iv wcmep vourjpa piTTTaafJLtp /cat 
Siaj3or]oei to TrdOo?. at /z<ei> yap ipooTiKal irpd^eis, 
olov imKcoiidaai /cat aaat /cat orecfyavcoaai dvpav, 
exovaLV apLa>oy€7ra)s Kovcjuapiov ovk ayapiv ouS' 

afJLOVGQV 

eXdcov S 5 ou/c ifioi-jcra rig rj twos, aAA' i.<f)L\r)aa 
C r^v cfrAtrjv. el tovt ear aoiKrjp? , aSt/cco, 

at re rots TTevdovoiv icf)€0€is rod diroKAavoai /cat 
OLTToSvpaaOai itoAv tl rrjs Avtttjs dpua rep oaKpvto 
crvve^dyovGLV 6 Se dvpbos eKpmi^erai pi&AAov oh 
TTpdrrovGL /cat Xeyovotv ol iv avrcp KaOeorajres. 

'Arpe/zctv ovv Kpdnorov 7) cfrevyew /cat aTroKpv- 
ttt€lv /cat KaOoppLL^eiv eavrovs 1 els r\avyLw, djanep 
€7TiAr]ipLas apxopievrjs ovvaiodavopbevovs y tVa p,rj 

TT€00)pL€V pL&AAoV 8' €7TL7T€CrC0pL€V €TWTLlTTOp,eV §6 

rot? (()lAols pbdAiord ye /cat irAeiordKis . oi) yap 
rravTcav epcopiev ovSe iracn <f)6ovovpLev ovSe Trdvras 
cfrofioviJLeOa, Ovpbcp 8' cLOlktov ovSev ouS' dveiri- 
D x e ^PV T0V ' <*^' opyit.opieOa /cat iroAepiiois /cat </>tAot? 
/cat T€Kvois /cat yovevoi /cat ^eots v^ Ata /cat 
dyjpLois /cat dipvxois OKeveoiv, (Ls 6 QdpLvpcs 2 

prjyvvs XP V(T °^ eTOV Ktpas, 

prjyvvs 3 dppioviav x°P^ OT ^ vov Avpag* 

1 iavrovs Bernardakis : eaurov. 

2 ©a/xupt?] Qafjivpas G. 

3 p^yvus-] p-qyvvs 8' van Herwerden. 

n Callimachus, Epigram 43 (42), vv. 5, 6 (Anth. Pal., 
106 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 455 

as you would a tyrant, is not to obey or hearken when 
it bids us cry aloud and look fierce and beat our 
breasts, but to keep quiet and not intensify the 
passion, as we would a disease, by tossing about and 
making a clamour. It is quite true that lovers' 
practices, such as serenading in concert or alone and 
crowning the beloved's door with garlands, do in some 
way or other bring an alleviation that is not without 
charm or grace : 

I came, but did not shout your name or race ; 
I merely kissed the door. If this be sin, 
Then I have sinned. 

So too the surrender of mourners to weeping and 
wailing carries away much of their grief together with 
their tears. But temper is the more readily fanned 
into flame by what people in that state do and say. 

The best course, therefore, is for us to compose 
ourselves, or else to run away and conceal ourselves, 
and anchor ourselves in a calm harbour, as though we 
perceived a fit of epilepsy coming on, & so that we may 
not fall, or rather may not fall upon others ; and we 
are especially likely to fall most often upon our 
friends. For we do not love or envy or fear everyone 
indiscriminately, but there is nothing that temper will 
not touch and assail : we grow angry with enemies 
and friends, with children and parents, yes, even with 
the gods, with wild beasts and soulless implements, as 
Thamyris did : 

Breaking the lyre-arms, overlaid with gold, 
Breaking his melodious, taut-strung lyre c ; 

xii. 118). Cf. Propertius, ii. 30. 24: Hoc si crimen erit, 
crimen amoris erit. 

6 Cf. Seneca, De Ira, iii. 10. 3. 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 183, Sophocles, Frag. 223 
(Frag. 244 ed. Pearson). Cf. Homer, II., ii. 594-600. 

107 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(455) /cat 6 UdvSapos avrw Karapcofievo^, el firj tol r6£a 
Kara7TprjG€L€ " X € P aL oiaKAdooas .' ' o Se Zep^rjg 
/cat rfj daXdrrrj crrty^tara /cat ^A^ya? ivefiaAAe /cat 

E 77^6? TO SpO$ i^€7T€/X7T€V €.lTlOToAd$ , " "A0O) Sat- 

uovte ovpavojJLTjKes, 1 per) iroielv ev eptoZs epyocg 
Aidovs pieydAovs /cat ovaKarepydarovs- el Se parj, 
repicbv piifjco ae 2 els 3 ddAacraav." iro AAa yap ecrrt 
rod dvpiov (froftepd, 77oAAa Se /cat yeAota* Sto /cat 
pLLcreXraL /cat Kara^povelraL /xaAtora tcov nadwv. 
apLc/torepa S' eaKecf)9at xpiqGipLov. 

6. 'Eyco your, et /xer 6p6a>s ovk otSa, ravrrjv Se 
rrjs larpeias 4 ' dpxty rroiiqudpievos , ajanep ol Aa- 
Kojves ev toZs et'Aojat to puedveuv olov eon, /care/zdV- 
davov ttjv opyrjv ev erepois. /cat TTpGiTOV jJiev, fj 

(f>7]GLV '\7TlTOKpdTl]S X a ^ €7TOJT( ^ Tr l V ^ vai VOOOV iv 
F fj S TOV VOVOVVTOS dvOJJLOlOTCLTOV CLVTCxJ yiveTCLl TO 

TTpoacoTTov, ovtcos opebv vit* opyrjs e^iGTapievovs 
fidAiGTa /cat fieTafidAAovTas oi/jlv xpoav /JaStoyxa 
cfrcovrjv, olov et/coVa tov rrddovs aTrepLaTTOfjLTjv 
epLavTO), irdvv Svax^palvcov el (frofiepos ovtcos /cat 
irapaKeKivrjKcos opoopLal rroTe toZs (f>iAois /cat Tjj 
yvvcuKL /cat rot? dvyaTpiots, ov piovov ISeZv dypios 
/cat darvvTJOrjs aAAa /cat cfxovrjv dTTTjvrj /cat rpa^etav 
dcjiieis, ooairep eTepots 6 tcov avvrjOcov eveTvyx^vov , 
ovk Tjdos ov piop(f)r]v ov Aoyou X®-P LV °v T ° ttlOclvov 
/cat 7Tpoar]ves ev o/ztAta Svvapievois in* opyrjs Sta- 

1 ovpav6[ir)K€S Emperius : ovpavofirJKr). 

2 ce] oavrov some mss. 3 els] els rr\v some mss. 

4 rrjs larpelas Reiske, confirmed by mss. : ttjv larpelav. 

5 17 early editors : rjv. 

6 erepois] evlois Wyttenbach. 

a Il. t v. 216. 
108 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 455 

and Pandarus, who invoked a curse on himself if he 
did not " break with his hands " a his bow and burn 
it. And Xerxes not only branded and lashed the sea, 6 
but also sent a letter to Mount Athos ° : ''Noble 
Athos, whose summit reaches heaven, do not put in 
the way of my deeds great stones difficult to work. 
Else I shall hew you down and cast you into the 
sea." For temper can do many terrible things, and 
likewise many that are ridiculous ; therefore it is 
both the most hated and the most despised of the 
passions. It will be useful to consider it in both of 
these aspects. 

6. As for me — whether rightly I do not know — I 
made this start in the treatment of my anger : I 
began to observe the passion in others, just as the 
Spartans used to observe in the Helots d what a thing 
drunkenness is. And first, as Hippocrates e says that 
the most severe disease is that in which the 
countenance of the sufferer is most unlike itself, so I 
observed that those who are transported by anger 
also change most in countenance, colour, gait, and 
voice/ and thus formed for myself a picture of that 
passion and was exceedingly uncomfortable to think 
that I should ever appear so terrible and deranged to 
my friends and my wife and daughters, not merely 
savage and unfamiliar to their sight, but also speak- 
ing with so harsh and rough a voice as were others 
of my intimate friends whom I used to meet at times 
when anger had made them unable to preserve their 
character or bearing or grace of speech or their 

b Cf. Herodotus, vii. 35. 

c Contrast ibid. vii. 24. 

d Cf. Moralia, 239 a, and the note. 

Prognostieon, 2 (vol. i. p. 79 ed. Kiihlewein). 

f Cf. Seneca, De Ira, ii. 35. 

109 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

456 (f)vXdrr€LV. Tatco fiev ovv TpaKxeo rco pryropi koX 
tov Tpoirov ovti ^aXeTTcp Kal TTtpiTTadeoTtpov XeyovTi 
hLTjpjxoGixivov rjv ovpiyyiov, to ttjv (f>a>vrjv ol ap- 
fAOVLKol ax^Srjv 1 err* afufrorepa Sia tlov tovlov 
ayovcrf Kal tovt ex^ov olk€T7]s clvtov XiyovTos 
omodev iarcbs iveSiSov tovov emeiKr) Kal rrpaov, 
to ttjv Kpavyrjv aveKaXelro kcli to rpa^v Kal to 
dvpUKov d(f)rjp€i Trjs (f)tovrjs, coorrep 6 tlov fiovKoXojv 

KiqpoTrXacrTOs OTofiel hova£ 
d^era? vttvoSotclv vojjlov, 

iTTiOeXytov Kal KaOiOTas ttjv opyrjv tov prjTopog. 
ifjiol S' €i tls ijJLpLeXrjs Kal Kopufjos aKoXovdos rjv, 
ovk av rjxdofJLrjv avTOV irpoo(f)€povTOs irrl rat? 
B opyals eooiTTpov, tooirep eviois irpoo^epovoi Xovcra- 
fxevois kir ovSevl xprjoLfjLtp. to yap 2 avTov Ihelv 
irapa cfyuoiv €%ovTa Kal ovvTeTapaypbivov ov \xiKpov 
ioTiv etV SiafioXrjv tov iradovs. Kal yap ttjv 
'Adrjvav Xeyovoiv ol TraL^ovTts avXovoav vrro tov 
aaTvpov vovdeT^lodai Kal fir) rrpooex^LV 

OV TOl 7Tp€7T€L TO (T^T^ia* TOVS avXoVS fJL€0€S 

Kal dconXa 3 Aa£ei> Kal yvddovs evdrjfjioveL' 

deaoafievrjv Se tov rrpoowTrov ttjv oiJjiv iv TroTapucp 
tlvl Sucr^epdVat Kal irpoeoOai tovs avXovs. KaiTOi 

1 ox^rjv Canter, confirmed by mss. : axoXrjv. 

2 to yap] to o' most mss. 

3 Kal dcL-nXa Meineke, confirmed by mss. : /cat 6* oVAa. 

a Cf. Life of the Gracchi, ii. (825 b), and Ziegler's refer- 
ences ad loc. 

b Aeschylus, Prometheus, 574-575 : Io speaks with refer- 
ence to the piping of Argus as he guards her. 

110 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 456 

winning and affable manners. The case of Gaius 
Gracchus a the orator will serve as illustration. He 
was not only severe in his disposition, but spoke too 
passionately ; so he caused a pitch-pipe to be made 
of the sort which musicians use to lead the voice up 
and down the scales to the proper note ; with this 
in hand his servant used to stand behind him as he 
spoke and give him a decorous and gentle tone which 
enabled Gracchus to remit his loud cries and remove 
from his voice the harsh and passionate element ; just 
as the shepherds' 

Wax-joined pipe, clear sounding, 
Drones a slumberous strain, 6 

so did he charm and lay to rest the rage of the orator. 
But as for me, if I had some attentive and clever 
companion, I should not be vexed if he held a mirror c 
up to me during my moments of rage, as they do for 
some persons after bathing, though to no useful pur- 
pose. For to see oneself in a state which nature did 
not intend, with one's features all distorted, contri- 
butes in no small degree toward discrediting that 
passion. In fact, those who delight in pleasant fables 
tell us that when Athena d played on the pipes, she 
was rebuked by the satyr and would give no heed : 

That look becomes you not ; lay by your pipes 
And take your arms and put your cheeks to rights e ; 

but when she saw her face in a river, she was vexed 
and threw her pipes away. Yet art makes melody 

c Cf. Seneca, Be Ira, ii. 36. 1-3. 

d Cf. Life of Alcibiades, ii. (192 e) ; Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 
iii. 505 ff. ; Fasti, vi. 699 ff. ; Athenaeus, xiv. 616 e ff. ; 
Tzetzes, Chiliades, i. 361 if. 

e Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 911, ades. 381. 

Ill 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(456) Trapajxvdiav rj reyyy] rfjs anopsias e^et rrjv ejit/ze- 

Aetav. 1 /cat o Mapauas", cos €olk€, <f>opfieia tlvi /cat 

TrepLGTOjxiois rod 2 TTvevjxaros to payScuov ey/ca#- 

C eipt;€ /cat rou irpooojTTOv /carc/cocr/x^cre /cat a7r- 

€Kpvifj€ rrjv dvcopLaXiav, 

Xpvcru) 8' atyA^evrt avv^pfioorev 9 djLt^tSaaeta? 
Kopoas, /cat OTOfjia Xdfipov omodoheroiOLV Ifiacnv 

rj 8' dpy^ (f>vaa>aa /cat StaretVouaa to 7rp6aa>7rov 
aTTp€7T(2)s, en fiaXXov alcr^pdv a<f)LrjGi /cat arepirrj 

<f)QJvf]V 

Ktvovaa %opods rds d/a^rous 1 (f>p€va>v. 

ttjv \iev yap ddXaaaav, orav e/crapa^etaa rots 
TTvevnavi tol fipva /cat to cfyvKos dvafidXXr), /ca#at- 
pecrO at Xeyovaw a 8' d dvpios ehcfipdoaei rfjs i/svxrjs 

7T€plTp€7TOjJL€Vr)S d/cdAaCTTa /Cat TTlKpd /Cat G7T€pfJLO- 

Xoya prjixara, tovs Xeyovras 7Tpa)rovs Karappvirai- 
D vet /cat Kara7TLfjL7TXrj(jLV d8o£tas, ojs act ju,ei> e^ovra? 
cV aurots* 4 ravra /cat TrXijpeis ovras, vrro 8e ttJ? 
opyrjs dvaKaXvTTTOjjLtvovs . Std Kov(f>ordrov irpdy- 
pLaTos, oj? (f>7)Giv 6 HXdrcov, Adyou 5 ^apvrdrrjv 
^rjfjLLav tlvovglv, ixQpol /cat /ca/coAdyot /cat /ca/co- 
T^ets* SO/COWT69 etvat. 

7. Taur' ouv opGivri jjlol /cat rrapa^vXarrovrL 
avfjifiaLveL riOeaOat /cat oiapbviqiLOveveiv emziKtos 
rrpos ifxavrov, cbs dya96v /Jiev iartv iv irvpercp 

1 6/Lt/xeActav] evfjiiXciav most mss. 

2 jSia before rou deleted by Dubner. 

3 GVVrjpfJLOGtv] TTpOOTjplAOOZV TzetzeS. 

4 avrols Hartman : avrols. 

6 Xoyov here and Mor. 9 90 c] Xoycov Plato and ilfor., 505 c, 
infra, 634 f. 

112 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 456 

some consolation for unsightliness. And Marsyas," 
it seems, by a mouthpiece and cheek-bands repressed 
the violence of his breath and tricked up and con- 
cealed the distortion of his face : 

He fitted the fringe of his temples with gleaming gold 

And his greedy mouth he fitted with thongs bound behind b ; 

but anger, which puffs up and distends the face in an 
unbecoming way, utters a voice still more ugly and 
unpleasant, 

Stirring the heart-strings never stirred before.* 

For when the sea is disturbed by the winds and casts 
up tangle and seaweed, they say that it is being 
cleansed ; but the intemperate, bitter, and vulgar 
words which temper casts forth when the soul is 
disturbed defile the speakers of them first of all and 
fill them with disrepute, the implication being that 
they have always had these traits inside of them and 
are full of them, but that their inner nature is now 
laid bare by their anger. Hence for a mere word, 
the " lightest of things," as Plato d says, they incur 
the " heaviest of punishments,' ' being esteemed as 
hostile, slanderous, and malicious. 

7. When I, accordingly, observe these things, and 
store them carefully away, it occurs to me to lay up 
and quite thoroughly remember for my own use that, 

a Cf. Moralia, 713 d. 

b Simonides, according to Tzetzes, Chiliades, i. 372 (Frag. 
177 Bergk, 160 Diehl, 115 Edmonds); attributed by 
Schneidewin to Simias Rhodius (cf. Powell, Coll. Alex., 
p. 111). 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 907, ades. 361 ; quoted 
again in Moralia, 43 d ; 501 a, 502 d, infra; 657 c. 

d A combination of Laws, 935 a and 717 d, as in Moralia, 
90 c, 505 c, 634 f ; cf. also Schlemm, Hermes, xxxviii. 596. 

113 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(456) Kpelrrov S' iv opyfj rrjv yXcorrav aTTaXrjv ex €LV K °^ 1 

Aelav. rj ptev yap rtov Trvperrovrcov iav per) Kara 

(f>vaiv €XV> cr77/xetdv ion irovqpov ovk airiov rj oe 

rcov dvfjLovfJLevcov rpa^eta Kal pvirapd yevopbevrj 1 koli 

E pvelaa Trpos Xoyovs droirovs k'xdpas dvrjKeorov 8tj- 

flLOVpyOV ilfipLV €K(f)ep€L Kal 8v(JfJL€V€LaS VTTOvXoV 

Karrjyopov. ovSev yap 6 aKparos aKoXaorov ovr oj 
Kal Swipes cos* 6 Ov/JLos dva8t8a)OL 2 ' KOLKetva fiev 
yeXajTi Kal Traiota fjusXet* ravra oe x°^fj KeKparar 
Kac rrapa rrorov [lev 6 oiamcov irraxOr]? rols ovvovoi 
Kal (hopriKoSy iv opyfj 8e oepcvorepov ovSev rjovx^i 
ojs tj 2a7i(/>a> Trapaivet 

GKiSvapLevas iv artjOeoiv opyas 4 
fiaifjvXaKav yXcoooav TrecfrvXaxOcu,. 6 

8. Ov ravra 8e fiovov €7TiXoyi^€o9aL 8l8a)cri ro 
Trpooex^v del rols aXio KOfievocs vtt* opyfjs, dXXa 
F Kal rrjv dXXr]v rod Ovjjlov Karavoelv (ftvcnv, ws ovk 
evyevrjs ouS' dv8paj8r]s ou§' exovoa (ppovrjfjia Kal 
fxeyeOos iortv. dXXd 8ok€l rots ttoXXols ro rapa- 
KriKov avrov TTpaKriKov koX ro dneiXr^riKov ev- 
dapcres elvai Kal ro drreiOe? loxvpov k'vioi 8e Kal 
rrjv ajfjborrjra pueyaXovpyiav Kal ro 8vo7rapairrjrov 
evroviav Kal paaoTroviqpiav ro 8vokoXov ovk 6p9a>s 
riOevrai' rd yap epya Kal rd klvtj pcara Kai rd 

1 yevofxevr)] yivofJLevr] most MSS. 

2 avaStSajcri] avaheiKWOi most MSS. 

3 7rcuSia /zeAei] 77-atSta Kal ficXei Madvig. 

4 oKibva/jievas . . . opyas G. Hermann and Bergk : cr/aS- 
vafJLevrjS . . . opyrjs. 

5 fiaipvXaKav y\u>ooav 7T€(j)vXaxdai G. Hermann : 7T€<j)vXdx0ai 
yXwooav fiaipvXaKav (or fiaipvXaKTav). 

114 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 456 

just as it is a good thing in a fever, so it is an even 
better thing in anger, to keep the tongue soft and 
smooth. For if the tongue of men who are sick of a 
fever is in an unnatural state, it is a bad symptom, 
but not the cause of their malady ; but when the 
tongue of angry men becomes rough and foul and 
breaks out in unseemly speeches, it brings forth 
insolence which creates irremediable enmity and 
argues a festering malevolence within. For unmixed 
wine produces nothing so intemperate and odious as 
anger does : words flown with wine go well with 
laughter and sport, but those which spring from anger 
are mixed with gall ; and whereas the man who keeps 
silent at a drinking-bout is disagreeable and irksome 
to the company, there is nothing more dignified, if 
one is angry, than holding one's peace, as Sappho a 
advises : 

When anger swells within the breast, 
Restrain the idly barking tongue. 

8. But it is not these considerations only that 
constant watching of those who are in the grip of 
anger furnishes us, but also an understanding of 
the general nature of ill temper — that it is not well- 
bred, nor manly, nor possessing any quality of pride 
or greatness. Yet most people think its turbulence 
to be activity, its blustering to be confident bold- 
ness, its obstinacy force of character ; and some 
claim that even its cruelty is magnificence in action 
and its implacability firmness in resolution and its 
moroseness hatred of evil, b but they are wrong in this. 

° Frag. 27 ed. Bergk, 126 ed. Diehl, 137 ed. Edmonds ; 
it is unlikely that Plutarch wrote the Aeolic accents which 
are here restored. 

b Cf. 462 e, 482 c, infra. 

115 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

oyy][iaTCi jjbLKporrjra TroXXrjv /cat doOeveuav Karrj- 
457 yopely ov 1 jjlovov ev ois 7ratSapta GTrapdrrovcn /cat 
irpos yvvata hiairiK paivovT at /cat /cum? /cat irnrovs 
/cat rjpuovovs otovtai 8elv KoXd^etv, cos Kttjglc^oov o 
TrayKpaTiaoTr)s avrtAa/crtaat t^v tj/jllovov dtjicov, 
dAAa /cat 77€pt Ta? TvpavviKas jxiaL^ovias too TTLKpoo 
to puKpoifjvxov avTtov /cat ra) SpdovTt to tt€7tov66s 
evopoofxevov eot/ce toZs SrjypLaoi toov iprreTcov, otolv 
SiOLKarj /cat nepicoSwa yevrjTat, ttjv (frXeypbovrjv 
(XTrepeiSofxevajv o<f>ohpdv 2 rot? XeXvTrrjKooiv. oos yap 
ot'S^/za /JieydArjs egtIv ev crap/ct 7rXr]yrjs Trddos, 
ovtojs ev rat? fJLaXaKooTaTats ifjvxals rj 7rpos to 
B XvTrrjoai evSocrcs eK(f)epei pbei^ova Ovfiov and /xet- 
t,ovos dudeveias* Sto /cat yu^at/ces" dvSpoov opyiXoo- 
T€pat, /cat voaowre? vyiaivovTOJV /cat yepovTes 
aKpLat^ovTCov /cat KaKcos irpaTTOVTes evTVxovvTajv . 
opyiXooTaTos yap 6 (frtXdpyvpos irpos tov oiKovopiov, 
6 yaoTpipLapyos irpos tov oiJjottoiov, 6 tprjXoTViros 
irpos to yvvaiov, 6 Kev68o£os KaKoos aKovoas' 

XaX€7TO)TaTOL S' 

dyav <j>iXoTitiiav 

fJLVOOfieVOL iv TToXUoOlV* dv8p€S' 

Iot&ctlv 4 dXyos epb(j>aves 

/cara IItVSapoi>. ovtojs e/c tov Xvirovfievov tyjs & 

ipv)(rjs /cat rrdoxovTos avtcrrarat /zaAtara St' dode- 

C yetav 6 dvpLos, ou^t vevpois, cog tls elire, tt)s i/jvxfjs 

1 ou] ou yap Reiske. 

2 cr<£o8/>av] o<j)68pa most mss. : or^oSp' cV Reiske. 

3 ttoXUoolv Boeckh : ttoAcctiv. 

* iardoiv] rj otoloiv most mss. : toraoav Schneidewin. 

5 /xaAtcjTa before rrjg deleted by W.C.H. 

116 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 456-457 

For the actions and the motions and the whole de- 
meanour of angry persons declare their utter littleness 
and weakness, not only when they rend little children 
and rage bitterly against women and think it proper 
to punish dogs and horses and mules, as Ctesiphon 
the pancratiast did, who thought it right to kick back 
at his mule ; but also in the butcheries that tyrants 
perpetrate, their meanness of soul is apparent in 
their cruelty and their perverted state in their action, 
and is like the bites of vipers, which, when thoroughly 
inflamed with rage and pain, eject their excessive 
fiery passion upon those who have hurt them. For 
just as with the flesh a swelling results from a great 
blow, so with the weakest souls the inclination to 
inflict a hurt produces a flaring up of temper as great 
as the soul's infirmity is great. That is also the 
reason why women are more prone to anger than 
men, and sick persons than healthy, and old men than 
men in their prime, and the unfortunate than the 
prosperous. Most prone to anger, for instance, are 
the miser with his steward, the glutton with his cook, 
the jealous man with his wife, the conceited man when 
he has been maligned ; but worst of all are 

Men who court too eagerly 
Ambition in the towns : 
Manifest is the pain they bring, 

as Pindar b has it. In like manner from the pain and 
suffering of the soul, caused generally by weakness, 
there arises the outburst of passion c which is not, as 

° The cruel tyrant, like the viper, indulges in rages as a 
sort of defence-reaction, a proof of inherent weakness. 

6 Frag. 210 ed. Bergk, 229 ed. Boeckh ; p. 609 ed. Sandys. 
c Cf. Life of Coriolanus, xv. (220 e). 

VOL. VI E 117 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(457) £olkcx)s, dXX eiriTapLaoi /cat orrdopiaoiv iv rats' 
a\xvvriKols oppuais ocjiooporepov i^avLorapLevrjs. 

9- Ta [lev ovv c/yavXa TrapaoeLypLara rr]v deav ovk 
zvyapiv aAA' dvayKaiav piovov et^e* tovs 8* r)7TLa>s 
/cat Aetaj? opaXovvras opyals /caAAtcrra piev olkov- 
opLara KaXXioTCL Se dedpuara iroiovpLevos, ap^o^tat 
KOLTacfapoveiv rwv Xeyovrajv 

avop rjoLK7]cras' avop 1 are/creov root ; 

KCU 

fiaZve Aaf, irtl rpax^Xov /Salve, /cat 77€'Aa x® 0Vl > 

/cat TaAAa irapo^vvrtKa, St' cov eVtot roV dvpbov e/c 
tt]? yui/at/ccovtrtSos' ets t^v avSpcovtTtv ovk ev 
D pLeroiKL^ovaiv. rj yap 2 dvSpela /cara TaAAa r^ 
SiKaLoovvr) GvpL(f>epopi€vrj rrepl pi6v7]s /xot 80/cet 
Sta/xa^ea^at tt}? TTpaonqros, ojs avrff ptaXXov irpoo- 
rjKovorjs. dv6pa)7TO)v piev yap Kparrjaai /cat ^€t- 
yooat fieXriovajv V7rrjp^€, to 8' ev rfj* faxf) (JT V (jaL 
Kara dvpcov rponaiov (a) ^aA€77ov eu>at fta^e- 
cr#at 5 <$>r\o\v 'Hpa/cAetTOS** " o rt yap aV 0eA?7, 
iffV)(fjs djvelrai ") /zeyaA^s: ecxrt /cat vlktjtlktjs 

1 That is, aVSpa, not dvopi. 
2 yap Reiske, confirmed by mss. : [ikv, 
3 aurij Capps : avrfj. 
4 777] omitted in most mss. 
5 fidx^Gdau] biafidx^adaL most mss. 

Plato, Republic, 411 b ; contrast Moralia, 449 f, supra. 
Plutarch seems to be unwilling to name Plato when he is 
forced to contradict him. But see Pohlenz, Hermes, xxxi. 
332 (on Philodemus, De Ira, xxxi. 24). 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 912, ades. 382. 

118 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 457 

someone a has said, like "sinews of the soul," but 
like the strainings and convulsions of the soul when 
it is stirred too vehemently in its impulse to defend 
itself. 

9. These base examples, to be sure, were not 
pleasant to observe, but merely unavoidable ; but in 
discussing those who deal with transports of rage in a 
mild and gentle way I offer instances which are very 
beautiful both to hear and to witness, and I begin 
with a word of scorn for those who say, 

It was a man you wronged : should a man bear this ? b 

and 

Trample him underfoot, tread on his neck, 
And bring him to the ground ! c 

and other provocative expressions, by using which 
some err in transferring anger from the women's 
quarters to the men's. For although courage gets 
along well with justice in all other respects, yet, 
as it seems to me, it fights for the possession of 
gentleness alone, as belonging rather to itself. But 
although cases do occur in which even baser men gain 
the mastery over their betters, yet to erect in the 
soul a trophy of victory over anger (which Hera- 
cleitus d says it is difficult to contend against : " for 
whatever it wishes, it buys at the price of the soul ") 
is proof of a great and victorious strength which 

c Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec, iii. p. 694 ; Diehl, Anthologia 
Lyrica, i. p. 265 ; Edmonds, Elegy and Iambus, ii. p. 304 : 
an anonymous tetrameter attributed by Meineke to Archi- 
lochus. 

d Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 ', i. p. 1 70, Frag. 85 ; ef. 
Life of Coriolanus, xxii. (224 c), and Moralia, 755 d. But 
Heracleitus's meaning is probably that it is Love, not Anger, 
which it is difficult to contend against. 

119 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(457) ig)(vos 3 coarrep vevpa koI tovovs dXrjOws irrl ra 
Trddrj rag Kpiaeis exovorjs. 

Ato kcll ovvdyav del TTeipojjjiaL koll dvayivcooKeiv 
ov ravra 8rj fiovov 1 rd tcov (f)iXoo6cf)Cov, ovs cbaoi 
X°^] v ovk ex^LV ol vovv ovk 2 exovres y aAAa jjl&AXov 
E ra roov fiaoiXeoov kcu rvpavvtov olov 'Avriyovov 
to Trpos tovs orparicoras tovs 3 rrapd tt]V GKiqvrjV 
Xoihopovvras avrov obs ovk olkovovtol' ttjv yap 4, 
fiaKT-qpiav VTrofiaXdw e£oo, " nairnl" etrrev, " ov 
TTOppcorcpcx) ttol rpaTTOfievoi KdKQJs ipeffi rjfias ; " 
ApKaSltovos §e rod 'A^acou rov <&lXl7T7tov del 
kclkws Xeyovros kcll cpevyeiv Trapatvovvros 

elaoKe tovs d(f)LKrjraL ot ovk loaoi ^lXlttttov 

ecra ttcos iv MaKeSovua cfravevros, toovro helv ol 
<f>iXoi KoXdaou ko1 jjltj TrepuSeiv 6 8e QLXnnros 
evrvxoov avrcp <j>iXavd pttmtos kcli £evca kcll Stopa 
TrefjLifjas eKeXevaev varepov nvvOdveoQai rivas Xo- 
F yovs dirayyeXXoi npos tovs "EAA^vas" tbs Se rravres 
ifxaprvpovv iuaiveT^v avrov yeyovevai rov dvSpa 
OavfidoLOV, " iyth tolvvv," ecfyr), " fSeXritov larpos 

V/JLOOV." iv 'OXvpLTTlOlS §€ /JAaCT^T^tW 7T€pl CLVTOV 

yevojJLevrjs kcll tlvcjov Xeyovroov cos olfJLoo^ai rrpoorjKei 
tovs "EXXrjvas Sri ev rrdoxovres vtto rod QiXLttttov 

1 jjlovov] nova most mss. 

2 ovk added by Reiske. 

3 tovs] most mss. have on, tovs. 
4 yap] omitted in some mss. 

a Perhaps a correction (as 457 c, supra) of Plato, Republic, 
411 b (c/. also Moralia, 449 f, supra). 
120 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 457 

possesses against the passions the weapons of its 
judgements, as in very truth its nerves and sinews. a 
For this reason I always strive to collect and 
to peruse, not only these sayings and deeds of the 
philosophers, who are said by fools to have no bile, b 
but even more those of kings and despots. There is, 
for instance, the remark of Antigonus c to his soldiers 
who were reviling him near his tent in the belief that 
he could not hear them : he merely thrust out his 
staff and cried, " Good heavens ! will you not go 
somewhere farther off to abuse me ? " And there is 
the case of Arcadion d the Achaean who was always 
railing against Philip and advising flight 

Until one comes to men who know not Philip e ; 
when Arcadion later visited Macedonia on some 
chance or other, Philip's friends thought that he 
should not be let off but punished. Yet Philip, when 
he met him, treated him kindly and sent him friendly 
presents and gifts ; and later bade his friends inquire 
how Arcadion now spoke of him to the Greeks. 
When all testified that the fellow had become a 
wonderful eulogist of the king, Philip said, " Then I 
am a better physician than you." So in Olympiad 
when Philip was being defamed, and some persons 
said that the Greeks should smart for it since they 
spoke evil of Philip though they were being well 

b That is, our " no guts " ; cf. Archilochus, Frag. 131, 
Bergk, and Capps's note on Menander, Perikeiromene, 259. 

c Cf. Moralia, 182 c ; Seneca, Be Ira, iii. 22. 2. 

d Cf Athenaeus, vi. 249 c-d : Arcadion, while in flight 
from Macedonia, accidentally met Philip who asked him 
how long he was going to stay in exile. This is Arcadion's 
reply. 

* A parody of Homer, Od., xi. 122 ; xxiii. 269. 

f Cf. Moralia, 143 f ; 179 a with Nachstadt's note ad loc. 

121 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

kglkcos avrov Xey overt, " tlovv," e'^77, " ttoltjoovolv , 
av kclklos Tcauyoooiv ; " 

KaAa Se /cat Yleiaiarpdrov ret 7rpos QpaovfiovXov 
458 /cat Yiopoivva tol Trpos Movklov /cat Maya ra Trpos 
OtA^/xova* 8if]fjLOGLa yap vtt* clvtov KcofjLcpSrjdels iv 
6 ear pep' 

a. irapa tov fSaaiXecos ypa/x/xa#' 77/cet gol, Maya. 
B. Maya /ca/coSat/zoi>, ypa/xtxar' ovk emcrac/at • 

Xaficbv vtto xeifioovos els Tlapairoviov e£evex9evTa 3 
arparicorrjv 1 p,ev eKeXevoe yvfivfj /za^atpa Biyelv 
tov rpa)(ijXov jjlovov etra kogjjllcos dTreXOelv dcrrpa- 
yaAous Se /cat oq^alpav cos naioapLco vovv ovk eypvri 
7Tpoo7reiJLifjas d(j)rJKe. TlroXepLalos Se ypapLpLanKov 
els dfiadiav eTTLGKcoTTTCOv rjpebrrjoe tls 6 rod II^Ae'aJS 
narrjp rjv /ca/cetvos 1 , " aV av rrporepov eLTrrjs," ecfrr), 
B " ris 6 tov Adyov "' to Se GKcopLpLa Trjs hvoyeveias 
7]7rT€TO tov /3acrtAe'a>s', /cat 7rdvT€s rjyavaKTrjcrav cos 

OVK €7TLT7jS€LOV OV /Cat CLKCLLpOV 2 ' KOL 6 UToXe/JLOLLOS, 

il t \ \ I / >> it I 11 t >o \ \ 

et firj to <pep€LV, e<p7, crKCOTTTo/JLevov, ovoe to 

QKLOTTTe.LV jSaCTtAt/CoV €GTLV." 'AXe^dvSp OS Se 77t- 

KpoTepos clvtov yeyovev ev z tols nepl KaAAtafleV^ 

/cat KAetrov. fj /cat Ylcopos dXovs rrapeKaXeL 

XpTJcracrQoLL /SaatAt/ccos' avTtp* /cat nvOojAevov, " /jltj 

tl rrXeov; " " £ v too /3a(7tAt/ca>9/ , e^ 7 }* " trdvT 

1 oTpcLTicoT-qv Stegmann, confirmed by mss. : orparaoTT]. 

2 ov kcll aKOLipov E. Schwartz : ovra ^atpetv (or <f>ep€tv). 

3 yeyovev ev] yiyove Xylander and Kronenberg. 

a Cf. Moralia, 189 c, and Nachstadt ad loc. 

b Ibid. 305 f ; Life of Publicola, xvii. (106 a-d) with 
Lindskog's note. 

c Cf. 449 f, supra. 

d Kock, Com. Att. Frag., ii. p. 522, Frag. 144. 

e Officially the father of Ptolemy I, who, however, was 
122 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 457-458 

treated by him, Philip said, " What will they do, 
then, if they are badly treated ? " 

Likewise admirable was the behaviour of Peisis- 
tratus a to Thrasybulus, and of Porsenna b to Mucius, 
and of Magas c to Philemon. For when Magas had 
been publicly ridiculed by Philemon in a comedy at 
the theatre : 

a. For you some letters, Magas, from the king. 

b. Unhappy Magas, who no letters know ! d 

Magas later captured Philemon, who had been cast 
ashore by a storm at Paraetonium, and ordered a 
soldier merely to touch Philemon on the neck with 
a naked sword and then depart courteously ; and 
Magas sent dice and a ball to Philemon, as to a 
senseless child, and sent him on his way. So also 
Ptolemy, when he was jeering at a pedant for his 
ignorance, asked him who was Peleus' father ; and 
the pedant replied, " I shall tell you if you will first 
tell me who was the father of Lagus." e This was a 
jest at the dubious birth of the king, and everyone 
was indignant at its improper and inopportune 
character ; but Ptolemy said, " If it is not the part 
of a king to take a jest, neither is it to make one." 
But Alexander had behaved more harshly than was 
his custom toward Callisthenes and Cleitus/ And 
so Porus, 5 ' when he was taken captive, requested 
Alexander to treat him " like a king." When 
Alexander asked, " Is there nothing more ? " "In 
the words ' like a king,' " replied Porus, " there is 

commonly thought to have been the bastard son of Philip 
of Macedon. 

f Cf Life of Alexander, lv. (696 d-e) ; 449 e, supra; 
Seneca, De Ira, iii. 17. 1. 

9 Cf. Moralia, 181 e, 332 e ; Life of Alexander, lx. (699 c), 
and Ziegler's note. 

123 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(458) eveort." Sto /cat tcov detov rov jSacrtAe'a M MetAt- 
X l ov y " 'AOrjvcuoL Se " Mat ju,d kttjv," ot/xat, /caAoucrr 
C to Se /coAacrrt/cov ipwvwSes /cat SoupiovLKov , ov 
Oetov ouS' oAu/x77tov. 

10. "£lcnT€p OVV €TTL TOV <S)l\l7T7TOV TL? €L7T€ KCLTO.- 

GKoajjavros "OXvvdov, " aAA' ouac av dvot/ctcrat 1 ye 

77oAtV €K€LVOS SvVCLLTO TrjAlKCLVTrjV ," OVTCOS €OTLV 
€LTT€LV TTpOS TOV OvjJLOV, " dvCLTpeifjai fJL€V SvVCLOOLL KCLI 

Sta^detpaL /cat /caTa/3aAetv, dvaarrjaat Se /cat o~a>o*at 
/cat <f)€LGaoQai /cat Kapreprjaai TrpaorrjTOS eort /cat 
GvyyvcupLrjs /cat /xer pioiraO 'etas, /cat Ka/ztAAot> /cat 
Mere'AAou /cat 'A/HcrretSot; /cat Soj/codVous" to S' 
€jA<f)vvai /cat Sa/cetv fivp/JLrjKcoSes /cat /x^;a)7^0JSes'. ,, 
ou /x^v dAAd /cat 77^009 dpuvvav oKorrcbv rov St' opyrjs 
D rporrov anpaKTOv evptoKOJ ra TToWd, afJLa 2 S^yuacrt 
^;etAa>v /cat TTpiaeatv SSovtcov /cat Kevals imSpopLCUs 
/cat f£\aa<fyr)fit<us drreiAds dvoTyrous' e^ouaat? kcltclv- 
aAiaKOfJLevov, eW* (Lanep eV Tot? Spopuois rd 77atSta 
tw ^ Kparelv eavTtov 7TpoKara7TL7TTOvra rov re- 
Aovs i(f>* o G7T€v8ei yeAotojs". o#ev ou <^auAa>9 6 
f Po'Sto9 77po9 VTrrjperrjv rod e Pa>jU,ata>v arparr]yov 
j8oa)vTa /cat dpaovv6p,€vov, " ov /xe'Aet /xot Tt cru 

1 avoiKioai Reiske : oiKtacu. 

2 ajLta stands before okott&v in the mss. ; transferred here 
by Capps (olvclokottwv E. Schwartz). 

a But " Gentle " when propitiated. See Hesychius and 
Roscher, Lexicon d. gr. u. rom. Mythologies s.v. ; and Hewitt, 
Harvard Stud, Class. Phil., xix. (1908), 75-78. 

124 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 4.58 

everything." For this reason also they call the king 
of the gods Meilichios, or the Gentle One, while the 
Athenians, I believe, call him Maimactes, or the 
Boisterous a ; but punishment is the work of the 
Furies and spirits, not of the high gods and Olym- 
pian deities. 

10. Just as, then, someone said of Philip b when 
he had razed Olynthus to the ground, " But he could 
not possibly repeople a city so large," so one may 
address Anger and say, " You are able to overturn 
and destroy and throw dow r n, but to raise up and pre- 
serve and spare and forbear is the work of mildness 
and forgiveness and moderation in passion, the work 
of a Camillus or a Metellus G or an Aristeides or a 
Socrates ; but to attach oneself to the wound and to 
sting is the part of an ant or a horse-fly." d As I 
study, however, anger's method of defending itself, I 
find it for the most part ineffectual, since it spends 
itself in biting the lips e and gnashing the teeth, 
in vain attacks and railings coupled with senseless 
threats, and eventually resembles children ' running 
races, who, through lack of self-control, fall down 
ridiculously before they reach the goal toward which 
they are hastening. Therefore there was point in 
what the Rhodian said to the Roman general's 
servant who was shouting and talking insolently : 
" Whatj/ow say," said the Rhodian, " matters nothing 

b Cf. Moralia, 40 e, 215 b. For the thought see Pindar, 
Pythian Odes, iv. 484. 

c Plutarch probably means Q. Caecilius Metellus Mace- 
donicus ; cf. Moralia, 202 a. 

d Cf. Seneca, De Ira, ii. 34, 1 ; cf. Socrates' comparison 
of himself to a gad-fly in Apology, 30 e. 

e Cf. Seneca, De Ira, i. 19. 2-3. 

f Cf. 447 a, supra. 
vol. vi E2 125 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(458) Xeyeis dXXd ri rrjvog otyfj." kclI tov Neo7TToAe/xop 
6 Ho(f)OK\fjs /cat tov EvpvrrvXov orrXioas 

a/<:o/x77 51 aXoi$6prjTa y 

tpTJOLV, 

ipprj^drrjv es kvkXol 2 ^aA/ceouv ottXojv. 

Tov jjl€V yap (jiSrjpov evioi tcov fiapfidpaiv tf>ap- 
E pbdaoovoiv, 7] S' dvopeia ^oAt^s* °v Seirar fiefiaTTTai 
yap vrro rod Xoyov to Se OvpuKov kolI (jlclvikov 
evTreptOpavoTov ioTi kolI oaOpov. dcfxupovoi yovv 
avXois tov Qvfiov ol Aa KeSatpiov to t tcov p,ayppuevcov y 
Kal Mouaat? TTpo rroXepiov Ovovolv ottcos 6 Xoyos 
ifipLevr}' Kal Tpeijjdfievoi tovs rroXepiiovs ov Scco- 
kovolv, dXX dvaKaXovvTai tov dvfiov, coorrep ra 
GvpL{JL€Tpa tcov iy^eipihicov evavaKopuoTOV ovTa Kal 
pdoiov, opyr] Se pivpiovs rrpoaveXXe ttjs dpbvvrjs, cbs 
YLvpov Kal YleXorrihav tov QrjfiaZov. 'AyaOoKXfjs 

Se TTpaOJS €(f)€p€ XoihopOVpieVOS V7TO TCOV TToXlOpKOV- 

puevcov Kal tlvos zIttovtos, " Kepa/zeu, rroOev drro- 

F 8c6cj€LS toZs £4vois tov puo96v; " irnyeXdoaSy 

atKa TavTav i£eXco." Kal tov 'AvTtyovov 3 drro 

1 aKO[jL7T y Badham, who would also add re at the end of the 
line : iKoynraG*. 

2 kvk Aa] GKvXa Pearson. 

3 tov 'Avriyovov] rov avrov W.C.H. 



a Frag. 210. 8, 9, ed. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 152 n°., where see 
he careful discussion of the relation of this passage to Ox. 
Pap., ix. 1175; Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , Sophocles, 
Frag. 768. 

6 The poison of anger. 

c Cf. Moralia, 238 b, with Nachstadt ad loc. 

d Cf. Pausanias, iv. 8. 11. 
126 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 458 

to me, but what your master doesn't say." And 
Sophocles, a when he has armed Neoptolemus and 
Eurypylus, says 

Without a vaunt, without reviling, they 
Have rushed within the ring of brazen arms. 

For although there are barbarians who poison their 
steel, true bravery has no need of bitter gall, & for it 
has been dipped in reason ; but rage and fury are 
rotten and easily broken. At any rate the Spartans c 
use the playing of pipes to remove from their fighting 
men the spirit of anger, and they sacrifice to the 
Muses before battle in order that reason may 
remain constant within them ; and when they have 
routed the enemy, they do not pursue/* but sound 
the recall to their high spirits, which, like small 
daggers, e are manageable and can be easily with- 
drawn. Yet wrath has slain thousands before its re- 
venge was accomplished, as, for instance, Cyrus f and 
Pelopidas the Theban.* 7 But Agathocles h endured 
with mildness the revilings of those he was besieging, 
and when one of them cried out, " Potter, how will 
you get pay for your mercenaries ? ", Agathocles 
laughed and said, " If I take this town." And there 
is the case of Antigonus,* who, when some men on the 

e Cf Seneca, Be Ira, ii. 35. 1 : tale ira telum est : vix 
retrahitur. 

f Probably Cyrus the Younger, cf Xenophon, Anabasis, 
i. 8. 26-27 ; but Cyrus the Great may be meant, cf Seneca, 
De Ira, iii. 21, which is not, however, quite in point ; nor is 
Herodotus, i. 205 ff. 

Cf Life of Pelopidas, xxxii. (296 a). 

h Cf Moralia, 176 e ; Diodorus, xx. 63. Agathocles was 
the son of a potter. 

* The One-eyed ; cf Seneca, De Ira, iii. 22. 4-5 ; related 
of Agathocles in Moralia, 176 e-f. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TOV Tei^OVS TLV€S €LS OLjJLOp<f)LaV €GKO)TTTOV 6 Se 

Trpos clvtovs, '• koL [xrjv iSoKovv (EVTrpoacoTTOs elvaiJ 

AafidjV 8e TTjV TToXiV €7TLTTpaOK€ TOVS OKCOTTTOVTCLS , 

j.iapTvpd{i€Vos on rrpos tovs heanoras e£ci top 
Xoyov, av tt&Xiv avrov XocSopaxjiv. 

'Optb Se koX Gvprjyopovs 1 G(j)aXXopL<=vovs vtt opyrjs 
fjceydXa koI prjTopas. * ApiGTOTeXrjs 8' laropel 
459 Harvpov tov HapLiov 2 tovs (f)lXovs iu^pd^ac tol wra 
Kiqpa) Slktjv exovrog, ottojs fir) Gvyx^J] to 7rpdypia 
Sta Ovptov vtto rcov ixOpcop XoiSopovfievos. avToijs 
8' rjpL&s ov rroXXaKis €K(/)€vy€L to KoX&vai ttA^/x- 
fieXijcravra SovXov; 3 aTroSiS paGKovGL yap ra? 
aTretXas Kal tovs Xoyovs SetGCLVTes. orrep ovv at 
TLrdai Trpos tol Traioia XeyovGi, " pbrj kXcll€ Kal 
Xtfifjrj," tovto Trpos top Ovfiov ovk dxp^crTOJS XeK- 
T€ov y ' pur) GTTevSe firjSe fioa (jltjS' eTreiyov, /ecu 
fxaXXov a OeXeis yevrjGCTai Kal fieXTiop." Kal yap 
7rcu3a TTarrjp Ioojv eutx^povvTa tl Gihrjpicp SteXelv 
r) TefMEiv* avTos Xaficbv to Gihrjpiov €TTOLr)G€' Kai 
tov Ovpiov tt)v TLjjLO)piav TrapeXo^iepos 6 Xoyos 5 
B avTos aG(f)aXa)s Kal dfiXafiajs Kal dxfceXlpLOJs e/co- 
Aacre tov cl^lop oi>x iavTov ojGTrep 6 Ov/jlos dvT 

€K€LVOV TToXXaKLS. 

11. UdvTOJv Se tcov Tradcov iOiGfjiov Seopievajv, 
olov Sapbd^ovTOs Kal KaraOXovvTOS aGKrjG€L to 
dXoyov Kal ovGireiOes, ov Trpos dXXo pi&XXov €gtlv 

1 ovvjjyopovs Kaltwasser : Kwrjyovs. 

2 rod ttafiLov] omitted by all mss. except G, but found in 
Stobaeus also. 

3 7r\riy.}x€Xrjoavras SovXovs Reiske. 

4 re/jL^lv] iT€pcT€fj,€LV some mss. 

5 6 Xoyos added by Amyot, confirmed by 6 Xoyioyios in G. 
128 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 458-459 

wall of a town jeered at him because of his deformity, 
said to them, " Why, I thought my face was hand- 
some ! " But when he took the town he sold as slaves 
those who jeered at him, protesting that he would 
have speech with their masters if they reviled him 
again. 

I observe also that both advocates and orators 
commit serious mistakes because of anger ; and 
Aristotle a relates that the friends of Satyrus the 
Samian, when he was to plead, stopped up his ears 
with wax, that he might not spoil his case through 
temper at the insults of his enemies. And as for 
ourselves, does it not happen often that the punish- 
ment of a delinquent slave eludes our power ? For 
slaves are made afraid by threatening words and run 
away. 6 The words, therefore, which nurses use with 
children, " Stop crying and you shall have it ! " may, 
not without benefit, be applied to temper : " Stop 
hurrying and shouting and making haste, and you 
shall have what you want better and more easily ! " 
For if a father sees his son trying to cut something 
in two or to make a notch in it with a knife, he takes 
the knife himself and does it ; so likewise, if reason 
takes upon itself the punishment which temper would 
inflict, it chastises the person who deserves it safely 
and harmlessly and for that person's good, and does 
not, as temper often does, punish itself instead. 

1 1 . But however true it is that all the passions have 
need of a process of habituation, which tames as it 
were and subdues by rigorous training the irrational 
and obstinate element of the soul, there is no passion 

a Problemata, iii. 27 (875 a 34 ff.) ; cited by Stobaeus, iii. 
p. 551 ed. Hense. b Cf. Seneca, Be Ira, iii. 5. 4. 

c Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, v. 3. 7. 

129 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(459) eyyvfAvdaaadoLL tols oIkztous rj 77/309 rov 8vp,6v. 
ovre yap (f)96vos ovre <j)6fios ovre (jtiXoripbia rig 
eyyiverai irpos avrovs' opyal 8e owe^e?? 7roAAa 
TToiovoai 7rpoorKpovfJLara Kal a(f)dXfJbara Sta rrjv 
e^ovaiav tboirep iv oXiaOrjpaj -^copico, fjcrjoevos iv- 
iorapievov paqhe kojXvovtos, vrrocfyepovatv. 1 ov yap 
koTiv avapLaprrjTOV iv TrdOet to dvvTrevOvvov /cara- 
oyeiv, pbTj rroXXfj 2 rrjv i^ovoiav ipLTreptXa^ovra 
C TrpaorrjTL pbrjSe TroAAa? V7TopL€ivavra (frajvds yvvaiKos 
Kal (fyiXajv iy/<aXovvTU)v drovlav Kal paOvpbtav. ols 
pLaXiara 7Tapa)£vv6p,r)v Kal avros irrl tovs oiKeras 
w$ rep parj KoXd^eud ai hia<f)deipopievovs . dipe p,ev- 
tol ovvelSov on rrpcorov puev €K€lvovs ave^iKaKia 
X^Lpovas TTOielv fieXnov ioriv rj iriKpiq Kal dvpbo) 
8iaarpe(j>€LV iavrov els irepcov iiravopdojoiv eVetra 
noXXovs opcov avra) rep pirj KoXd^eodat iroXXaKLs 
alSovpLevovs KaKovs elvai Kal pLerafioXfjs dpxrjv rrjv 
avyyvu)pLT)v pbdXXov rj rrjv TipLOjpLav XapLJSdvovras , 
Kal vrj Aia SovXevovras eripois airo vev pharos 
D OLOJTrff npoOvpLorepov rj /xera irXiqycbv Kal arty- 
pLaraiv irepots, iireiOopaqv rjyepLOVLKwrepov etvat rod 
Ovpiov rov Xoyio[iov . ov yap, cus* 6 7roLr)Trjs etirev, 

iva yap oeos, evua Kai cuoeos" 

dXXd rovvavriov alhovpuivois 6 ooj^povi^ojv iyytve- 

1 V7TO(f)€pOUGLV Reiske : VTTofiepOVGOLl. 

2 TToXXfj] 7ToXXrjv most MSS. 
8 /cal after cna)7rfj deleted by E. Schwartz after Hartmann. 

° Homer), Cypria, Frag. 20 ed. Kinkel ; cf. Plutarch, 
130 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 459 

that we can better learn to control by practising on 
servants than temper. For no envy or fear or rivalry 
enters into our relations with them, but frequent 
fits of anger bring about many conflicts and errors, 
and because of the absolute power we possess, there 
being no one to oppose or prevent us, these cause us 
to slide and fall, since we are, as it were, on slippery 
ground. For it is impossible that irresponsible power 
under the influence of passion should be free from 
error, unless he who wields this power shall encom- 
pass it with a bulwark of gentleness, and shall hold 
out against many pleas of wife and friends, all 
charging him with laxity and easy-going ways. By 
such charges I myself used to be very greatly ex- 
asperated against my slaves, in the conviction that 
they were being ruined by not being punished. At 
long last, however, though late it was, I came to 
perceive that, in the first place, it is better to make 
them worse by forbearance than by harshness and 
anger to pervert my own self for the correction of 
the others. In the second place, when I observed 
that many, just because they were not being pun- 
ished, were often ashamed to be bad, and made 
pardon, rather than correction, the starting-point 
of reformation, and, I swear, performed their duties 
more zealously for the kind of master who gave 
orders silently with a nod than for the others who 
used blows and branding-irons, I began to be con- 
vinced that reason is more fit than anger to govern. 
For it is not as the Poet a has said, 

Where fear is, there is also reverence ; 
but, on the contrary, in those who revere there is 
Life of CUomenes, ix. (xxx.) (808 e) ; Plato, Euthyphro, 

U A-B. 

131 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(459) rat <f)6fios, r) Se owe^s TrArjyrj /cat aVapour^To? 
ov jjierdvoiav ipLrrotel rod KdKovpyelv dAAd rod 
Aavddveiv npovoiav fi&AAov. rpirov del pLvrjjjLovevcov 
/cat 8iavoovpLevos irpos ifiavrov, cos ovd' 6 rotjevetv 
rjfJL&s StSa^a? iKcoAvoe 1 fldAAetv dAAd pirj Sta/xaprd- 

V€LV } OVT€ Tip KoAd^tlV ifJL7To8(l>V €(JTOU TO 8l8doK€LV 

evKaipcos tovto 7TOLelv /cat fjL€TpLOOs /cat <l)(f>eAipbOJS 
/cat TrpenovToys, TTeLpcbfiai rrjv opyfjv dcfxxupelv 
E fxdAiora rep /jltj irapaipelodai rcov /coAa£o/zeVa>v rrjv 
St/catoAoytav dAA' dhcovew. o re yap xpovos ifi- 
7rot€t to) rrddei SiarpifirjV /cat jxeAArjoiv e/cAuoucrav 
07 re Kpiais tvpLoKti /cat rpoirov TTpenovra /cat 
fxiyedos appLorrov KoAdaecos' en 8' ou^ viroAeinzrai 

7Tp6(f)aOlS Tip StSoVTt SiKTJV dvTLT€lV€lV TTpOS TTjV 

€7Tav6p9cooLV, dv fJLrj kclt opyfjv dAA' i^eAeyxOelg 
KoAdtpqrai' to t 2 oUayiorov ov irpoozori, <j>aLveodai 
St/catorepa rod heoirorov Adyovra rov olxerrjv. 

"£lG7T€p OVV 6 QcOKLODV /X€T(X TTJV 'AAe^dvSpOV 

reAevrfjv ovk iav Trpoe^avcaraaOai rovs 'Adrjvatovs 
ov8e raxv TTLGTeveiv, " et orfpiepov," einev, " dv8peg 
F 'A^ratot, redvrjKe, /cat avpiov earai /cat et? rpir-qv 
redvrjKcbs " ' ovrcos ot/xat Setv viroftdAAeiv eavrco rov 
07T€v8ovra St' opyfjv eVt r^v TipioopLav, " el arj/xepov 
ovros rj8tKr]K€, /cat avpiov earat /cat et? rpirrjv 

1 e/ccoAucre] eVe'Aeue Madvig. 
2 t'] S' most mss. 

0/. 451 e, supra. 
132 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 459 

engendered the kind of fear that corrects behaviour, 
whereas continual and unmerciful beating produces, 
not repentance for wrongdoing, but rather the far- 
sighted cunning to do wrong without detection. In 
the third place, I always keep in mind and reflect in 
privacy that he who taught us the use of the bow did 
not forbid us to shoot, but only to miss the mark, a and 
that the infliction of punishment will not be hindered 
by our teaching how to inflict it at the right time, 5 with 
moderation, and in a useful and suitable manner ; 
and, remembering these things, I try to get rid of my 
anger, if possible, by not depriving those who are to 
be punished of the right to speak in their defence, but 
by listening to their plea. For both the passage of 
time gives a pause to passion and a delay which dis- 
solves it, and also the judgement discovers a suitable 
manner of punishment and an adequate amount ; 
furthermore, the man who suffers punishment has no 
pretext left for opposing the correction if punishment 
is inflicted, not in anger, but after the accused has 
been proved guilty ; and finally, the most shameful 
thing is avoided — that the slave should seem to be 
making a juster plea than his master. 

And so, just as Phocion c after Alexander's death, 
trying to keep the Athenians from revolting pre- 
maturely or believing the report too quickly, said to 
them, " If, men of Athens, he is dead to-day, he will 
be dead to-morrow also, and the day after " ; in like 
manner, I think, the man who, urged on by anger, is 
in a hurry for vengeance, should suggest to himself, 
11 If this person is guilty of wronging you to-day, he 
will still be guilty to-morrow also, and the day after ; 

b When it is really deserved. 
c Cf. Life of Phocion, xxii. (751 e) ; Moralia, 188 d. 

133 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

tjSlktjkcos' /cat heivov ovhev, el Scocret Slkyjv fipdhiov, 
dAA' et ra^u naOcbv del ^aveirai 1 fir) dSiKcov oirep 
rjhrj ovfAfiefirjKe ^aAAa/a^." ris yap rjpitov ovrco 
Seivos ioriv, ware fjiaoriyovv /cat KoAd^eiv SovXov, 

460 OTL 7T€JJL7TTr)V Tj SeKaTTJV 7jfX€paV 7TpOG€KaVG€ tovi/jov 

i] KarepaAe rrjv rpdrre^av rj ftpdhiov VTrrjKovae; 
/cat (jltjv ravr iarlv e</>' ois evdvs yevo/xevois /cat 
7TpoG(j>drois ovoi raparrdfJieOa /cat niKpcos /cat d- 
7Tapairr]ra)s e^ofjiev. d>s yap hi o/xt^A?]? rd aa^piara, 
Kal hi opyrjs rd rr pay piara fiei^ova <f>aiverai. 

Aid Set Ta%v GVfJifJivrjiJioveveiv rcov dfioiajv, /cat 
rod rrdOovs e£a)0€V ovras 2 dvviroTTTWs, dv Kadapco 
rep XoyiGfia) /cat Kadeardjri (^aivrjrai pioxdrjpov, 
i7Tiarpa(f)rjvai /cat fir) rrpo iaOai rore fjirjh' dcfrelvai 
rr)v KoAacriv, coairep gitiov 3 dvopeKrovs yeyovoras . 
ovhev yap ovrojs alriov ecrri rov irapovarjs opyrjs 
B KoAdl^eiv, d)$ to TTavaafievrjs fir) KoAdi^eiv aAA 
eKAeAvadai, /cat ravrov ij^ttovB ivai rols dpyoig 
KcumrjAdrais , 01 yaArjvqs opfiovaiv* 1 etVa Kivhvvev- 
ovaiv dvificp rrAeovres* /cat yap r) fie is rod Aoyi- 
afiov KareyvajKores droviav /cat fiaXaKiav eV rep 
KoAd^eiv, OTrevhofiev rrapovri ra> 9vfia> Kaddrrep 
uvevfiari TrapafioXajs . rpocf)fj fiev yap o ireivcov 
Kara <f>voiv xP r ) TOLl > Tifiojpia S' 5 6 fir) Treivwv firjhe 
Siifjtbv avrrjs, ff^S* djOTrep oi/jov Trpds to KoXdoai 
rod Ovfiov hedfievos, aAA' drav rroppajrara) rod 

1 del ^avefrcu] ava^avetrat Madvig. 

2 ovras Benseler : ovra. 

3 oitlov] oirLoiv in some mss. 

4 opjxovoiv] opjittHJiv most mss. 

5 8'] Se hiKaLa Capps : " a just punishment is " etc. 

134 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 459-460 

no harm will be done if he shall be punished somewhat 
late, but if he is punished in haste he will always be 
thought to have suffered without offending ; and this 
has happened many times in the past." For which of 
us is so harsh that he scourges and chastises a slave 
because five or ten days ago he overroasted the meat 
or upset the table or came too slowly at our bidding ? 
And yet these are the very things which cause us to 
be excited and in a cruel and implacable mood at 
the moment they happen and are still fresh in our 
memory. For as the shapes of persons seen through 
a fog, so things seen through a mist of rage appear 
greater than they are. 

These are the reasons why we should immediately 
call to mind such instances and precepts ; and when 
we are free from all suspicion of passion, if the 
offence still appears evil to the clear and settled 
judgement, we should attend to it then and not 
dismiss or abandon the punishment, as we leave food 
when we have lost our appetite. And nothing 
is so much the cause of our punishing in a rage as 
that, when our anger is over, we do not punish, but 
leave things alone. We are very much like lazy 
oarsmen, who during calm weather lie in port, and 
later, at the risk of their lives, avail themselves of 
a wind to go sailing. And so do we condemn reason 
for remissness and softness in punishment and 
hasten on to the deed rashly and to our peril when 
anger, like a gale, is upon us. For while a hungry 
man indulges in food as nature dictates, yet 
punishment is indulged in by one who is not hungry 
or thirsty for it, nor does he need anger as a relish 
to stimulate him to punish ; on the contrary, when he 
finds himself very far removed from the desire to 

135 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

1^460) opeyeadat yevrjTai Trpoadycov rov Aoyiojxov avay- 
C Kaiios. ov yap, cos 'ApiOTOTeArjs ioropel /car' 
avrov eV Tvpprfviq (jLaariyovcrdcu tovs ot/ceVas" TTpos 
avAov, ovrco TTpos r)8ovr)v Set KaOdrrep aTroAav- 
apLCLTOS ope^et rfjs Tipboopias ifAcfropelodcu /cat x a ^P €LV 
KoAa^ovras , KoAdaavTas Se 1 fieravoelv cov to fxev 
Orjpiojhes to Se yvvoLLKtoSes' dAAd /cat Avrnqs /cat 

TjSovfjS ^OJptS* €V TO) TOV AoyiOjJLOV XpOVO) TTjV §IK7]V 

KopLi^evO ai 2 fir) V7toA€L7tovtcls z to) dv/Jiqj 7rp6cf)acnv. 
12. Avtt] [lev ovv taoos ovk opyfjs tarpeta 0a- 
v€ltcu, hiaKpovois Se /cat (/)vAaKrj toov eV opyfj twos 
dfjLapTrjjjLdTCov. /cat'rot /cat 0*77 A^vo? olSrjfjia ov\x- 
TTTOjfia /zeV ioTi TTVpeTov irpavvoixevov Se /cot>(/>t£et 
D tov 7Tvp€Tov y cos (f>r)o*LV c lepcovvfios. dAA' avTrjs ye 
T7J9 opyrjs dvadecopcov ttjv yeveuiv dAAovs vtt* dAAoov 

aiTLWV ifJLTTlTTTOVTaS €LS 0LVT7JV ioJpOJV, OLS €7Tl€LKa)S 

dVaat So£a roO KaTacfypoveZud ai /cat d/xeAetcr#at 
irapay tverat . Sto /cat rots TrapaLTOv/JLevocs opyrjv 
Set fiorjdeiv TTOppcoTaTOO ttjv rrpd^LV oAiycopias drr- 
dyovTas /cat dpaavTTjTos, els dyvocav* rj dvdyhcrjv r) 
Trddos rj SuaTi^tav Tidepiivovs' obs ^o^okAtjs, 

dAA' ou yap, 5 tova£, ouS' 6V aV ftAduTr) fievet 
vovs tols kolkoos Trpd^aoiv? dAA' e^tOTarat. 

1 KoAaaavras 8e Reiske, confirmed by the Syriac version : 
etVa or Se in some mss. ; most omit. 

2 KO/zi'£ecr0ai Reiske : Ko\dt,€odai. 

3 v7To\eL7TovT as Bernardakis : vnoXcLnovTa or -o?. 

4 ayvoiav Reiske (c/. Arist., Eth. Ntc, 1110 a 1): avoiav. 

5 dAA' oz) yap] ov yap nor MSS. of Sophocles. 

6 7rpa£ao-iv] irpdooovoLv mss. of Sophocles. 

a Frag. 608 ed. Rose. 

b (7/. Moralia, 550 e, where the whole context may be 

136 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 4G0 

punish, he brings up reason to reinforce him and 
punishes under compulsion. Aristotle a relates that 
in Etruria in his day slaves were scourged to the 
music of pipes. But one should not, in that spirit, 
through a craving for the punishment as for a kind of 
enjoyment, gorge oneself with it, and rejoice while 
inflicting chastisement and after inflicting it repent b 
— of these the first is bestial, the second womanish — 
but without either sorrow or pleasure one should mete 
out punishment in reason's own good time, leaving 
anger no excuse. 

12. However this, perhaps, will not appear to be a 
cure for anger, but a temporary reprieve and prophy- 
lactic c against those errors which some men commit 
in anger. And yet, though the swelling of the spleen 
is but a symptom of fever, reducing it assuages the 
fever, as Hieronymus says. But when I contem- 
plated the origin of anger itself, I observed that 
different persons are liable to anger from different 
causes ; yet in the case of practically all of them there 
is present a belief that they are being despised or 
neglected. d For this reason we should assist those 
who endeavour to avoid anger, by removing as far as 
possible the act that rouses wrath from any suspicion 
of contempt or arrogance and by imputing it to 
ignorance or necessity or emotion or mischance. So 
Sophocles e : 

O king, not even the reason Nature gives 
Stays with the unfortunate, but goes astray ; 

compared with this chapter. See also Seneca, De Ira, i. 
17-18. 

c For the phrase cf Moralia, 420 e. 

d Cf Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 3 (1380 a 8 if.). 

* Antigone, 563-564,; quoted with the same textual variants 
in the Life of Phocion, i. (742 a). 

137 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

KOil TTJS "BpLCFTjiSoS T7]V d(f>aip€OLV €t? TTjV "AtTJV 

E avacfiepcov 6 'Aya/JLefivcov, ojjlois 

aifj euzAoj apeoai, oopbevat r airep^LGi clttoivcl. 

/cat yap to SetoOai rod firj Kara^povovvrog earn, 
/cat TaTreivos Ravels 6 ahiKTjcms eXvae rrjv rrjs 
oAiycopLds 86£av. ov Set 8e ravra irepijieveiv rov 
opyL^ofievov, aAAa to rod Aioyevovs, " ovroi oov 
KarayeXwaiV, cS Aioyeves"' " iyd) 8* ov Kara- 
yeAcufiaL," Xafifidvew iavrco, /cat KaracjypoveZaOai 
pLT] vopLi^etv aAAa fiaXXov €K€lvov Karacf)pov€LV, cos" 
St' dodeveiav r) 2 Trpoirereiav r) padv\xlav rj dveXev- 
Qeplav rj yfjpas rj veorrjra TrXrjfjLjjLeXovvTOs. ot- 
/cerat? Se feat <f)iXocs dc^ereov to tolovto rravrd- 
F TTdoiv ov yap d)$ dovvdrojv ouS' d>s dirpaKrajv, 
dXXa St' eVtet/cetav rj St' evvoiav ol pcev ws xp r j aT ^ >v 
oi 8' cos (f)iXovvTOJV Karacf)povovGi. vvvl 8' ov \xovov 
irpbs yvvaiKa /cat SovXovg /cat (f)iXovg a>? Kara- 
(ftpovovpLtvoi rpax€Ojg exofjiev, aAAa /cat TravSoKevcri 
/cat vavrais /cat opeajKOfiois {JLeOvovac TToXXaKis vir 
opyrjg GvpLTrLTrTOfJiev olofievot KaracfrpoveiodaL, /cat 
461 kvgIv vXaKTOvot /cat ovois e/x/3aAAoucrt ^aAe77at- 

VOfJL€V U)S €K€LVOS 6 ^OvX6pb€VOS TV7TT€LV TOV OV~ 

rjXdrrjv, etr' dvaKpayovros on '■' 9 At&7}valos €L[jli," 
ov Se y' 3 ovk et 'Aftjvafoy," rov 6Vov Aeycov, 
€TV7TT€ /cat TroAAa? ivecfropeL TrXiqyds . 

1 eWAco D : €0eA« or eWAeiv. 

2 77 7rAi7/x/xeAetav before 77 deleted by Stegmann, confirmed 
by one ms. and the Syriac version. 

3 he y Cobet and van Herwerden : [xev t he, or he ixev. 

° Homer, II, xix. 138. 
138 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 460-461 

and so likewise Agamemnon a ascribes the taking 
away of Briseis to divine infatuation : 

I wish again to make amends, to give 
You countless ransom. 

Supplication, indeed, is the act of one who does not 
despise ; and when he that has done an injury shows 
himself humble, he removes all notion of contempt. 
But the man in a rage should not wait for such 
humility, but should take to himself the reply of 
Diogenes b : when someone said to him, " They are 
laughing at you, Diogenes,' ' he answered, " But I 
am not laughed down." Just so the angry man 
should not consider himself despised, but rather 
despise the man who gave the offence as acting from 
weakness or rashness, carelessness or illiberality, 
dotage or childishness. But such a notion must not 
on any account be entertained tow r ard servants or 
friends ; for our servants presume on our upright 
character, our friends on our affection, and both 
disregard us, not as being impotent or ineffectual, 
but because of our reasonableness or our goodwill. 
As it is, thinking ourselves despised, we not only 
treat harshly wife and slaves and friends, but also 
through rage often fall out with innkeepers and 
sailors and drunken muleteers ; we even rage 
against dogs that bark at us and asses that jostle 
us, c like the man who wished to beat the ass- 
driver, but when the driver cried out, " I am an 
Athenian," indicated the ass and said, " You at 
any rate are not an Athenian," and fell to beating it 
with many blows. 

b Cf. Life of Fabius Maximus, x. (179 f) ; Diogenes 
Laertius, vi. 54. 

c Cf. Plato, Republic, 563 c. 

139 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(461) 13. Kat firjv rds ye ovvex^s kqX ttvkvcls kcll 
Kara puKpov iv rfj iftvxfj ovAAeyopiivas opyas 
fidXtara (frikavria Kal SvoKoAta fierd rpvcfrfjs Kal 
[xaAaKtas otov gjjltjvos fj a^rjKidv rjpuv IvtLktovoi. 
Slo fxel^ov ovSev evKoAcas Kal dcfreAeias icf)68iov els 
Trpaorrjra 7rp6s oiKeras Kal yvvatKa Kal (frlAovs rep 
Swafievo) avjji(f)€p€a9 at tois Trapovai Kal pcrj 8eo- 
jnevcp noAAcov Kal Treptrrcov' 

o o ovr ayav otttololv ovu envois ayav, 

Ovf? TjTTOV OVT€ pL&AAoV OVT€ SlGt fJL€(JOV 

rjpTVfjLevoLS k'yaipev x coot irraivioai, 

yiovos 8e pbrj 7rapovor)s ovk av ttlcxjv, ouS' 2 dprov 
££ dyopas (f)ayd>v ouS' oijjov yevadfievos iv Aitols 
•J) K€pap,eols GKeveoiv, ov8e KOipaqOels irrl OTpajpivrjs 
per] olSovcrrjs djcrrrep daAdcrarjs Sia fidOovs K€KL- 
vrjpievrjs, pd/3ooi,s 8e Kal irAr)yals rovs nepl rpdrre^av 
VTrrjperas 3 iirLTaxvvajv jierd Spopuov Kal fiofjs Kat 
ISpajTos, warrep c^AeypLOvals* KaraTrAdapiara kojjll- 
£,ovras, doOeveZ Kal (friAaijiW Kal piepafjLpLOLpcp 
oovAevajv Siairr], KaOdirep vno fiy]X°S ivSeAexovs 
C TrpoGKpovpLdrojv 5 7toAAcov eAaOev iAKO)8r] Kal Karap- 
poiKrjv oidOeaiv irepl to OvpLoetoes direpyaadpLevos . 
idiareov ovv to craj/xa §i evTeAelas 7Tpos evKoAiav 
avTapKes iavTtp yivopuevov ol yap SAtywv Seo/xevoi 
ttoAAwv ovk drroTvyxdvovcnv. 

Kat Seivov ovSev dpi;apiivovs* dno ttjs Tpo<j>r\s 

1 rjpTVfjuEvois €)ffup€p Meineke : rjpTvpLevoioi %<®.ipmy. 

2 oi)S' Stegmann : ovre. 

3 rots" . . . V7T7) per ats in most mss. 

4 <f>\€yp.ovaZs Syriac version and some mss. : ^Xeyfiaivcov or 
cfrXeyfiov&v. 

5 77 before TrpoaKpov^draiv deleted by Salmasius. 
140 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 461 

13. Furthermore it is especially selfishness and 
peevishness, together with luxury and softness, which 
beget in us those continuous or oft-recurring fits of 
anger that are gathered together in the soul little by 
little, like a swarm of bees or wasps. And so there is 
nothing more conducive to gentleness than gracious- 
ness and simplicity toward servants and wife and 
friends if a man is able to get along with what comforts 
he has and is in no need of many superfluities : 

But he who liked his meat not overdone 
Nor underdone, nor medium, nor boiled 
Too much ; and liked no food enough to praise a 

who will drink no wine if there is no snow with it, 6 
nor eat bread purchased in the market, nor touch food 
served on cheap or earthenware dishes, nor sleep upon 
a bed that does not billow like the sea stirred to its 
depths ; he who with rods and blows makes his 
servants at table hasten about running and crying 
out and sweating as though they were bringing 
poultices for boils, c such a man is enslaved to an 
impotent, querulous, and discontented mode of life. 
His many shocks of anger are like a chronic cough 
by which he reduces himself to a condition where 
anger becomes a running sore. We must, therefore, 
accustom the body to contentment by plain living 
and to self-sufficiency, for those who need but little 
are not disappointed of much. 

And, to begin with our food, it is no great hardship 

a Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 472, ades. 343. 

6 Of. Seneca, Be Ira, ii. 25. 4. 

e A matrer evidently requiring urgent haste. 

6 ap^afxevovs Reiske : dpf a/xcvw. 

141 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(461) acajTrf) xprjaaadai toZs Traparvyxdvovat, koll [mtj 
77oAAa ^oAoi>/xeVo^;s ,1 /cat hvaKoXaivovras drepTre- 
gtcltov oi/jov e/x/3aAeti> iavrois /cat ^tAots" rrjv 
opyrjv 

Sopvrov 8' ovk dv 770)9 dxapicrrepov aAAo yevouro, 

Sta irpoGKavaiv rj kolttvov rj dAcov evSecav r) ifjvxpo- 
repov dprov olk€tcov rvTrropievcov /cat Aoioopov- 
fievrjs yvvaiKos. 
D 'ApAcecrtAaou oe fxerd £evu)v tivojv iaricJovTos rovs 
(f)iXovs Traperedrj to ozZttvov, dprot 8' ovk rjoav 
dfjLeArjordvTOJv irpiaodai rtov iraihajv. eft a* tls ovk 
dv rjjjLwv SUarrjoe rovs roixovs KZKpayajs ; 6 Se 
/xetStaaas*, ' . olov iorcv," ^rj, " to avfJL7TOTLKov 
elvou tov oocfyov" 

Tov 8e HcoKpdrovs e/c rraAaiarpas irapaAafiovTOs 
tov Hv9v8rjiJLov, r) 'Ravdirnrrj /xer' 6pyr)s imordoa 
kcll AoiSoprjOeloa t4Aos dverpeipe rrjv rpdne^av, 6 
8' EvdvSrjiJLos e^avaords dnr\€i TrepiAviros yevo- 
fjbevos' /cat 6 HajKpdrrjs, u napd vol 8'," elrrev, 

" OV 7rpO)7]V OpVLS TLS tloTTTaOa TCLVTO TOVT 

€7Toi7]aev } rj/Jieis 8' ovk r)yavaKTf]oapL€v ; " 
E Aet yap avv €vkoAlcl /cat yeAcon /cat (frtAocfrpoavvrj 
rovs <f)LAovs Se;£€CT#at, fMrj rds 6<f>pvs avvdyovras 
fJL7]8e <j>pLK7]v /cat Tpojxov ipu^dAAovras toZs V7T- 
rjperovcriv. edioriov 8e /cat OKeveocv evKoAoos 
opuAeiv aVaat /cat fir] rwSe jjl&AAov r) rcoSe ^p^a^at* 
KaQdirep evioi ttoAXcov Trapovrojv eV e^eAopuevoi 

1 ^oAouftcVou?] <j>ofiovfi€vovs many mss. ; aoxoXovfxivovs 
Madvig. 

a Homer, Od., xx. 392. 
b Cf. Seneca, De Ira, ii. 25. 

142 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 461 

if we partake in silence of whatever is set before 
us and do not, by being repeatedly choleric and 
peevish, thrust upon ourselves and our friends the 
worst sauce for meat, anger. 

No more unpleasant supper could there be ° 

than that wherein . servants are beaten and wife is 
reviled because something is burned or smoked or not 
salted enough, or because the bread is too cold. & 

Arcesilaiis was once entertaining his friends and 
with them some foreign guests, and when dinner was 
served, there was no bread, since the slaves had 
neglected to buy any. In such a predicament which 
one of us would not have rent the walls asunder with 
outcries ? But Arcesilaiis merely smiled and said, 
" How lucky it is that the wise man takes to the 
flowing bowl ! " c 

Once when Socrates took Euthydemus home with 
him from the palaestra, Xanthippe came up to them 
in a rage and scolded them roundly, finally upsetting 
the table. d Euthydemus, deeply offended, got up 
and was about to leave when Socrates said, " At your 
house the other day did not a hen fly in and do 
precisely this same thing, yet we were not put out 
about it ? " 

For we should receive our friends affably and with 
laughter and cheerful friendliness, not with frowning 
brows, or striking fear and trembling into our ser- 
vants. We must, further, accustom ourselves to 
make cheerful use of any kind of table utensils and 
not to prefer this service to that, as some men do 

c There being no bread for the deipnon, the symposium 
will come earlier. 

d Cf. 471 b, infra, of Pittacus. 

143 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

KdvddplOV, COS yidplOV LGTOpOVGLV, T) pVTOV 1 OVK aV 

irepco TTioiev. ovroo Se /cat rrpos XtjkvOovs e^ouat 
/cat Trpos arXeyylSas, dyaTTcovres e/c rraacbv [xlav 
et#' orav avvrptfifj tl tovtcov rj dTToXrjrai, fiapews 
cf)epovai /cat KoXd^ovoiv. a<f>a<Teov ovv rep irpos 
opyrjv cfravXoos e^ovrt /cat roov OTravioov /cat rrepir- 
Tcbv, olov €Krra)fJidTa>v /cat a^payiScov /cat Xidoov 
F TToXvreXtov itjiarrjcrL yap aVoAAu/zeya fi&XXov roov 
evTTOpiGTCDV /cat avvrjdajv. Sto /cat rod Nepcovos 
oKrdyajvov riva GKTjvrjv vnepefrves /caAAet /cat ttoXv- 
reAeta #e'aju,a KaraaKevdaavros , " rjXey^as," €<f)rj 6 
HeveKds, " 7T€vrjra aeavrov idv yap ravrr^v 
462 aTToXearjs, erepav ov KTrjcrr) TOLavrrjv." /cat /zeVrot 
/cat avveireae rod rrXoiov KaraSvvros airoXiadai rrjv 
GKrjvqv 6 Se "Nepcov dva/jLVTjadels rod Seve'/ca 
fjierptcorepov rjveyKev. 

'H Se TTpos ret TTpdypLar evKoXia /cat rrpos otKeras 

€VKoXoV TTOL€L /Cat TTpaOV €L Se TTpOS OLK€TaS, 8fjXoV 

on /cat TTpos (f)iXovs Kal irpos dpxo^evovs . opcofxev 
Se /cat SovXovs veoovrjrovs rrepl rod Trpia\xivov 
TTvvOavofJievovs , ovk et SetcjtSatjitaw ouS' et (f)dovepos 
aAA' et dvfjicoSrjs' /cat oXais ovv opyfj /z^Se aoofipo- 
avvrjv dvSpas yvvacKtov /^S' k'poora yvvalKas dv- 
Sptov VTTOfJLeveiv Swafievas fJLrjSe ovviqdeiav dXXrjXajv 
(friXovs* ovroos ovre ydfios ovre <j>iXla [xer opyrjs 
1 rj pvrov Basel ed. : vrjpvrov. 

■ Cf. Plutarch, De Calumnia, Frag. 1 (Bernardakis, vol. 
vii. p. 128). 
144 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 461-462 

who select one goblet or horn out of the many they 
have, and will drink from no other, as they relate of 
Marius. Some have this same feeling about oil- 
flasks and strigils, of which they have a liking for but 
one out of many ; and so when one of these preferred 
objects is broken or lost, they take it hard and punish 
severely. Therefore anyone who is prone to anger 
should abstain from rare and curiously wrought things, 
like drinking-cups and seal-rings and precious stones ; 
for their loss drives their owner out of his senses more 
than do objects which are easily procured and may 
be seen everywhere. This is the reason why, when 
Nero had had an octagonal tent built, a huge structure 
which was a sight to be seen because of its beauty 
and costliness, Seneca remarked, " You have proved 
yourself a poor man, for if you ever lose this you will 
not have the means to procure another like it." 
And indeed it did so happen that the ship which 
conveyed it was sunk and the tent lost. But Nero 
remembered Seneca's saying and bore his loss with 
greater moderation. 

A cheerful behaviour toward the affairs of life makes 
a master cheerful and gentle toward his slaves also ; 
and if to slaves, he will evidently be so to his friends 
as well as to those who are subject to his rule. And 
in fact we observe that new T ly purchased slaves inquire 
about their new master, not whether he is super- 
stititious or envious, but whether he is ill-tempered a ; 
and, speaking generally, we see that if anger is 
present in a home, husbands cannot endure even 
their wives' chastity, nor wives even their husbands' 
love, nor friends even familiar intercourse with one 
another. Thus neither marriage nor friendship is 
tolerable if anger is there, but without anger even 

145 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B aveKTov dXXa X^P 1 ^ °PYys /cat fiedrj Kovcf)6v eariv. 
(462) ° yap rod 9eov vdp9rj£ lkclvos KoXaorrrjs rod 
fieOvovros, dv p.rj 7rpoayev6fJi€V09 6 Ovfiog d)fJir](TTrjv 
/cat jJLaivoArjv dvrl Xvatov /cat ^opetoz; 7Toirjar} rov 
aKparov. /cat rrjv fiavlav avrrjv /ca#' avrrjv rj 
'AvTtKvpa depaireveiy (JuxOelaa 8' dpyfj r pay too las 

7TOL€L /Cat jJLv9oV$. 

14. Aet Se fjarjre rrai^ovras avrfj StSoVat tottov, 
€xdpav yap eVayet rfj c/> tAo </>po cxwtj • pirjre kolvo- 
Xoyovfievovg, (friXoveiKiav yap e/c <f)iXoXoyias aVep- 
ya£erar [irjre St/ca^ovras, vfipiv yap rfj i^ovala 
C 7Tpoori9rjoL' jxrjre TraiSevovras, dOvjJLLav yap ep/7rotet 
/cat jjaaoXoyiav pJjr evrvxovvrag, au^et yap rov 
<f)96vov jxrjre ovcFTVxovvras , dcfiaipei yap rov eXeov, 
orav hvoKoXaivoiOL /cat /xa^awTat rot? avvax9o- 
/zeVois" cos o npta/xos* 

€pp€T€, Xojfirjrrjpes , iXeyx&S' ov vv /cat vpuv 
ot/cot 1 cart 2 yoos, on fi rjX9ere KrjhrjGovres ; 

rj §' evKoXia rols p<€V fior]9€L rd 8' eTrt/cooyzet rd Se 
cxuK^SiWt, nepiyiverai Se T77 rrpaorrjn /cat 9v/jlov 
/cat ovaKoXtas drrdorjs' tboirep ErJ/cAetS^s", rou 
d8eX(f>ov 77009 aurov e/c Sta^opa? elrrovros, an- 
oXoljjl7]v, et jLt?y ere nfJLajprjoaiiJLrjv ," " iyd> 8e," 
(frrjaas, " aTToXoLfjLTjv, et /X77 ae ^eta-at/xt/' Sierpeifte 
D Trapaxprjp-a /cat fJber€9rjK€. HoAe'/zcov Se', AotSo- 
povvros avrov dv9pamov </)lXoXl9ov /cat Trept o<j>pa- 

1 ot/cot] omitted by all mss. except G. 
2 eort] eVcort most mss. of Homer. 

Choreius and Lyaeus, epithets of Dionysus. 

b A town on the Corinthian Gulf in Phocis, famous for its 
hellebore ; see Rolfe's note on Aulus Gellius, xvii. 15. 6 
(L.C.L., vol. iii. p. 260). 
146 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 462 

drunkenness is easily borne. For the wand of 
Dionysus suffices to punish the drunkard, unless hot 
temper is added and makes the undiluted drink a 
cause of savagery and madness instead of a dispeller 
of care and an inspirer of the dance. Madness pure 
and simple can indeed be cured by Anticyra b ; but if 
madness is mingled with anger, it produces tragedies 
and tales of horror. 

14. Surely we should allow no place to anger even 
in jest, for that brings enmity in where friendliness 
was ; nor in learned discussions, for that turns love 
of learning into strife ; nor when rendering judge- 
ment, for that adds insolence to authority ; nor in 
teaching, for that engenders discouragement and 
hatred of learning ; nor in prosperity, for that 
increases envy ; nor in adversity, for that drives away 
compassion when men become irritable and quarrel 
with those who sympathize with them, as Priam c did : 

Be gone, you wretched, shameful men ! Have you 
No cause for grief at home that you have come 
To trouble me ? 

But a cheerful disposition in some circumstances is 
helpful, others it adorns, and still others it helps to 
sweeten ; by its gentleness it overcomes both anger 
and all moroseness. Thus Eucleides, d when his 
brother said to him after a quarrel, " Damned if I 
don't get even with you ! " answered, " But as for 
me, may I be damned if I don't convince you ! " and 
so at once turned him from his purpose and won him 
over. And Polemon, when a man who was fond of 
precious stones and quite mad about expensive seal- 

• Homer, II., xxiv. 239-240. 
d Cf. 489 d, infra. 

147 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(462) ylhia TToXvreXrj voaovvros , aireKplvaro jxkv ovSev 
rcbv acppaytSuov 8' ivl Trpooelye tov vovv Kai 
Karefxavdavev r)o6els ovv 6 dvOpojTros, ' {jltj 

OVTCOS," €L7T€V " CO UoXefJLCOV, CxAA' VTT* CLVyCLS 0€O), 

kclI 7toXv vol fieXnov cfxive'iTai." 6 8' 'Ap igtittttos, 
opyrjs avra) rrpos Ald^iviqv yevofJbevrjs Kai tlvos 

eiTTOVTOS, " CO 'ApiO"Tt777T6, 7TOU VfJLCOV TJ (f>iXta ,* !> 

KaUevoeiy cprjacv, eyoj o avrrjv eyepco • /cat 
rep AlaxLvrj TrpoaeXOojv elrrev, u ovtoj aoi Soklo 
TTavTOLTracriv aTVxrjs tls elvat koli dvrjK€GTOS, ware 
E fir) vovdeaias Tvy/Lv; " o 8' Alaxwrjs, " ovSev" 
€(f)rj, " Qavixaorov, el rrpos Trdvra jjlov rfj <f>va€L 
8ia(f)epajv KavravOa to Seov rrporepos avvelSes*" 

Kal yap Kampov $pit~avyev ov \xovov yvvrj, 
irals 8' av veoyvos X ei P L TTpocrKvfjOojv via. 
kXlvol 1 TTaXaiOTOV rravros evpLapearepov. 

aAA' rj/JLets dypiaivovra TiOaorevopLev £a>a Kal Trpav- 
vopuev, Xvkl§€ls Kal GKvpLvovs Xeovrajv iv rals 
ayK&Xais Trepuftepovres, elra reKva Kal cJ)lXovs Kal 
ovvTjOeis e/c/SaAAo/xev vrr* opyrjs* otKerais Se Kal 
rroXirais 2 tov OvpLov tooirep drjpiov i<f)L€[JL€V ov koXcos 
F vrroKOpL^opLevoi puao7Tovr)pLav, dAA' 3 coarrep, ot/xat, 
rcbv dXXojv 7ra6a)v Trjs* iftvxfjs Kal voorrjfidTajv to 
fji€V upovoiav to 8' iXevOepioTrjTa to 8' evaefletav 
KaXovvTes ovSevos aTraXXayrjvai Swdfieda. 

15. Katrot, KaOdrrep 6 ZtJvojv eXeye to anipfia 

1 kXlvol Nauck : jcAiWi. 

2 TTtMrais Kronenberg. 

3 dAA'] Reiske would delete. 

4 ttjs] omitted in most mss. 

148 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 462 

rings reviled him, made no answer, but fixed his gaze 
on one of the seal-rings and eyed it closely. The man, 
accordingly, was pleased and said to him, " Do not 
look at it in this light, Polemon, but under the sun's 
rays, and it will appear to you far more beautiful." 
Aristippus, again, when anger had arisen between 
him and Aeschines and someone said, " Where now, 
Aristippus, is the friendship of you two ? " replied, 
" It is asleep, but I shall awaken it " ; and, going to 
Aeschines, he said, " Do I appear to you so utterly 
unfortunate and incurable as not to receive correction 
from you ? " And Aeschines replied, " No wonder if 
you, who are naturally superior to me in all things, 
should in this matter also have discerned before I 
did the right thing to do." 

For not a woman only, even a child, 
Tickling the bristly boar with tender hand, 
May throw him easier than a wrestler might. 

But we who tame wild beasts and make them gentle 
and carry about in our arms young wolves and lions' 
cubs, & then under the impulse of rage cast off children, 
friends, and companions and let loose our wrath, like 
some wild beast, on servants and fellow-citizens — we, 
I say, do not well to use a cozening word for our anger 
by calling it " righteous indignation," c but it is 
with anger, I believe, as with the other passions and 
diseases of the soul : we can rid ourselves of none of 
them by calling one ''foresight," another " liberality," 
another " piety." 

15. And yet, as Zeno d used to say that the seed 

a Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag, 2 , p. 912, ades, 383. 

b Cf. 482 c, infra. 

c Cf. 456 f, 449 a, supra. 

d Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., i. p. 36, Frag. 128. 

VOL. VI F 14$ 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovfJLfjuyiJLa /cat Kepaofia twv rrjs fivxys SwdpLeoov 
virdpyeiv aTTeorraopievov, ovtqjs eot/ce twv ttclQcov 
463 Travoireppiia rig 6 dvfjios elvat. /cat yap XvTrrjg aV- 
eoiraoTai /cat rjoovrjs /cat vfipews, /cat (f)96vov fiev 
eyei ttjv €7rt^atp£/ca/ctav, cfrdovov 1 Se /cat yelpwv 
icrrtv dycovi^erat yap, ovyl jjlt] iradelv avros, dXXd 
iradeiv /ca/cco? imrpLipas erepov em^u/xta? 8' avrw 
to drepTreGrarov eparecfyvKev, el ye Srj rod AvireZv 
erepov ope^is eon. olo twv piev dcrwrwv rat? 
ot/ctats* TrpooiovTes avArjTptoos aKovofxev ewdtvrjs, 
/cat " 77-77 Aov," ws Tt? elrrev, " otvov /cat anapay- 
fiaTa GTecjidvwv," /cat /cpatTraAdWas opwpuev errl 
dvpais aKoAovOovs* ra Se twv iriKpwv e/c/caAu/x- 
B /xara 2 /cat Sua/coAa)^ eV rot? Trpoowrrois twv oiKerwv 
oipei /cat toZs oriy fxaoi /cat Tats TreSats' 

del S' aotScov piovvos ev oreyais 
opyiAov dvopos 

KOJKVTOS epbTTeTTTWKe, 

fAaoTiyovpLevajv evSov olkovojjlojv /cat OTpefiAov- 
jjLevwv OepairaiviSwv, wore tov Ovjjlov Tag Avnag ev 
rat? eTTidvpiiais /cat rat? rjSovais oiKTipeiv opwvras. 
16. Ov fxrjv dAA' ooois ye ov p, fiaivet Sta /xtao- 
7TOvr)piav dArjdws aXioKeoO at TroAAaKis vtt* opyrjs, 
to dyav d^aipereov avrrjs /cat to aKparov atxa rfj 
acf)o8pa TTiOTei rrepl tcov gvvovtwv. avrr] yap axi^ei 

1 <f>96vov] most mss. have </>ovou ; G <j>6fiov. 
2 6/c/caAu/Li/xaTa] eV/oWoyiara Michael, c/. Moralia, 1089 B. 

° C/. Sophocles, Frag. 783 ed. Pearson, with the notes 
ad loc. 

h Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 913, ades. 387 ; quoted 
more completely in 518 b-c, infra. 
150 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 462-463 

was a mixture and compound drawn from all the 
faculties of the soul, so temper appears to be a 
mixture of seeds drawn from all the passions. For 
it is drawn from pain and pleasure, and from insol- 
ence ; and although it has envy's malicious joy in 
the ills of others, it is even worse than envy ; for 
the object of its striving is, not that it may itself 
avoid suffering evil, but that at the cost of suffering 
evil, it may utterly ruin its antagonist ; and the 
most unlovely kind of desire is innate in it, inasmuch 
as it is a craving to pain someone else. And that is 
why, when we approach the houses of profligates, 
we hear a flute-girl still playing in the early morning, 
and we see " muddy dregs of wine," a as someone 
has said, " and mangled fragments of garlands," and 
tipsy servants reeling at the doors ; but the tokens 
of savage and irascible men you will see on the faces 
of their servants and in the marks branded upon 
them and their fetters. 

The only music heard within the house 

of an angry man 

Is wailing cries, 6 

as the stewards are being lashed within and the 
serving-maids being tortured, so that those who 
witness the anguish caused by anger in gratifying its 
desires and ministering to its pleasures must feel pity. 
16. However, those of whom it is true that right- 
eous indignation causes them frequently to be over- 
whelmed by anger should get rid of its excessive 
and violent form, together with their extreme con- 
fidence in those with whom they live. For such 

* Of. Plato, Phaedo, 89 d. 

151 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(463) uaAtora tcov alricov rov 6vll6v, orav rj ^p^oTOS 
VTToXrjcjydels 1 dvacfravfj piox^pos rj (f>iXelv 86£as iv 
G hta^opa tlvl /cat ll€Lii/j€L yivrjrai. to 8' iciov rjOos 
otada SrjTTOvOev ^At/cat? poirals <j>£p€rai irpos ev- 
voiav avOpcoTTOJV /cat ttiotiv ajcnrep ovv ol Kara 
Kevov fiaivovTes , oaq) 2 ll&XXov €77€p£tSa) ra> (f)iXelv 
ijiavroVy dfiaprdvco LiaXXov /cat acfraXXoLLevos aVta>- 
jLcat* /cat rod Liev cfriXelv aVapuaat to ipLiraOes dyav 

KCLL TTpoOvjJLOV OVK dv €TL SvVTjdeLTjV' TOV §€ 7TLOT€V€lV 

a(f)68pa xP r ] aa ^l JLr i v ®- v locos x a ^ LVO ? T fj nXdrcovos 
evXafieia. /cat yap c EAt/ca>ra rov Lia6rjLiaTu<6v 
ovtlos eiraivelv cfrrjoiv, cog cf)va€L evpLerdfioXov ^toov, 
KoI tovs reOpcLLLLiivovs iv rfj TroXei kclXcos Se- 
D SteVat, fir] dvdpcoTTOi /cat oiripLLarcL dv9pco7Ta>v ovreg 
€K(f)rjva>OL ttov rrjg cfrvoeais rrjv do9 eveiav. 6 Se 
Ho(j)OKXfjs Xeytov on 

rd TrXelara (fxjopcov atcr^oa cf>copdo€LS fiporajv 

dyav eoLKev tjllIv eTreLifiaiveiv /cat KoXoveiv. ov llt]v 

dXXd TO hvGKoXoV TOVTO TTJS KpLG€0)S /Cat (f)lXaLTLOV 

€VKoXa)T€povs 770t€t rat? opyals' eKOTaTiKov yap 
ion to d<pva> /cat to dirpoohoKrjTOV Set S*, a>g ttov 

1 v7ToXr](f>9€U] viroX-q^Oeis tls Bernardakis. 
2 oooj Reiske : ottov. 



a " Nothing fans the flame of human resentment so much 
as the discovery that one's bosom has been utilized as a snake 
sanatorium." — H. H. Monro. 

6 Epistle xiii. 360 c; cf. 474 e, infra, and Moral ia 9 
533 b-c 

c 8e8to>s 8e Xeyoj ravra, on virkp avOpwirov ho£av airo- 
^aiVo/x/it, ov cfxivAov £,q)ov dAA' evfAerafioAov : "This, however, I 
say with trepidation, since I am uttering an opinion about 
152 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 463 

confidence more than any other cause increases the 
spirit of wrath, when, for example, one who has been 
accounted honourable proves to be base, a or one 
whom we have supposed a true friend quarrels and 
finds fault with us. As for my own temperament, 
you doubtless know how strong are the impulses 
which incline it to be of goodwill toward my fellow- 
men and to trust them. Consequently, like men 
who attempt to walk on empty air, the more I give 
myself up to loving a person the more I go astray, and 
when I stumble and fall, the greater my distress ; and 
although I may no longer be able to reduce my too 
great propensity and eagerness to love, yet I may 
perhaps be able to use Plato's b caution as a curb 
against excessive trust. For Plato says that he praises 
Helicon the mathematician in such terms as he uses c 
because man is by nature an animal readily subject 
to change ; and that he does well to fear those who 
have been educated in the city lest, being men and 
the seeds of men, d they may reveal somewhere the 
weakness inherent in their nature. But when 
Sophocles e says 

Search out most human traits ; you'll find them base, 

he seems to go too far in trampling upon and belittling 
us. This peevish and censorious judgement does, 
however, tend to make us more considerate in our 
outbursts of temper ; for it is the sudden and the 
unexpected that throw men off their bearings/ 

a man, and man, though not a worthless, is an inconstant 
creature." — (Bury in L.C.L.) 

d Cf. Plato, Laws, 853 c. 

e Frag. 853 ed. Pearson; Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , 
p. 311, Frag. 769 ; quoted again in 481 f, infra, 

f Cf. 449 e, supra. 

153 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kol UaVOLLTLOS €(f)K) , )(pr]o6aL TO) ' Avd^OLyopOV ,* KOL 

KaOdrrep eKeTvos inl rfj reXevrfj rod ttollSos elrreVy 
" rjSecv otl 6vrjr6v iyevvrjoa," tovto tols rrapo^v- 
E vovqlv tKaoTOT 2, iiTL(f)Cji)V€LV diiapTTjiiaGLV y " rjheiv 
on aocf)6v ovk €7TpiajjL7)v SovAov," " fjSeLV OTL 
dvapidpTrjTOV </>i'Aov 3 ovk eKTiqadpaqv,^ " rjSeLV otl 
ttjv yvvalKa yvvau< elxov." dv Se KaKelvo tls 

€7TL<l)9€yy6[JL€VOS del TO TOV TLAaTOJVOS, " Tj TTOV 

ap* iycb tolovtos ; " e^coOev elaoj tov Xoytcrpbov 
dvaoTpecf)rj kol rrapeLifidAAr] tolls LiefJufjeaL ttjv 
evAdpeLdv, ov rroAAfj xprjoeTdL LiLoorroviqpia rrpos 
€T€povs 770AA7J9 opoov iavTov GvyyvtoLirjs SeoLievov. 
vvv S' zkclgtos rjLicov opyL^oLievos KCll KoAd^CDV 

'ApLOT€L8oV (j)OJVaS €7TL(f)ep€L KCLL VLaTCOVOS , " LLTj 

At >t a \ / /o t> n o \ / « n /-> )) \ 

€ttt€, Lirj ijjevoov, ota tl pquvLieLs; /cat 

o 8rj ndvTCOV o!ioyLOTOv iaTLV, dpyt^o/xeVots" em- 

TLLiajfJiev llet* opyrjs KOL T(X 8t(X OvLLOV rjjJLapTr]LLeva 

F Ovllco KoAd^ofxev, oi>x tacnrep larpol 

TTLKpCp TTLKpaV kAvL^OVCTL (fxipLLaKO) -)(oArjV , 

dAAd ^LtaAAov €ttlt€lvovt€S kol rrpoueKTapaTTOVTes . 
"Orav ovv iv tovtols yevcoLictL toTs iiTLAoyLOLioLs, 

OLLia TL 7T€Lpa)LlCLL KCLL TOV TToAvTT pdyflOVOS d(f)CLLp€LV. 

464 to yap i£ciKpLJ3ovv aVavra kol (froopav /cat tt&oclv 

1 'Ava^ayopou] ava£ay6pa all MSS. but two. 

2 Ikclotot Stegmann : e/caorov. 

3 dvaixdprrjTov <£i'Aov Capps, cf Menander, Epitr., 487 
OLTraOij tov <f>i\ov or /cat tov d(f)iXov. 

a Cf. 474 d, infra ; Moralia, 118 d and the references ad 
loc. ; Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , ii. p. 14, § 33. 

b Cf Moralia, 40 d, 88 e, 129 d. Cf. Horace, Satires, i. 
4. 136: numquid ego illi | imprudens olim faciam simile?; 
" There but for the grace of God go I." 
154 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 463-464 

But we should, as Panaetius also has somewhere 
remarked, make use of the precept of Anaxagoras, 
and just as he, at the death of his son, said, " I knew 
that I had begotten a mortal " ; so on each occasion 
we should remark with reference to the faults which 
exasperate us : "I knew that I had not bought a 
philosopher for a slave," " I knew that the friend I 
had made was not incapable of error," " I knew 
that my wife was a woman." And if we keep re- 
peating to ourselves Plato's question, " Can it be 
that I am like that ? " b and turn our reason inward 
instead of to external things, and substitute caution 
for censoriousness, we shall no longer make much use 
of " righteous indignation " toward others when we 
observe that we ourselves stand in need of much 
indulgence. But as it is, everyone of us, when we are 
angry and inflicting punishment, brings out the in- 
junctions of an Aristeides or a Cato : " Do not steal ! " 
" Do not lie ! " " Why are you so lazy ? " ; and — 
what is most disgraceful of all — while angry we chide 
others for being angry and punish by rage faults 
which have been committed in a rage, not like 
physicians, who 

With bitter drugs can purge the bitter bile c ; 

but rather make more intense the malady and 
aggravate it. 

Whenever, therefore, I have become engaged in 
these reflections, at the same time I try to do away 
with some part of my inquisitiveness. For to search 
out with great precision and detect and drag into the 

c Sophocles, Frag. 854 ed. Pearson, with the note ; Nauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 ,p. 312, Frag. 770; quoted in a different 
form 468 b, infra, and Moralia, 923 F. 

155 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(464) eA/cetv els /xecrov aa^oXiav otKerov /cat Trpatjtv <j)iXov 
/cat 8iarpL^r]V vlov /cat ifjidvpiopiov yvvaiKos opyas 
(f)€p€t TToAXas /cat gvv€X€ls /cat Kadrjjxepivds , cbv 
SuovcoAta rpoTTOV /cat x a ^ €7T ^ Tr ]^ to K€(f)d\ou6v eort. 
6 [lev ovv Oeos, (hs JLvpLTrlSris </)7](jl, tcov dyav 

aWerai, 
ra fiiKpa o ets Tvyrpr a<p€LS ea* 

eya> Se T77 tu;^ V^ v °^Sei> olfxai Setv eirirpeireiv 
ov8e irapopav rov vovv e^ovra, 7tlgt€V€lv Se /cat 
XprjaOai ra jiteV yurat/ct to, S' ot/ce'rat? t<x Se 
"B (f)lAois olov dpxovr 2 iiTLTpoirois rial /cat Aoytarat? 
/cat Stot/CTyrat?, aurov eVt raw Kvpicordrcov ovra ra> 
XoyiapLcp /cat pLeyiorajv. <h$ yap rd Xenrd ypdpb- 
/xara r^v o^tv, ovrco rd fjuKpd TTpdyfiara jjl&XXov 
evreivovra vvrreL /cat rapdrret rrjv opyr^v, edos 
7TOvrjp6v inl ra /zet£ova Xajx^dvovoav . 

'Em 77acrt Toivvv to /xev tou 'Eju,77eSo/cAe / oi>s > /xe'ya 
/cat #etov rjyovjJLrjv, to " vr\ gt€ vcrai kclkottjtos " ' 
kuf\vovv Se /ca/cetVa? aV ou/c dyapioTOVs ouS' 
d(j>iXoa6(f)Ovs eV evx<tis ofioXoylas, d<f)pohioia)v 
eviavTov dyvevoai /cat otVou, TLficovTas e'y/cparet'a 
rov #eoV 7) ipevSoXoytas irdXiv dTrex^aOai xP^ vov 
ojpLGjjievov, avTols npoaexovTas ttcos dXiqdevGopiev 

1 d^ets] dvet? Moralia, 811 d. 

2 apxovT Xylander and Hutten : dpxovra (or dpxoi'ow) 
dp^dvrcov. 

Nauck, Tra#. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 675, Frag. 974 ; quoted 
also in Moralia, 811 d. Cf. Lucan, v. 340 if. ; and perhaps 
Horace, Ars Poetica, 191-192. 

b Cf. Seneca, Be Ira, ii. 26 ; iii. 11. 

c Erasmus, followed by Amyot, believed this concluding 

156 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 464 

light every little concern of a slave, every action of a 
friend, every pastime of a son, every whisper of a wife, 
produces frequent, or rather continual and daily, fits 
of anger, of which the sum total is a morose and 
intractable disposition. It may be, as Euripides a 
says, that God 

Will intervene in matters grown too great, 

But small things he lets pass and leaves to Fate ; 

but I am of the opinion that a man of sense should 
commit nothing to Fate, nor overlook anything at all, 
but should trust and use for some things his wife, for 
others servants, for others friends, as a ruler makes 
use of overseers and accountants and administrators, 
but himself keeps under his own control the most 
important and weighty matters by the use of reason. 
For as small writing strains the eyes, so do trifling 
matters, by causing a greater strain, prick and stir up 
anger, b which becomes a bad habit that affects more 
important matters. 

Accordingly, in addition to all these considerations, 
I have been wont to regard as great and divine that 
saying of Empedocles/* " Fast from evil," and to 
applaud also those other vows made in prayer as 
being neither ungracious nor inappropriate to a 
philosopher : to abstain from love and wine for a 
year, honouring God by continence ; or again to 
refrain from lying for a stated time, paying close heed 
to ourselves that we shall be truthful always whether 

paragraph to be a Christian appendix added to Plutarch's 
work. This is very unlikely. 

d Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , i. p. 369, Frag. 144 ; ef. 
Herrick : 

To starve thy sin, not bin, 
That is to keep thy Lent. 
vol. vi f2 157 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

C eV re 1 Traioia /cat pterd gttovStjs drrdor]g, elra 
(464) Tavrais rrjv ifiavrov rrapefiaXXov evxrjv 2 co? ox>x 
rjrrov OeofiiXrj /cat tepdV 3, rjpiepag rrpcorov dAtya? 
aopyrjrovs olov afxedvarovs /cat aoivovs Stayayetv 
a)G7T€p vrjcfrdXia /cat pLeXianovSa dvovra* elra jjltjv 9 
eVa 4 /cat ovo, TrecpaypLevos iptavrov Kara puKpov 
ovrco rep xpovto 7rpov^acvov etV to rrpoadev rrjs 
ave^iKdKias , iyKparcos Trpooiyoov /cat Sia^yXdrrajv 
/Z6t' €v<f/fjp,iag t'Aeoj /cat dpLTjvirov ipLavrov, dyvev- 
ovra /cat X6ya>v Trovqpoov /cat rrpd^ecxjv oltottcov /cat 
D irddovs i<f>' rj8ovrj piiKpa /cat d^aptara) rapaxds 
T£ pieydXas /cat pberapLeXetav aloyi° Ty ] v <f>£povros. 
o6ev, ot/xat, /cat 0£ou Tt avXXapLfidvovTOs , iaacjyrjvi- 
£ev rj 7T€tpa rrjv Kpiaiv eKeivrjv, on to tAeaw tovto 
/cat irpaov /cat <f)iXdv9 pcoirov ovSevl rtov avvovrcov 
evfieves ioTiv ovrco /cat (f)lXov /cat aAt>770V a*? aurot? 
rots* exovacv. 

1 re] ye most mss. 

2 cu^v Wyttenbach : ifivxrjv. 

3 te/D<£v Reiske : tepds 1 or Upas* 

4 jli$i>' eVa van Herwerden : ixrjva. 



158 



ON THE CONTROL OF ANGER, 464 

in j est or earnest. Then with these I compared my 
own vow, thinking it no less sacred and pleasant in 
the sight of God : first, to pass a few days without 
anger, sober and wineless days, as it were, as though 
I were offering a sacrifice of honey unmixed with 
wine a ; then I would do so for a month or two, and 
so, making trial of myself little by little, in time I 
made some progress in my forbearance, continently 
observing and keeping myself courteous in speech, 
placid, and free from anger, and pure of the taint of 
evil words and offensive actions and of passion which, 
at the price of a little unsatisfying pleasure, brings 
great perturbations of spirit and the most shameful 
repentance. By such means, I think — and God also 
gave me help — experience has shown the truth of 
that judgement : this placid and gentle and humane 
spirit is not so agreeable and pleasant and free from 
sorrow to any of those brought in contact with it as 
it is to those who themselves possess it. 

° Like the offerings to the Eumenides, Aeschylus, Eume- 
nides, 107 ; Sophocles, Oedipus Coloneus, 100, 481 ; c/. also 
Wyttenbach's note on Moralia, 132 e. 



159 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND 
(DE TRANQUILLITATE ANIMI) 



INTRODUCTION 

It is only natural that this essay should have aroused 
curiosity and speculation about its sources, for Plutarch 
in the very first paragraph conveys the information 
that he has rummaged among his note-books (v7ro/xvr/- 
fxara a ) in great haste for the material necessary to 
help his friend Paccius to composure in the midst of 
a busy life. R. Hirzel (Hermes, xiv. 354 ff., especially 
373 ff.) attempted to show that much was drawn 
from Democritus's Ilept evOvixcrjs, some by way of the 
Stoic Panaetius, who, he thought, naturally opposed 
the Abderite's conclusions. R. Heinz e (Rheinisches 
Museum, xlv. 497 ff.) emphasized the relation between 
De Tranquillitate and De Virtute et Vitio : both go back 
to a Stoic b prototype and De Tranquillitate to a model 
which has some close relation to the Cynic Bion's 
methods of presentation, that is, probably, to Ariston 
of Chios. M. Pohlenz d (Hermes, xl. 275 ff.), on the 

° Pohlenz and Siefert have at times insisted that in spite 
of the plural there is only one main source. This lacks all 
probability. 

* But Heinze (p. 507) admitted the possibility of some 
Epicurean excerpts also being used. 

c At the same time, O. Hense {Rheinisches Museum, xlv. 
550 ff.) was attempting to trace De Curiositate to Ariston. 
Readers of the Jahresberichte should note that F. Bock (Jbb., 
clii. 1911, p. 334) has not read these articles and is, as often, 
a thoroughly untrustworthy guide. 

d See also Zeitschrift filr wissenschaftliche Theologie, 
xlviii. 95 and note. 

163 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

other hand, found that the source of the essay was 
Epicurean, while admitting that Plutarch added a 
certain amount of original material to fit the person- 
ality and circumstances of the friend he was address- 
ing. Finally, G. Siefert b (Plutarcks Schrift Ylepl 
€v6v/jllois, Progr. Pforta, Naumburg, 1908) reverts to 
Democritus and Panaetius, with particular emphasis 
on the material illustrative of Panaetius 's lost work 
to be found in Cicero's De Officiis and in Seneca : 
Panaetius, who was following, not the Stoa, but 
Democritus, is the principal source of Plutarch, 
practically his only source. 

Siefert 's discussion, in particular, is impressive 
as well as learned ; but I would remark that all 
these authorities may well be right — and wrong. 
Some of them admit that portions, at least, of the 
essay were written, or adapted, especially to suit the 
particular occasion for which the essay was composed. 
Plutarch himself is not averse to naming authorities 
here and elsewhere ; that he followed exclusively one, 
or even two, is made very unlikely by his own 
opening statement and by the very mixed nature of 
his philosophical terminology. 

a But now Pohlenz (in the Teubner ed., 1929) has become 
partially converted to Siefert's views, while rightly continu- 
ing to maintain some Epicurean influence. The fact that 
Plutarch in the last part of his work follows the cvxapiarla 
to the gifts of Fortune urged by Epicurus (Fragg. 435 and 
491 ed. Usener) seems to me decisive, in spite of Siefert's 
evasions. 

5 For the structure of the essay see Siefert's earlier work 
(Commentationes Ienenses, vi. 1896, pp. 57-74), supplemented 
and corrected by Pohlenz, I.e. 

c This conclusion bears some resemblance to that reached 
by H. N. Fowler (Harvard Stud. CI. Phil, i. 149 if.), whose 
work is called by Siefert " noch unergiebiger " than the 
164 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND 

Theological writers of all ages have made good use 
of this store-house of moral precepts. Many of the 
imitations in the works of St. Basil and of St. John 
Chrysostom will be found listed in the Teubner 
edition and discussed by Pohlenz (Zeit.f. rviss. Theologie, 
xlviii. 72-95). Jeremy Taylor, also, in Holy Living, 
ii. 6, has again made some pleasant borrowings and 
paraphrases. 

Sir Thomas Wyat's interesting translation of 1528, 
made from the Latin of Budaeus, has been reprinted, 
with an excellent introduction from the pen of C. R. 
Baskervill, by the authorities of the Huntington 
Library (Harvard University Press, 1931). 

The ms. tradition is not good. Many passages are 
probably hopelessly corrupt and the reconstructions 
offered in the Teubner text and here are, at the best, 
make-shifts. The work is No. 95 in the catalogue of 
Lamprias. 

" Biomanie " of the Hense-Heinze school ; but Fowler was 
inclined to stress too much the relation to Democritus and 
the parallels which Hirzel had urged between Seneca and 
Plutarch. That Seneca's De Tranquillitate Animi goes 
back to an immediate original common to Plutarch's work 
also is extremely unlikely. Only one anecdote, one quota- 
tion, and a dozen or so commonplaces are not nearly enough 
to show any close relationship. And how dissimilar the two 
works are in treatment, design, terminology, and form {pace 
Hirzel, Der Dialog, ii. p. 28, n. 1) ! 



165 



E IIEPI EY0YMIA2 

UAovrapxos YlaKKtq) ev TrpdrreLV. 

1 . 'Oi/fe gov rrjv eTTiOToArjv eKopnadfjaqv , iv fj Trap- 
e/caAcis" 7Tepl evdvfJLias aoi tl ypa(j)r\vai kol Trepl tcov 
iv Tt/xcuco Seofievcov im/JLeAeaTepas i^rjyrfaeajs. 
a/xa Se 77009 tov iralpov rjpccjv "EpcoTa /careAa/x- 
ftavev air ua tov irAeiv ev9vs els 'PtbfjLrjv, irapa 
<S)ovv8dvov rod KparioTov ypdfifJiaTa SeSey/xeVov, 

F OLOS €K€LVOS, €77tTa^ VVOVTOL . /X^TC 8e \pOVOV €X OJV ', 

d>S TrporjpovfJirjv, yevioOai TTpos oh ifiovAov \ir\ff 
VTTOfjLevQJV Kevcus TravTairaai tov avSpa ^epolv 
6<f)6fjvai ool nap* tjjjlqjv d^iypbivov, dveAe^dfJLTjv rrepl 

evdv/JLLCLS €K TCOV VTrOfJLVrjjJLdTLOV LOV ifJLCLVTCp TT€7TOirj- 

fjbivog cTvyxavov rjyovjjievos /cat ere tov Aoyov tov- 

tov ovk dhcpodotcos ev€KOL OrjpcjofJLevrjs KaAAiypa<f)iav 

465 aAAd ^peta? fior]6r)TiKrjs iTTi^rjTzlv, koX avvr)86jJL€Vos 

otl kolI ^tAia? e'xcov rjyefJLOviKas koll 86£av ovSevos 



All that is known of Paccius is inferred from the present 
essay. 

6 We possess a work of Plutarch entitled De Animae 

166 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND 

From Plutarch to Paccius, a health and prosperity. 

1. It was only very recently that I received your 
letter in which you urged me to write you something 
on tranquillity of mind, and also something on those 
subjects in the Timaeus b which require more careful 
elucidation. And at the same time it chanced that 
our friend Eros c was obliged to sail at once for Rome, 
since he had received from the excellent Fundanus d 
a letter, which, in his usual style, urged haste. But 
since I neither had the time I might have desired to 
meet your wishes nor could I bring myself to let the 
friend who came from me be seen arriving at your 
home with hands quite empty, I gathered together 
from my note-books those observations on tranquillity 
of mind which I happened to have made for my own 
use, believing that you on your part requested this 
discourse, not for the sake of hearing a work which 
would aim at elegance of style, but for the practical 
use in living it might afford ; and I congratulate you 
because, though you have commanders as your friends 
and a reputation second to none of the forensic 

Procreatione in Timaeo, but it is addressed by the writer to 
his sons, Autobulus and Plutarch (Moralia, 1012 a ff.). 

c See 453 c, supra. 

d The principal speaker of Be Cohibenda Ira, 452 f, supra. 

167 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

(465) eXarrova tcov ev dyopa XeyovTCOv to tov rpayiKov 

MepOTTOS OV 7T€7TOvdaS } OuS' COS €K€LVOV 

evSatjjiovi^ojv o^Ao? 1 ifjeTrXrjije ae 2 

TCOV (f)VGLKCOV TTOidcOV oXXol TToXXoLKLS aK7]Kod)S fJLVrj- 

fioveveis cos ovre iroSdypas oLTTaXXdrreL /caArto? 3 
ovre SclktvXlos TroXvTeXrjs napcovvx^s ovre StaS^/za 
K€(f)aXaXylas. iroOev ye Sr) rrpos dXviriav ifjvx^js /cat 
fiiov olkv/jlovcl xprjfjLOLTCov otpeXos rj Softs' rj SwdfJieCOS 

€V CLvXcUS, OV jJLTJ TO XpOJ[JL€VOV €V)(dpLOTOV fj TOls 

B kxovoi kqX to tcov drrovTOov jxtj Seopievov del irap- 
CLKoXovdfj; tl Se tovt' €otlv dXXo i) Xoyos eldtopLevos 
kcli jjLe/JLeXeTTjKws tov TradrjTiKov /cat dXoyov ttjs 
ifsvxfjs e^iOTapuevov ttoXXokls emXafjipdveoOaL ra^u 
/cat pur} nepiopdv diroppeov /cat KaTac^epofievov vtto 4, 
tcov dnovTCovf cooirep ovv 6 Zevoc^cov TraprjveL tcov 
Oecov evTVxovvTas /xaAtcrra pLe/JLvfjoOcu /cat rt/z&V, 
ottos, otclv ev X? € ' ia yevcbpLeda, OappovvTes clvtovs 
7rapaKaXoopLev cos ev [levels ovtols rj8r) /cat cfrlXovs' 
ovtoj /cat tcov XoycoVy ocrot rrpos ra rrddrj f3or]9ovcrL, 
Set rrpo tcov ttoBcov err 1 pieXelo 6 ai tovs vovv e^ovra?, 

C ty e/c 7toXXov irapeoKevaopLevoi pidXXov cbcfreXcooiv 
009 yap ol xaA€770t Kvves rrpos tt&oolv e/cra/Dar- 
TOfievoi /Horjv vtto pLovrjs KaTairpavvovTaL ttjs 
ovvrjdovs, ovtco /cat Ta TrdOrj ra ttjs ifjvxfjs Stayptat- 
vopieva KaTCLTTavoai pahicos ovk eoTiv, dv /lct) Adyot 

1 oxXos Meineke : 6 ox^os. 2 a€ added by Meziriacus. 

3 KaArtos Xylander : rraTpiKtos or koXtlkios. 

4 vtto] ano some MSS. 5 airovTOiv Capps : Trapovrojv. 

a Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 606, Euripides, Frag. 778. 
168 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 465 

speakers of our day, your experience has not been 
that of Merops in the play, and because it cannot 
be said of you, as of him, that 

The plaudits of the mob have driven you a 
from those emotions given us by nature ; but you 
continue to remember what you have often heard, 
that an aristocratic shoe does not rid us of the gout, 
nor an expensive ring of a hangnail, nor a diadem of 
a headache. For what power is there in money or 
fame or influence at court to help us to gain ease of 
soul or an untroubled life, if it is not true that the 
use of them is pleasant to us when we have them and 
that we never miss them when we have them not ? b 
And how else can this be achieved except through 
reason, which has been carefully trained quickly to 
hold back the passionate and irrational part of the 
soul when it breaks bounds, as it often does, and 
not to allow it to flow away and be swept downstream 
because it does not have what it wants ? Therefore, 
just as Xenophon c advised that in prosperity we should 
be particularly mindful of the gods and should honour 
them, so that, when some need comes upon us, we 
may invoke them with the confidence that they are 
already well-disposed and friendly ; so also with such 
reasonings as give help in controlling the passions : 
wise men should give heed to them before the passions 
arise in order that, being prepared far in advance, 
their help may be more efficacious. For as savage 
dogs become excited at every strange cry and are 
soothed by the familiar voice only, so also the passions 
of the soul, when they are raging wild, are not easily 

b Cf. Frag. Contra Divitias, 2 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. 
p. 123); Lucretius, iii. 957: semper avet quod abest. 
c Cyropaedia, i. 6. 3. 

169 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(465) Trapovres ot/cetot kolI avvrjOeis eVtAajLt/JdVeovrat tcov 
rapCLTTOfJLevcDV . 

2. '0 fiev ovv elircbv ore " Set rov €v6vjjl€lct9cli* 
fieAAovra fjirj 7roAAa rrprjaaeiv (jl'/)T€ ISltj LirjTe £vvfj," 

TTpaJTOV fJL€V TjjJLLV TToAvTeAfj TTJV €v6vfJLLCLV KClOlOTT^OI, 

yivojjLevrjv lovlov aTTpo^ias' olov dppcooTcp TrapcLLVtov 
eKaarcp 

\xiv f to ToXaiiTOdp y arpefia ools iv Sefivtois. 

D kclltol kclkov fi€V dvaLoOrjaia 2 crdj/xaros' 3 (/xxpfxaKov 
clttovolcls 2 ' ovoev Se fieArLoov $W)(7]S l aT P°S ° paOvjiia 

KCLL LLClAcLKLCL KCLL TTpOOOGia (j)iX(JL)V KCLL OLK€LLOV Kill 

narpiSog i£aipa>v to rapax&oes avrrjg kcll AvTrrjpov. 

V E77€6Ta KCLL lfj€VOOS €<JTL TO evOvfJLelv TOVS fJLrj 

77oAAa TTpaooovTCLs. eSet yap evOvfJLOTepas etvat 

yVVCLLKCLS dvSpCOV OLKOVpLCL TCL 77oAA(X CTVVOVCTCLS' VVvl 

S' 6 fjiev Bope'a? 

Sta, 7TCLp9evLKfjs aTraA6)(poos ov Slcltjolv, 
a>S <f>r)GLV 'Hat'oSo?, Avttcll Se /cat Tapa^at /cat 

KCLKodv/JLLCLL StCt ^TjAoTVTT L(1S Kol SetCTtSat/XOVta? KCLL 
(ftLAoTLfJLLCLS KCLL K€VLOV So^COV, OOCLS OVK dv €LTTOL TLS , 

1 evdvfjLelaOai] €v6v/jl€lv most mss. 

2 avaioO-qoia . . . arrovoias StobaeilS : avaiaOiqoias . . . 
arTOvia. 

3 awfiaros Capps : oxo/zan. 

a Democritus ; Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , ii. p. 132, 
Frag. 3 ; Marcus Aurelius, iv. 24 ; Seneca, Be Tranquillitate 
Animi, xiii. 1, where the statement is made that these words 
form the beginning of Democritus's work (see especially 
Siefert, op. cit., p. 8) ; De Ira, iii. 6. 3. But Plutarch 
misunderstands the meaning ; Democritus did not advise 
renouncing public life completely: cf. Moralia, 1100 b-c. 

170 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 465 

allayed, unless customary and familiar arguments are 
at hand to curb the excited passions. 

2. Now he ° who said, " The man who would be tran- 
quil in his mind must not engage in many affairs, 
either private or public," first of all makes our 
tranquillity very expensive if it is bought at the price 
of inactivity ; it is as though he advised every sick 
man : 

Lie still, poor wretch, and move not from your bed. 6 

And yet it is true that a state of bodily stupor is a bad 
remedy for insanity ; but no whit better as a physi- 
cian of the soul is he who would relieve it of its dis- 
turbances and distress by prescribing idleness and 
softness and the betrayal of friends and family and 
country. 

In the next place, it is also false that those who are 
not occupied with many things are tranquil in mind. 
For if that were true, women ought to be more 
tranquil than men, since for the most part they keep 
at home ; but as it is, the North Wind 

Blows not through the soft-skinned maid, 

as Hesiod d says, yet more pain and excitement and 
despondency than one could enumerate, caused by 
jealousy and superstitition and ambition and vain 

Note also the word " many " in the present passage. (The 
following paragraph is cited by Stobaeus, vol. iii. pp. 651 f. 
ed. Hense.) 

b Euripides, Orestes, 258 ; quoted again 501 c, infra, and 
in Moralia, 788 f, 901 a, 1126 a ; the words are addressed by 
Electra to Orestes, delirious after the murder of his mother, 
and must be taken closely with the following clause. 

c Cf. Moralia, 135 b. 

d Works and Days, 519, where the poet adds " who stays 
indoors with her dear mother." Cf. 516 f, infra. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

els rrjv yvvaiKCOvlriv vTroppeovotv. 6 Se AaepTrjs 
E etKOGLV errj kcl6' clvtov iv dypco ScacrcofJievo? 

yprjl ovv dii^niroXcp , rj ol fipcooiv re ttoolv t€ 
Trapridei, 1 

rrjv fjiev rrarpiSa /cat tov oIkov /cat rrjv fiaoiXeiav 
€(f)vy€, 2 rrjv Se Xv7T7jv \xzt drrpa^iag /cat /car^eta? 
det ovvoiKovoav et^ey. Iviovs Se /cat to pbrf 
TTpaaoeiv avro 7roAAd/ct9 et? dOviiiav KaOtarrjcrLV, 
cbs rovrov 

avrdp 6 firjVL€ vrjval Traprjfxevos coKvrropoiOL 
Aioyevrjs TlrjAecos vlos, irohas cokvs 'A^tAAeu?* 
ovre ttot et? dyoprjv ircoXeoKero KvSidvecpav, 

OVT€ TTOT es TToXefJLOVy ClAAd (f)diVv9€GK€ (f)LXoV KTJp 

av9i fxevcoVy iroOeeaKe S' dvrrjv re rrroXepiov re. 

F /cat Ae'yet rrepnradcov eVt rovrco /cat dcr^dAAaw 
avroSy 

dXX rjiiai Trapd vrjvalv ercooiov a^dos dpovprjs. 

oOev o*5S' 'JLiTLKovpos oterat Seu> rjovxd^ew, dXXd 
rfj <f>VG€i xprjoOai TToXirzvopievovs /cat Trpaoaovras 
ra KOLvd rovs (J)lXotl[jlovs /cat (f)iXo86£ovs, cos /xaA- 
466 Xov vtt* d7rpayfjLoavvrjs rapdrreaOac /cat KaKovaOat 
irecfrvKoras, av cov opeyovrou pur) Tvyydvcoviv . dAA' 

€K€LVOS pi€V aTOTTOS OX) TOVS 8vVOLLL€VOVS TOL KOLVOL 

irpdaoeiv TrporpeTTopLevos dXXd rovs rjavxtav dyeiv 

1 7raprl9ei Cobet, confirmed by one ms. {TTapriQel edd. of 
Homer) : 77ap€ri0ei. 

2 €<j)vy€] €<f)€vy€ Babbitt. 3 firj] firjbev Hartman. 

a Homer, Od. 9 i. 191. 
172 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 4,65-4,66 

imaginings, seep into the women's quarters. And 
though Laertes a lived twenty years by himself in 
the country 

With one old woman, who his food and drink 
Would place beside him, 

and abandoned his birthplace, 6 his home, and his 
kingship, yet he had grief as an ever-constant com- 
panion of his inactivity and dejection. And for 
some persons, even inactivity itself often leads to 
discontent, as in this instance : 

The swift Achilles, Peleus' noble son, 
Continued in his wrath beside the ships ; 
Nor would he ever go to council that 
Ennobles men, nor ever go to war, 
But wasted away his heart, remaining there, 
And always longed for tumult and for war. c 

And he himself is greatly disturbed and distressed at 
this and says : 

But here I sit beside my ships, 
A useless burden to the earth. d 

For this reason not even Epicurus e believes that men 
who are eager for honour and glory should lead an 
inactive life, but that they should fulfil their natures 
by engaging in politics and entering public life, on 
the ground that, because of their natural dispositions, 
they are more likely to be disturbed and harmed by 
inactivity if they do not obtain what they desire. 
But he is absurd in urging public life, not on those who 
are able to undertake it, but on those who are unable 

b That is, the town of Ithaca ; he continued to live on the 
island. 

c Homer, II. , i. 488 ff. d Ibid, xviii. 104. 

e Usener, Epicurea, p. 328, Frag. 555. The following 
passage is cited by Stobaeus, vol. iii. p. 652 ed. Hense. 

173 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(466) fir) 8vvafievovs' 8el 8e fir) 7rXrj6ei fxrjS* dAtyoV^rt 
TTpayfjLOLTWV, dXXd tco kclXco /cat tco aloxptp to 
evdvfiov 6pL%€LV /cat to 8vo9vfiov tcov yap kclXcov r) 
TrapdXetipLS oi>x rJTTOv r) tcov (fravXcov 1 r) rrpd^Ls 
aviapov ioTL /cat Tapaxoo8es, cos eiprjTCLL. 

3. Tovs fitv yap d(f)copLOfi€Vcos eva filov dXvrrov 
vojJLL^ovTas, cos evioL tov tcov yecopycov Tj TOV TCOV 
rjiOecov rj tov tcov fiacriXecov, lkolvcos 6 MevavSpos 
V7TOfJU[JLvrjGK€i Xeycov , 

B cpfirjv iyco tovs ttXovglovs, ai Oavta, 

oh fir) to 8av€i£,€odai rrpooeoTiv, ov GTeveLV 

TOLS VVKTCLS OvSe OTp€(/)OfA€VOVS dvCO KOJTCO 

" oifJLOL " Xeyeiv, rjSvv 8e /cat rrpdov Tiva 
V7tvov KaOevSeiv. 

€LTCL 7TpOo8LeX9cOV, 2 COS KOl TOVS TtXoVGLOVS Opd? 

TavTa rrdaxovTas rocs nevrjoLv, 

dp' iaTi (<f>rjai) ovyyeves tl Xvrrrj /cat fiios ; 
Tpvcf)€pa) pito uvveoTiVy iv86£tp /3ta> 
TrdpeoTiv, drropco crvyKCLTayrjpdoKeL ftico. 

aAA' cooTTep ol SetAot /cat vclvtlcovt€S iv tco irXeiv, 

€ltcl paov olofievoL 8id£eiv eav €ls yavXov i£ a/ca- 

C tov kcll rrdXLV idv els TpLrjprj fieTaftcoGLV, ov8ev 

TTepCLLVOVOL TTjV ^oA^V KCLL Tr)v SetAtW GVflfl€TCL- 
(f)€pOVT€S iaVTOLS' OVTCOS at TCOV ftlcOV dvTLfl€TCL- 

XrjipeLS ovk i^cLLpovGL* Trjs i/jvxrjs ra Xvttovvtcl /cat 

1 <f>av\a>v] fiXapepcov Stobaeus. 

2 TTpooSicAdwv Reiske, confirmed by two mss. : irpoaeXdajv. 

3 6pa] ecopa in most mss. 

4 e^atpovcL Dubner : igatpovcn. 

n Probably by Democritus (c/. Frag. 256), not Plutarch. 
174 



ON TRANQUILLITY OFMIND, 466 

to lead an inactive life ; tranquillity and discontent 
should be determined, not by the multitude or the 
fewness of one's occupations, but by their excellence 
or baseness ; for the omission of good acts is no less 
vexatious and disturbing than the commission of evil 
acts, as has been said. a 

3. To those who believe that one quite special kind 
of life is free from pain, as some do the life of farmers, 
others that of bachelors, others that of kings, the 
words of Menander b are a sufficient reminder : 

I used to think the wealthy, Phanias, 
Who have no need to borrow, would not groan 
Of nights, nor tossing up and down would cry 
" Ah, woe is me!" but that they slept a sweet 
And tranquil sleep. 

He then goes on to relate that he observes that even 
the wealthy fare the same as the poor : 

Is there then kinship between life and grief ? 
Grief's in a famous life ; with a rich life 
It stays ; with a mean life it too grows old. 

But like people at sea c who are cowardly and sea- 
sick and think that they would get through this 
voyage more comfortably if they should transfer 
from their little boat to a ship, and then again 
from the ship to a man-of-war ; but they accomplish 
nothing by the changes, since they carry their nausea 
and cowardice along with them ; so the exchange of 
one mode of life for another does not relieve the soul 

b Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 79, Frag. 281 (p. 378 ed. 
Allinson, L.C.L.) ; from the Citharistes. 

c The rest of this chapter and the beginning of the next 
is cited by Stobaeus, vol. iii. p. 249 ed. Hense. It is also 
imitated by St. Basil, Epistle ii. (vol. i. p. 8 ed. Deferrari, 
L.C.L.). 

175 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(466) rapdrrovra' ravra S' iarlv aireipia npayfjidrajv, 
aXoyiaria, to fir) Svvaadai jU/^S' eTrioracrdai XPV~ 
a9at, rols irapovcnv opdtos. ravra Kal ttXovolovs 
X^ifJid^eL Kal Trevrjras, ravra Kal yeyapLrjKOTas avia 
i<al dydpLovs' Sea ravra <f>€vyovcri rrjv dyopdv, elra 
rrjv rjavxtav QV (f)€povoi, Sta ravra rrpoayaiyds iv 
auAat? Slwkovgl, Kal rrapeXdovres evOvs fiapv- 
vovr at. 

ovodpeorov oi vooovvres arropias vtto 9 
kol yap rj yvvrj Xvirel Kal rov larpov alriwvrai Kal 
hvox e P a <' V0V(Jl T ° kXlvlSiov, 
D <f)LXa)v 8' 6 r iXOtov Xvnpos 1 o r dmcbv fiapvs, 

cos" 6 "Iojv (frrjoiv. elra rfjs vooov ScaXvOe larjs Kal 
Kpdaeajs ircpas iyyevojJLevrjs, 2 rjXOev rj vyieia <f)lXa 
rrdvra rroiovaa Kal rrpoorjvrj' 6 yap ^x^es a>a Kal 
dfivXia Kal urjrdveiov dprov Starrrvajv, rrjjxepov 
avronvpov err* eXaiais rj KapSapbiSi oirelrai rrpoa- 
(frtXojs 3 Kal npodviiojs. 

4. Toiavrrjv 6 XoytCFfids evKoXlav Kal pLerafioXrjv 
iyyevofievos notel* rrpos eKaorov fiiov. 'AXe^avopos 
'Ava^dpxov rrepl koo\xcov direipias aKovoov iSaKpve, 
Kal ra>v (f)lXa)v ipa)rd)vra)v 6 ri Trerrovdev, " ovk 
d£iov," ^4 >r l» " 8a/cpu€iv, el kogjjlojv 6vra>v arreipajv 

1 \v7Tpds Grotius : Xvrrrjpds. 
2 iyyevoixivqs Meineke ; zyyiyvo\x£vr\s Stobaeus : yevo[x£v7)s. 

3 7Tpoa<j)iXa)s] omitted by most mss. and Stobaeus. 
4 7tol€l Stegmann, confirmed by mss. of Stobaeus : jjl€tcl7toi€L 

a Cf. Lucretius, iii. 1057 ff. : commutare locum quasi 
onus deponere possit ; Seneca, De TranqvAllitate Animi, 
ii. 13 f. b Euripides, Orestes, 232. 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 743, Frag. 56, 

176 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 466 

of those things which cause it grief and distress a : 
these are inexperience in affairs, unreasonableness, 
the want of ability or knowledge to make the right 
use of present conditions. These are the defects 
which, like a storm at sea, torment rich and poor alike, 
that afflict the married as well as the unmarried ; 
because of these men avoid public life, then find their 
life of quiet unbearable ; because of these men seek 
advancement at court, by which, when they have 
gained it, they are immediately bored. 

Through helplessness the sick are hard to please, b 

for their wives are troublesome, they grumble at the 
doctor, they are vexed with the bed, 

Each friend that comes annoys, that goes affronts, 

as Ion c has it. But later, when the disease is over 
and a sounder disposition supervenes, health returns 
and makes everything pleasant and agreeable d : he 
that yesterday loathed eggs and delicate cakes and 
fine bread to-day eats eagerly and willingly of a coarse 
loaf with olives and water-cress. 

4. Such contentment and change of view toward 
every kind of life is created by reason when it has 
been engendered within us. Alexander wept when 
he heard Anaxarchus e discourse about an infinite 
number of worlds, and when his friends inquired what 
ailed him, " Is it not worthy of tears," he said, " that, 
when the number of worlds is infinite/ we have not 

d Cf. Moralia, 101 c-d. 

* Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , ii. p. 238, A 11; this 
Anaxarchus accompanied Alexander to India (Diogenes 
Laertius, ix. 61). 

* Cf. F. M. Cornford, CI. Quart., xxviii. (1934), 1 ff. on 
" Innumerable Worlds in Presocratic Philosophy." 

177 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

E ivos ovherrco Kvpioi yeyovajxev ; " Kpar^s 1 Se rnqpav 
eycov /cat rpificova 1 7rat£a>v /cat yeXtov ooairep ev 
eoprfj rov jStov 2 Stere'Aecre. /cat firjv /cat rov 
AyapLepuvova ro ttoXXwv jSaoiXeveiv iXvTrer 

yvwaeat 'ArpeiSrjv 'Ayajtxeu^ova, rov Trepl ttov- 

tcjov 
Zeus iverjKe ttovolgl Sta/x7reoeV 

Aioyevrjs Se irwXovpievos eaKOJTrre rov KiqpvKa 
/cara/cet/xevos" avaarrjvcu 8' o?3/c ijSovXero /ceAeuov- 
TO?, dAAd Trat^ojv /cat /caTayeAdw eAeyev, r< et 8* 
t^^uv eniTTpaoKes; ' /cat HcoKpdrrjs /xev eV Seoyxa)- 
Trjpicp (fnXocrocfxjov SteAe'yeTO rols iraipois* 6 Se 
■P 3>ae'#a>v avaftas els rov ovpavov e/cAatev, et /x^Set? 
aura) rous* tou Trarpos Ittttovs /cat rd dp/xara 3 
77apaSt8a)C7tv. 

"QoTrep ovv to V7r68rjpLa rep 7708 1 ovvhiaurpe^erai 
/cat ov Tovvavriov, ovtco rovs filovs at StaOeaeis 
avve^opboiovGLV avraZs. ov yap rj ovvrfieio. rroieZ 
roZs eXopuevois rov dptarov fiiov rj8vv, o!)s tls elnev, 
dAAd to <f>poveZv apta rov avrov /3tW TroieZ /cat 
467 apiOTOV /cat yjStarov. St6 tt^v Trrjyrjv rrjs evdvpbias 
ev avroZs ovoav rjpuv e/c/ca#atooj/xer, tva /cat rd 
Iktos, ojs ot/ceta /cat <f)iXia } /x?) ^aAevrcos 1 xpoj/xeVots 1 
ovpi^eprjTai* 

1 rptpajva] TpifidbvLov in two mss. 

2 rov j3tov] to) /3i'oj in many mss. 
3 ra ap^ara] r6 ap/ia Diibner. 

178 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 466-467 

yet become lords of a single one ? " But Crates, 
though he had but a wallet and a threadbare cloak, 
passed his whole life jesting and laughing as though 
at a festival. It was, indeed, burdensome to Aga- 
memnon to be lord of many men : 

Agamemnon you shall know, King Atreus' son, 
Whom, beyond all, Zeus cast into a mesh 
Of never-ending cares ° ; 

but Diogenes, when he was being sold at auction, 6 
lay down on the ground and kept mocking the 
auctioneer ; when this official bade him arise, he 
would not, but joked and ridiculed the man, saying, 
" Suppose you were selling a fish ? " And Socrates, 6 
though in prison, discoursed on philosophic themes to 
his friends ; but Phaethon, when he had mounted up 
to heaven, wept because no one would deliver to him 
his father's horses and chariot. 

So, just as the shoe is turned with the foot, and not 
the contrary, so do men's dispositions make their 
lives like themselves. For it is not, as someone d has 
said, habituation which makes the best life sweet to 
those who have chosen it, but wisdom which makes 
the same life at once both best and sweetest. There- 
fore let us cleanse the fountain of tranquillity that is 
in our own selves, in order that external things also, 
as if our very own and friendly, may agree with us 
when we make no harsh use of them : 

a Homer, II. , x. 88-89. 

b Cf Diogenes Laertius, vi. 29. 

Cf Moralia, 607 f. 

d A Pythagorean precept, cf. Moralia, 602 u, 47 b-c, 123 c ; 
probably not Democritus, as Hirzel (Hermes, xiv. 367) sug- 
gests, or Seneca, as Apelt in his translation of Plutarch 
supposes. 

179 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(467) roZs 7rpdyjjiacnv yap ovx} Qv p,ovo9 at xpecbv 
/xe'Act yap avTots ovoev dAA' ovvTvyxdvojv 1 
tol 7Tpay\xaT dpdcos av 2 nOfj, Trpd^et 3 KaXtos- 

5. Ku/3et'a ydp 6 YlXdrojv tov fttov aTreiKaaev, 
ev to /cat fidXXeiv Set ret 7rp6o(f)opa, /cat fiaXovra 
Xpr\od ai KaXcos tols tt€govol. tovtojv Se to fiev 
/JdAAetv 4 ovk e<£' rjfjuv, to Se TrpoorjKovTOJs 5 Se'^e- 
B a#at tol ytvofieva 6 irapd Trjs tvx"]S /cat vifxeLV 
e/caara) tottov, iv a> /cat to oIkzZov wcfreXrjoei 
jLtaAtcrra /cat to dfiovXr}TOV r\KiOTa Xv7Trjaei tovs 
iiriTvyyavovTas , rjfJLeTepov k'pyov ioTLV, av ev 
cfrpovtopLev. tovs fJLcv yap ard)(yovs Kal dvorjTovs 

7T€pl TOV filOVy 0)07T€p TOVS VOGwSeLS Tols GWfiaOL 
fJLTjT€ KaVjJLa <j>€p€LV JJLtJt€ KpVOS 8wa/JL€VOVS , i^LGTTJGL 

{lev evTvyia GVOTeXXet Se Sua-ri^ta* TapaTTovrai S' 
vtt* dfJL(f)OTepa)v, {jl&XXov S' vcj)' avTcov iv dfi(f)OT€poLS 
/cat o&x 7]7"rov iv tols XeyojJievots dyaOols. 0eo- 
Swpos fiev yap 6 kXt]9€ls dOeos eAeye ttj Se£ta tovs 
Xoyovs opeyovTOs avTod tjj dptcrrepa Se'^ea&it tovs 
C aKpoajfJiivovs' oi 8' a7ratSet>TOt TroXXaKLS ttjv tvx?) v 
oei-idv TrapLOTa/Jievrjv irrapLGTepoJs [leTaXafi^d- 
vovTes 7 dax^l^ovovoiv . ol Se (frpovifioL, Kaddirep Tats 
[AeXiTTais /ze'At (f)€pec to SpifJLVTaTOV Ttx)V (f)VTO)v 8 /cat 

1 ovvTvyxavwv Valckenaer (ovv rvyxdvcov Stobaeus) : o 
rvyxawav, 2 av] rjv Stobaeus. 

3 7rpa^et] rrpdao€L Stobaeus. 

4 pdXXeiv Diibner : j8aAeu\ 

5 jrpoorjKovTojs] 7rpoarjK€iv in most MSS. 

6 ytvofieva] SiSd/xeva some mss., perhaps rightly. 

7 jjL€Ta\afipdvovT€s] Aa/x/Javovres" most MSS. 

180 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 467 

It does no good to rage at circumstance ; 
Events will take their course with no regard 
For us. But he who makes the best of those 
Events he lights upon will not fare ill.° 

5. Plato, b for instance, compared life to a game of 
dice in which we must try, not only to throw what suits 
us best, but also, when we have thrown, to make good 
use of whatever turns up. But with circumstances, 
though it is not in our pow r er to throw what we 
please, yet it is our task, if we are w r ise, to accept in a 
suitable manner whatever accrues from Fortune and 
to assign to each event a place in which both what 
suits us shall help us most and what is unwanted shall 
do least harm. For those who are without skill and 
sense as to how they should live, like sick people 
whose bodies can endure neither heat nor cold, are 
elated by good fortune and depressed by adversity ; 
and they are greatly disturbed by both, or rather by 
themselves in both and as much in what is called 
good as in the bad. Theodorus, c called the Atheist, 
used to say that he offered his discourses with his right 
hand, but his audience received them with their left ; 
so uninstructed persons, when Fortune presents her- 
self adroitly on their right, often gauchely substitute 
their left hands in receiving her and cut a sorry 
figure. But men of sense, just as bees extract 
honey from thyme, the most pungent and the driest 

a Euripides, Bellerophon, Frag. 287 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag. 2 , p. 446) ; quoted also in Be Vita et Poesi Homeri, 153 
(Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 424). 

5 Republic, 604 c ; quoted in Moralia, 112 e-f. 

c Cf. Moralia, 378 b, 5 a ; Polybius, xxxviii. 2. 8-9 ; see 
also von Scala, Rheinisches Museum, xlv. 474 f. 

8 ra>v <j>vr<x)v added by W.C.H., after Reiske. 

VOL. VI G 181 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(467) ^rjporarov 6 6vfjLos y ovtojs drro tcov Svax^peardrajv 

IToAAoLKlS TTpayjJLOLTWV oIkCIOV TL Kol XP 7 j <TL l JL0V 

avTols AapLpdvovoi. 

6. Tout' ovv Set 7rpo)Tov aoKeZv Kal pLeXerdv, 
ojorrep 6 rrjs kvvos dfiaprajv too Xtdco Kal ttjv 
\xr\Tpvidv Trard^as, ' ouS' ovtojs," ecprj, * kolkojs." 
escort yap fjueOiordvai ttjv tvx?) v Ik tcov dfiovXr)- 
tcov. €(f>vya$ev9y] AuoyevrjS' " ouS' ovtco KaKtos." 
D rjp^aTO yap (f>iXoGocf>eZv p,€Ta ttjv tf>vyrjv. ILrpojvi 
to) Kiriei pita vavs Trepifjv tfropTrjyos* Trvdopievos Se 1 
TavTTjv avTotfiopTOV drToXooXevai ovyKXvoOeZaav, 
11 evy* ," elrrev, " c5 tvx 7 ]* rroieZs els t6v Tpificova 2 
GweXavvova rjjxas" 

TY ovv KOjXvei fjupLeiaOai tovtovs ; dpxrjv Tiva 
jjL€TLcbv 3 OLT)[jLapT€s; ev ay pep Sid^ets em/xeAo^evos- 
tcov 18 tcov. dXXa tf)iXLav fivcopievos rjyepiovos an- 
ojgOtjs; aKivovvcos Kal aTTpayfiovcos fticoorj. rrdXiv 
iv TTpdyjiauiv aaxoXias €X ovaL KCLL <f>povTL§ag 
yeyovas ; 

ovbe deppLov vSojp togov ye 4 Tev^ei 5 fiaXOaKa yvZa, 

1 8e] Se Kal Reiske. 

2 After TpLfiaiva Sandbach deletes ko1 ttjv gtoolv. 

3 nva /zericov Cobet ; irapayyiWojv Reiske : tlvol reXcov. 

4 togov ye] rooovhe most mss. 

5 T€v£ ei] r£yt;€L most mss. ; T€vx €l mss. of Pindar ; riyyei 
Heyne ; togov ye p.aXdaKa t€vx €l 7 v ? a Pindar. 

a Cf. Moralia, 32 e, 41 f ; Porphyry, Be Abstinentia, iv. 
20 (p. 264 ed. Nauck). 

6 Cf. Moralia, 147 c. 

c Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vi. 21. 

d Ibid. vii. 5 ; cf. also Moralia, 87 a, 603 d ; Seneca, Be 
Tranquillitate Animi, xiv. 3; Crates, Frag. 21 A (Edmonds, 
Elegy and Iambus, vol. ii. p. 66). 
182 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 467 

of plants , a often in like manner draw from the most 
unfavourable circumstances something which suits 
them and is useful. 

6. This, then, we should practice and cultivate first 
of all, like the man who threw a stone at his dog, but 
missed her and hit his stepmother, whereupon he 
exclaimed, " Not so bad after all ! " b For it is 
possible to change the direction of Fortune when she 
has given us things we do not wish. Diogenes c was 
driven into exile : " Not so bad after all ! " for after 
his exile he began to lead the life of a philosopher. 
Zeno d of Citium had one merchantman remaining ; 
when he learned that this had been sunk at sea and 
lost with all its cargo, he cried, " Much obliged, 
Fortune ! You also drive me to the philosopher's 
cloak." e 

What, then, prevents our imitating such men as 
these ? Have you failed in your canvass for an office ? 
You will be able to live in the country and look after 
your own affairs. Were you repulsed in wooing the 
friendship of some great man ? Your life will be free 
from danger and trouble. Have you, again, become 
occupied with matters which take all your time and 
fill you with cares ? 

Nor shall hot water so soften the limbs, 

e In the mss. the words " and the Stoa " follow. F. H. 
Sandbach, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 
Nov. 7, 1929, has shown that these words are interpolated by 
someone, who, " seeing that tov rpi^wva means the cynic's 
cloak, thought to air his knowledge that Zeno was not a 
Cynic but a Stoic." If Zeno had made the remark our mss. 
credit him with, it would be " remarkable prescience on the 
part of the beginner in philosophy, who was to spend many 
years as a pupil first of the Cynic Crates and then of other 
philosophers before starting his own school in the Stoa ! " 

18S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(467) Kara UivSapov, d)s oo£a Troiel /cat to rifidadai 
fierd twos ovvapueajs 

ttovov r)8vv 

KOLflCLTOV T €U/CaUCXTOV. 

E aAAa rt? amr\vTr\ oev e/c oia^oXrjs r) cf)96vov Sua- 
rjjjiepLa /cat OKopaKiGyLOS ; Ittl tcls Moucras' ovpiov 

TO 7TV€V[Xa /Cat TTjV 5 A/CaS^jLt£taV, <jJ07T€p HXdrcovL 

XeLfiaoOevTi irepl ttjv Alovvolov <£tAtav. 

AtO /Cat TOVTO TTpOS CvOvfJLLaV fJL€yCL, TO TOVS 

iv$6£ovs diToOecopzZvy el [ArjSev vtto tojv avrcov 
TreTrovOaoLV. olov aVatSta to Xvttovv eoTi; tovs 
'Pcofiaiajv 6 pa fiaoiXeis, cbv ovSeis via) ttjv dpxrjv 
aTreXiTre. Trevia hvo(f)Opeis 7rapovorj ; /cat tis dv 
ifiovXov fiaXXov elvai 1 Botajrcuv rj 'JLTrapLeivcbvoas ; 
tls oe c Pa)jLtatajv rj QafipiKios; " aAAa oie<j>dapTal 
fjiov 2 to yvvaiov!' ovk dviyva)Kas ovv tovtti- 
ypapLpua to iv AeA<^ot9, 

F vypas /cat t pampas fiaoiXevs *Ayl$ /x* dveOrjKev 

ovo* aKrjKoas, otl tovtov ttjv yvvaiKa TtjLtatav 
3 AXKL^idorjs 8i€(/)9€ip€, /cat to yevvrjOev 'AA/ct- 
pidorjv e/caAet ifjiOvpit^ovaa Trpos ras* depaTraivloas ; 
aAAa tovt ^Ayiv ovk eKcoXvoev ivoo^oTaTOV f EA- 

1 (jl&XXov €Lvat Benseler, confirmed by mss. : klvai /-taAAov. 
2 /jlov] gov or aoi in many mss. 

a Nemean Odes, iv. 4. 

5 Euripides, Bacchae, 66 ; c/. Moralia, 758 c, 794 b ; 
Commentarii in Hesiodum, 48 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 75). 

c The Academy was dedicated to the Muses. 

d Cf. for example Diogenes Laertius, hi. 19-21. When 
Dionysius had caused Plato to be sold into slavery, a friend 
184 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 467 

as Pindar a has it, since high repute and honour con- 
joined with a measure of power make 

Labour pleasant and toil to be sweet toil. 6 

Have you, by reason of slander or envy, become the 
butt of jeers and cat-calls ? The breeze is favouring 
that bears you to the Muses and the Academy, as it 
was for Plato d when he was buffeted by the storm 
of Dionysius's friendship. 

For this reason it will also help greatly toward 
tranquillity of mind to observe that famous men have 
suffered nothing at all from evils the same as yours. 
Does childlessness, for example, vex you ? Consider 
the kings e of Rome, of whom not one was able to 
bequeath the kingdom to a son. Are you distressed 
by your present poverty ? Well, what Boeotian 
rather than Epameinondas, what Roman rather than 
Fabricius, would you have preferred to be ? " But 
my wife has been seduced." Have you, then, not 
read the inscription at Delphi, 

The lord of land and sea, King Agis, put me here f ; 

and have you not heard that Alcibiades^ seduced 
Agis's wife, Timaea, and that, whispering to her hand- 
maids, she called her child Alcibiades ? But this did 
not prevent Agis from being the most celebrated and 

ransomed him and bought for him " the little garden in the 
Academy.'* 

e Others prefer to translate " Emperors," and regard the 
passage as proof that this essay was written during the reign 
of Vespasian, who was the first emperor to be succeeded by 
a son. I consider such an early date for this work alto- 
gether unlikely. 

/ Preger, Inscr. Graec. Metricae> p. 76, no. 87. 

g Cf Life of Alcibiades, xxiii. 7 (203 d). 

185 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Atjvcov elvai /cat LieytaTov cooirep ovhe HriX7rcova 
468 tlov kojt avrov (f)iAoo6(f)cov IXapcorara tfqv a/cd- 
Aaaros oucr' rj dvydrrjp- dAAa /cat MrjrpoKAeovs 
6v€lSlgolvtos , " ijJLov ow," €<f>rj, " dfJLCLpTrjfjLa tovt 
early rj €K€Lvrjs; " elrrovros Se rod MrjrpoKAeovs, 

€K€LVT]S fJL€V CLfJidpTrj fJLOL , GOV S' (ITU^/Xa " ' " 7760? 

XeyeLs; " elirev, " ovx} tA dfjLapTrjLiara /cat Sia- 

77TOJUaT eOTL; 7TCLVV fJL€V OVV , €(f)rj . ra oe 

OLCLTTTcbfJLCLT' OV^ <&V OlCLTTTLOpLaTCL KCLL a7T0T€Vy- 

fiara; " ovvtopboAoyrjoev 6 Mt^too/cAt]?. " ra S' 
diroTtvyixcLT ovx &v d7TOT€vyfJLara kcll drvxrj- 
fjLCLTa; "3 TTpdto Aoyco kclI <f>i\oo6<f)La K€VOV diro- 
helijas vAayfjLCL rrjv rod kvvlkov ^Aaa^rj/jLLav. 
B 7. Tovs 8e noAAovs ov ptovov ra tlov <f)LAtov kclI 
oIk€lcov aAAa /cat ra tlov emptor dvta /cat irapo^v- 
vet Aca/ca. ^Aaa(j>rjLiiaL yap /cat dpyat /cat <f)66voi 
/cat KCLKorjdeLCLi /cat ^rjAorvTTiaL fierd Svofievelas 
clvtlov per €l<jl tlov ixdvTLOv Krjpes, ivoxAovai Se 

/Cat TTCLpO^VVOVGL TOVS aVOTjTOVS' LOCT7T€p dfJLeAeL /Cat 

yeiTovcov d/cpa^oAtat /cat avvrjOcov Sua/coAtat /cat 
tlov Trepl Tag Trpd^eis vnovpytov uo^^ptat Tives. 
vlJ)* lov ovx vJKMJTd /xot So/cets" /cat clvtos liTLTapaT- 
Topievos, cooirep ol So^o/cAeof? laTpol 

TTLKpaV X°^V V xAv^OVCTL (jxtpLLaKte TTLKptp, 

ovTLQs dvTLxa-AeTraiveiv /cat cruve/C77t/cpatWcr#at rots' 

C ihcelvajv rrdOeoL /cat votnjpLaoiv, ovk evAoytos. a 

yap TTpaTTeis 7rpay/xara TremaTevpLevos , ovx drrAols 

TjdeoLv ovSe ^p^OTot? tooirep evcfrveaiv opydvois 

1 Kal arvxwcLra Stegmann, confirmed by two mss. : drvxrj- 

jJLOLTa. 

a Cf. Diogenes Laertius, ii. 114. 
186 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 467-468 

the greatest of Greeks. Just as the licentiousness 
of his daughter did not prevent Stilpo a from lead- 
ing the most cheerful life of all the philosophers 
of his time ; on the contrary, when Metrocles re- 
proached him, he asked, " Is this my fault or hers ? " 
And when Metrocles replied, " Her fault, but your 
misfortune," he said, " What do you mean ? Are 
not faults also slips ? " M Certainly," said Metrocles. 
u And are not slips also mischances of those who 
have slipped ? " Metrocles agreed. " And are not 
mischances also misfortunes of those whose mis- 
chances they are ? " By this gentle and philosophic 
argument he showed the Cynic's abuse to be but 
idle yapping. 

7. But most people are pained and exasperated by 
the faults, not only of their friends and relatives, but 
also of their enemies. For abuse and rage on their 
part, envy and malevolence and jealousy, coupled 
with ill-will, are the bane of those who are subject to 
these faults, but it is fools whom they trouble and 
exasperate — as, for example, neighbours' outbursts of 
temper and friends' peevishness, and certain acts of 
dishonesty on the part of state officials charged with 
administration. By these things you yourself seem 
to me to be disturbed as much as anybody, and like 
the physicians to whom Sophocles b alludes — 

With bitter drugs they purge the bitter bile — 

so you become angry and bitter against these men 
and suffer from their passions and infirmities ; but this 
is irrational. For even in the execution of matters 
committed to your personal care, most of them are in 
fact administered, not by simple and excellent natures, 

b Cf, 463 f, supra, and the note. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(468) dAAd Kapxdpois ra 77oAAd /cat axoXioZs Sta/covetrat. 
to jxkv ovv drrevOvveiv ravra pur) vofju^e gov epyov 
elvai firjo' aXXcos paoiov. av S' cos toiovtols avrols 

Tr€<f>VKOOl ^pd>jJi€VOS, 0)<77T€p llTpOS OOOVTaypdlS Kdl 

ayKTrjpcnv, tjttios <f>awr) /cat fxirpios e/c tcov ivoe- 
XOpLevcov, eixfcpavfj rfj afj oiadeo'i pidXXov tj Xvirrjor) 
rals irepcov drjSiais /cat pLO)(9r)pLJus , coojrep Kvvas, 1 
av vXaKTcooL, to TrpoorJKOv avrols eKelvovs 2 old- 
fievos rrepaiveiv, /cat ovkctl A^aet? 3 77oAAd Xv7rrjpa 
D avveiadycov , 4 coanep els xa>pt'ov koZXov /cat raueivov 
imppeovra, rrjv paKpoifjvx^v ravrrjv /cat ttjv do9e- 
vecav, dXXoTpitov dvaTTipLirXapbevos*' kclkoov. ottov 
ydp evLOL tcov (j>iXoo6(f)cov /cat tov eXeov ipeyovcn 
77/069 oltvxovvtols dvdpcoirovs yivofievov, cos kolXov 
tov /3o7]6eZv ov tov avvaXyeZv kcll ovvevhihovai toZs 
ttXtjolov ovtos' o Se fieZl^ov ioTiv, ouS' glvtcqv* 
djxapTavovTOJV kolI Sta/c€tueVa>v (j>avXcos to rjOos 
aloOavopbevovs dOvpceZv kclL Sva<f)opeZv icooiv, dXXd 
Oeparrevetv dvev Xvtttjs ttjv KaKiav fj Set/ gk6tt€L 

St) 8 7760? OVK dXoyOV €GTL TTCpiopdv aVTOVS, OTL flTj 

irdvTes elalv ol ^pcouevot KaL npooiovTes rjfuv 

E ijneiKeZs /cat xapUvTes, dxOopuevovs /cat Sua/coAat- 

vovtcls ; dXX 6 pa, </>t'Ae HaKKce, [irj Xavdavofxev 9 

iavTOVs ov to KadoXov ttjs fioxOrjptas tcov ivTvyxa- 

1 Kvvas Stephanus : kvvcs. 

2 €K€Lvovg Reiske : ifcetvots* 

3 koX ovk4tl Xrjoeis Pohleiiz : em (or eVei) ArjcreLS (or Xrjar)). 

4 ovv€icrdya)v Capps : avvdyajv. 

5 avonTifjLTTAdfjLevos Wilamowitz : dvaTriix7TXa{.Uv7]v. 

6 olvtojv Reiske : avrcov. 

7 fj Set Meziriacus, confirmed by mss. : 17S77. 

8 8?) added by W.C.H. 

9 Xavddvofxev Bernardakis : XavOdpcofiev. 

188 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 468 

men naturally suited to be another's irstruments, as 
it were, but by jagged and crooked ones. Do not, 
therefore, consider it your business to straighten 
them out, and it would not in any case be easy to do 
so. But if — dealing v ith them as being what they are 
by nature, just as a physician uses forceps for teeth 
and clips for wounds a — you show yourself as gentle 
and self-controlled as you can, you will have greater 
pleasure in your own state of mind than distress at 
the unpleasantness and villainy of those others, 
and you will think that they, like dogs when 
they bark, are but fulfilling their nature ; and no 
longer will you unwittingly gather into this present 
captiousness or infirmity of yours many grievances, 
like offscourings which drain into some hollow and 
low-lying ground, b thus letting yourself be infected 
with the vices of others. For since some of the philo- 
sophers censure even pity that is expended upon 
unfortunate persons, on the ground that it is good to 
give help to our neighbours, but not to participate in 
their sorrows nor give in to them ; and, what is more 
important, since these philosophers do not allow us, 
when we perceive ourselves to be doing wrong and 
to be getting into a bad state of mind, to despair or 
be dejected, but bid us cure our vice painlessly, as we 
should : just consider, then — how can it be anything 
but irrational to allow ourselves to become vexed and 
troubled because not everyone who has dealings with 
us or approaches us is honourable and cultivated ? 
No, my dear Paccius, you must see to it that we 
are not unwittingly taking a stand in alarm, not at the 

a See J. S. Milne, Surgical Instruments in Greek and 
Roman Times, pp. 162-163. 
b Cf. 479 b, infra. 
vol. vi g2 189 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

VOVTOJV dXXd TO TTpOS rjfJL&S VTTO (frlXaVTLCLS twos ov 

jJuoo7TOvr]pias TrpofiaXXoLievoi /cat SeSot/coTe9. ctt 
yap ucbo8pal irepl tcl irpdyiiaTa TTTolai koX Trap* 
d^iav £(f)€0€Ls /cat 8loj^€ls r) irakiv dVooTpo^at /cat 
Sta/3oAat tgls TTpos av9pa)7Tovs iyyevvtooiv viroifjias 

KCLL SvCTKoXlCLS , V(f)' COV TCL fJL€V Cl7TOCJT€p€Lo8ai TOls 
8e 7T€pt7TL7TT€LV 8oKOVLl€V 6 8k TOt? TTpdyLiaOLV 

idicrdels iXaipcos ovinrepLchepecjOai /cat jxeTpicos 
F €VkoXcl)tcltos dvGpojTrois oLLiXeiv ytWrat /cat TTpCLO- 
raro9. 

8. "Odev eKetvov avdis tov rrepl tow TrpayLiaTCov 
Xoyov dvaXafitoLiev. cos yap iv tcq TrvpeTTetv iriKpd 
irdvTa /cat dr]8fj c^atWrat yevoLiivots, dAA' OTav 
tSajLiev eTepovs raura TrpoacpepoLiivovg /cat pur] 
§VG)(€paiVOVTaS y OVK€TL to gltlov ov8e to ttotov 
dAA' avTOVs atTicvLieda /cat ttjv vooov ovtojs /cat 
469 T °fe irpdyiiaai rravooLieda Li€jJb(f)6jJL€VOi /cat Sikj^c- 
paivovTes , av eTepovs rauTa irpooheypiJievovs a- 
Xvttojs /cat IXaptos optoiiev. dyadov tolvvv iv tols 
dfiovXrjTOis gviittt to \xaoi irpos evdviiiav /cat to lltj 
irapopav oca 7rpoacj)tXrj /cat dcrreta TrdpeoTiv rjjMV, 
dXXa LiiyvvvTas i^aiiavpovv rd yzipova tois /3cA- 
rtocrt. vvv §€ Tas Liev oifteis vtto 1 tcov dyav Xainrpcov 
TLTpajoKOLievas a7TOOTp€(j)OVTes Tats dvOrjpals /cat 
Troco8eoi ^potat? iraprjyopovLiev, ttjv 8e 8idvoiav 

ivT€LVOLi€V €LS T(X XvTTTJpd /Cat TTpOG^ia^OLLeOa TOls 

B tcov dviapcov ev8iaTpi^€LV dvaXoyioLiols, llovovov 

1 vtto] airo in most mss. 

° C/., for example, 456 f, supra. 
b That is, the argument presented in chap. 4, supra. 

190 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 468-469 

general wickedness of those we encounter, but at 
their particular wickedness to us ; so our motive 
would be a selfish interest, not detestation of villainy. 05 
For excessive apprehension about public affairs and 
unworthy appetites and desires, or, on the other 
hand, aversions and dislikes, engender suspicions and 
enmities toward persons who were, we think, the 
cause of our being deprived of some desirable things 
and of our encountering others which are unpleasant ; 
it is the man who has become accustomed to adapt 
himself to public affairs easily and with self-control 
who becomes the most gracious and gentle in his 
dealings with his fellows. 

8. Therefore let us resume our discussion of circum- 
stances. 6 For just as in a fever everything we eat 
seems bitter and unpleasant to the taste, and yet 
when we see others taking the same food and 
finding no displeasure in it, we no longer continue to 
blame the food and the drink, but accuse ourselves 
and our malady; so we shall cease blaming and being 
disgruntled with circumstances if we see others 
accepting the same events cheerfully and without 
offence. And so it is conducive to tranquillity of 
mind, in the midst of happenings which are contrary to 
our wishes, not to overlook whatever we have that is 
pleasant and attractive, but, mingling good with bad, 
cause the better to outshine the worse. But as it is, 
while we turn away our eyes c when they are wounded 
by too dazzling a light and refresh them with the tints 
and hues of flowers and grass, yet we strain the 
mind toward painful things and force it to dwell on 
the consideration of disagreeable matters, all but 

c Cf. Moralia, 490 c-d, infra, 543 e-f, 854 b-c ; Life of 
Demosthenes, xxii. (856 b). 

191 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(469) jSta tcov fieXriovcov aTTOOTTaoavres . /catVot to ye 
rrpog tov rroXvirpdyLLova XeXeyLLevov ovk dr)8cos 
Seup' ear i fJLereveyKelv 

tl rdXXorpiov, dvdpcone fiaoKCLVcoTCLTe, 
kclkov 6£vSopK€ls, to S' lSlov ^apa/JAeVet? ; 

tl to oeavTov kclkov, co /za/capte , Xiav KaTa^Xerreig 
/cat TTOiels ivapyeg del kcli 7Tp6ocf)CLTOv, dyaOols Se 
TrapovoLV ov irpoodyeis ttjv hidvoiav; dXX cocnrep 
at oiKvai to yeipiOTOV Ik tt\s oapKos (eXkovolv, 
ovtco ra /ca/ctora tcov ISlcov 1 ovvdyeis eirl oclvtov, 
ovSev tl tov Xtou ^Xtlcov yLvofievos 2 os 7tclXcll6v 3 
C /cat ^py](jTov olvov eTepoLs iTLTrpdoKOJV eavTco 77009 

TO dpLOTOV 6£lV7]V €^rjT€L Stay€UO/X£V09 , oIk€T7]S oV 
TLS epOJTTjOels Vtf)' €T€pOV TL 1TOLOVVTCL TOV heOTTOTiqV 

KaTaXeXoLTrev, " dyaOcov," ecprj, " irapovTcov, kclkov 
tpr}TovvTCL ." /cat yap ol ttoXXoI ra xprjcrTd /cat 

TTOTLLLCL TCOV IhLcOV* V7Tepf5cLLVOVT€S €77t T(X SuCT^e/)^ /Cat 

LLOxOrjpd TpeypvoLV. 6 8' * ApLoTLinTos ov tolovtos, 
aAA' dyaQos, coorrep irrl t,vyov, 77/509 7a fieXTLOva tcov 

VTTOK€LLL€VCOV i£aVCL(j)€p€LV /Cat dvaKOVCpL^CLV CLVTOV 

XtupLOV yovv diroXeocLS kolXov rjpcoT7]CT€v era tcov 

ndw 7TpOOTTOLOVLL€VCOV OVvdyQevQcLL KCLL OVVCLyCL- 

1 Ihicov Meziriacus : iJSeW. 

2 yivofitvos] y€v6fjL€vos in most mss. 

3 iraXaiov Kronenberg : ttoXvv. 

4 Ihiwv Meziriacus: tjSccov. 

192 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 469 

dragging it by compulsion away from those which are 
better. And yet one might adapt here not inaptly 
the remark addressed to the meddlesome man a : 

Why do you look so sharp on others' ills, 
Malignant man, yet overlook your own ? 

Why do you scrutinize too keenly your own trouble, 
my good sir, and continue to make it ever vivid and 
fresh in your mind, but do not direct your thoughts 
to those good things which you have ? But, just 
as cupping-glasses b draw the most virulent humour 
from the flesh, so you gather together against 
yourself the worst of your own conditions, proving 
yourself not a whit better than the man of Chios who 
sold excellent old wine to everyone else, but tried to 
find sour wine for his own luncheon ; and when one 
of his slaves was asked by the other what he had 
left his master doing, he answered, " Hunting bad 
when good was at hand." Most persons, in fact, do 
pass by the excellent and palatable conditions of 
their lot and hasten to those that are unpleasant and 
disagreeable. Aristippus, c however, was not one of 
these, but was wise enough, like one who weighs 
things in a balance, by weighing the bad against the 
better, to rise above the conditions in which he 
found himself and thus to lighten his spirits. At 
any rate, when he had lost a fine estate, he asked one 
of those who made a great pretence of condoling with 
him and sharing in his ill humour at misfortune, 

■ Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 476, ades. 359 ; cf. 515 d, 
infra. Cf. Horace, Sermones, i. 3. 25-27 : 

Cum tua pervideas oculis male lippus inunctis, 
cur in amicorum vitiis tarn cernis acutum 
quam aut aquila aut serpens Epidaurius ? 
1 Cf. Moralia, 518 b, 600 c. c Cf. Moralia, 330 c. 

193 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(469) vaKTelv, " ovyl aol fiev x oj P^ LOV * v eoriv, ifiol Se 
Tpels dypol kolt aXe in ovt at ; " crvvopLoAoyrjcravTOS 
o eK€ivov, tl ovv, eLirev , ou crot /xaAAov rjfl€L9 
ovvayj)6pLeda; " fiavLKov yap Igtl tols drroAAv- 
pievoLS avidadai per] yaipeLV Se toXs acpt^opievoLs, dAA' 
tooTrep Ta fJLLKpa iraLhdpLa, drro ttoAAcov iraLyvLojv 
dv ev tls d<j)£Ar)TaL tl, Kal rd Aoiird iravra drrop- 
piipavTa 1 kAolUl koll floa, tov avrov rporrov rjpias 
Trepl ev oxArjOevras vito Trjs Tvyr]s, Kal rd'AAa Trdvra 
7tol€lv dvovrjra eavTols SSvpopievovs kclI 8va- 
<j)opovvTas. 

9. iVat tl, <pTjuaL tls av, eypp^ev ; tl o ovk 
eyopiev; " 6 [lev 86£av, 6 8' oIkov, 6 Se ydfiov, to> 
Se c/)lAos dyaO 6s zgtlv. 'AvTLnaTpos 8' 6 Tapaevs 
7rpos to) reAeurdV dvaAoyL^ofievos oov eTvyev 
dyaOchv, ovSe ttjv evrrAoLav TrapeALire ttjv €k 
E KtAi/cia? avTco yevofjievrjv els 'Adrfvas. 8el Se /cat 
rd KOLva jjlt] rrapopav aAA' ev tlvl Aoyqj TiOeaOaL Kal 
yapLV eyeLv 2 otl L^copLev, vyLaivopiev, tov tJAlov 6pa>- 
[xev ovTe rroAefios ovTe OTaoLS eoTLV dAAa Kal rj 
yrj rrapeyeL yeojpyelv Kal OdAaaoa TrAelv dSecos rols 
fiovAopievoLS' Kal AeyeLV e^eaTL Kal irpaTTeiv Kal 
OLLoudv Kal ayoAdi^eLV . evdvpLrjaopiev Se tovtols 

pb&AXoV TTapOVGLV, dv pLTj TTapOVTOJV avTcov (fravTa- 

aiav AapL^dvojpLev dvapLLpLvrjGKovTes avTOVs ttoA- 

AaKLS, ojs TTodeLVov eoTLV vyieLa vouovgl Kal iroAe- 

F fJiovpievoLS elprjvr], Kal KT-qaaoOaL 86£av ev 7roAet 

TTjALKavTrf Kal <f)LAovs dyvcoTL Kal £eVar Kal to 

1 aTToppUlfavra W.C.H. after Fobes : 77 poo ptif) avra. 

2 x^P LV *X €LV ) X a ^P €LV i n m ost mss. 

3 T-qXtKaurr) Reiske, confirmed by mss. : T-qXiKavTrjv. 

19^ 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 469 

" Isn't it true that you have only one small bit of 
land, while I have three farms remaining ? " When 
the person agreed that this was so, Aristippus said, 
" Should I not then rather condole with you ? " For 
it is the act of a madman to be distressed at what is 
lost and not rejoice at what is saved, but like little 
children, who, if someone takes away one of their 
many toys, will throw away all the rest as well and 
cry and howl ; in the same way, if we are troubled 
by Fortune in one matter, we make everything else 
also unprofitable by lamenting and taking it hard. 

9. " And what," someone may say, " do we really 
have and what do we not have ? " One man has 
reputation, another a house, another a wife, another 
a good friend. Antipater a of Tarsus, on his death- 
bed reckoning up the good things that had fallen to 
his lot, did not omit even the fair voyage he had from 
Cilicia to Athens ; so we should not overlook even 
common and ordinary things, but take some account 
of them and be grateful that we are alive and well 
and look upon the sun ; that there is neither war 
nor factious strife among us, but that both the earth 
grants cultivation and the sea fair sailing to those 
who wish it ; that we may speak or act, be silent or 
at leisure, as we choose. These things when they 
are present will afford us greater tranquillity of mind, 
if we but imagine them to be absent, and remind 
ourselves often how desirable is health to the sick, and 
peace to those at war, and, to an unknown stranger in 
so great a city, & the acquisition of reputation and 

a Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., iii. p. 246, Frag. 15 ; cf. 
Life of Marius, xlvi. 2 (433 a) ; Stobaeus, vol. v. p. 1086 ed. 
Hense. 

b Probably Rome. 

195 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

OTepeuOai yevofxevajv ojs dvcapov. ov yap rore 
ytWrat \xeya Kal rt/ztov eKaorov rjpJlv, orav air- 
oArjTOU, aw^ofjievov 8e to firjOev eoTiv. ov8evl yap 
a^iav to /xtj elvai 1 TrpooTiQijoiv, ov8e Set KT&odat 
fxev ojs jxeydXa Kal TpejJLecv del 8e8iOTas ws vrrep 
jieydXojv (jltj GTeprjOajfiev, e^ovTas 8e rrapopav Kal 
470 KaTafipoveLV ojs pirjSevos d^iojv, dXXd y^pr\odai 
jxdXiuTa eirl to) yaipeiv Kal aTroXavew avTcbv, Iva 
Kal tols aTrofioXds, dv ovvTvyydvojoi> npaoTepov 
c/>epoj[xev. oi 8e rroXXol uoiy]\xaTa fxev, ojs eXeyev 
'ApKeotXaos, dXXoTpia Kal ypa<f)ds Kal dv8pidvTas 
olovTai Setv aKptficos Kal /caret fiepos eKaoTOv im- 
iropevopLevoi ttj 8iavola /cat Trj oipei Oeojpelv, TOV 
8' iavTtJov fiiov eypvTa 77oAAas > ovk aTeprrels dva- 
deojprjoeis eojoiv, e^a) 2 fiXerrovTes del Kal davpid- 
t^ovTes dXXoTpias oo^ag Kal tvx^S coonep /xot^ot 
ra? eTepojv yvvalKas, avTCJV he Kal tojv 18lojv 
KaTa(f>povovvTes . 

10. Katrot /cat tovto \xeya irpos evOvfiiav euTi, 
B to fidXtoTa {lev avTov eiriOKOTTeZv Kal Ta /ca#' avTov, 
el 8e [jltj, tovs V7To8eeoTepovs diroQeojpelv Kal pafj, 
KaOdnep ol ttoXXol, rrpos tovs vnepexpvTas dvTi- 
7rape£dyeiv. 3 olov evOvs ol 8e8ep,evoi ev8aipLovl- 
^ovgl tovs XeXvfjievovs, eKelvoi 8e tovs eXevOepovs, 
ol S' eXevOepoi tovs iroXiTaSy ovtol 8e irdXiv av tovs 
ttXovoiovs, ol 8e ttXovolol tovs oaTpdrras, ol 8e 
oaTpdirai tovs fiaaiXels, ol 8e fiacuXels tovs deovs, 

1 etVai] 7rap€lvcu Capps. 

2 €{<x)] rd ef to Capps. 

8 avTnrape£dy€iv Reiske and Wyttenbach; avrnrape^rd^v 
van Herwerden : avrnrap^dyovaiv. 

196 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 469-470 

friends ; and how painful it is to be deprived of these 
things when we have once had them. For it will not 
then be the case that we find each one of these im- 
portant and valuable only when it has been lost, but 
worthless while securely held. Our not possessing 
it does not add value to anything, nor should we ac- 
quire these things as though they were of great worth 
and live in fear and trembling as though for things 
of great moment, lest we be deprived of them, and 
yet while we have them overlook and despise them 
as of no value : we should above all take care to use 
them for our pleasure and enjoyment, in order that 
we may bear their loss, if that should happen, with 
greater moderation. But most people, as Arcesilalis 
said, think it right to examine poems and paintings 
and statues of others with the eyes of both the mind 
and the body, poring over them minutely and in 
every detail, whereas they neglect their own life, 
which has many not unpleasing subjects for contem- 
plation, looking ever to externals and admiring the 
repute and the fortunes of others, as adulterers do 
other men's wives, yet despising themselves and 
their own possessions. 

10. And yet it is also highly conducive to tran- 
quillity of mind to examine, if possible, oneself and 
one's fortunes, but if that is not possible, to observe 
persons of inferior fortune, and not, as most people 
do, compare oneself with those who are superior ; as, 
for example, those in prison account fortunate these 
who have been set free a ; and they, men born 
free ; and free men, citizens ; and citizens, in their 
turn, the rich ; and the rich, satraps ; and satraps, 
kings ; and kings, the gods, scarcely stopping short of 
fl Cf. Teles, p. 43 ed. Hense. 

197 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(470) fiovovovxl fipovrav /cat doTpdnTeLV eWAovTe?. et#' 
ovtcos aet Twv virep eavToifs evSeels ovres ouSeVore 
tols kolO' eavTovs yapiv eypvoiv. 

ov [jlol Ta Tvyeco rod 7roXvxpvoov /ze'Aet, 
C ouS' 1 etAe' 7TO) /xe L^rjXos, ouS' dyaiopLat 

Oewv epya, pieydXrjs S' ovk epco TvpavvlSos' 
drroTTpoOev yap ear iv o^daXficov ificov. 

1 QdoLos yap r\v eKelvos "' dXXos Se' tls Xto?, aAAo? 
Se raAarTys" rj BlOvvos ovk dya7rcov } el tlvos \iepihos 
7] 86£av rj Svvapuv ev tols eavTov ttoXltclls elXrjxev, 
dXXd kXcllcov otl firj (f)opeX TraTpiKiovs' edv Se /cat 
4>opfj, otl paqheTTO) GTpovry\yel 'Pco/xatcov idv Se /cat 

OTpa,T7]yfj, 2 OTL fJLTj V7TCLT€V€L' /Cat V7TaT€Va)V, OTL fJLTj 

TTpcoTos aAA' voTepos dvrjyopevdr]. tovto S' €gtl tl 
dXXo rj avXXeyovTa irpotjidoeLS dxapioTias eirl ttjv 
D Tvyy]v avTov vcfS clvtov /coAa£ecr#at /cat StSoVat 
Slktjv; dXX y o ye vovv excov ocoTTjpLa (f)povovvTa 
tov tjXlov fjLvpLaSas avOpcoTrojv drrelpovs* ecfropcovTOS 

evpveSovs* oool Kaprrov alvvpieda x® ov °S> 

ovk et tlvojv tjttov ev8o£6s eoTL /cat ttXovglos, 
SSvpofievos KaOrjTaL /cat Ta7reLvovfjLevos, aAA' otl 

1 ovS y Schneidewin, confirmed by mss. : /cat ot>8\ 

2 (f>opfj . . . orparr^yfj] <j>opa)v . . . arpar^ycbv in most MSS. 

3 anelpovs] omitted in most mss. 

4 tvpvehovs Plato, Protag., 345 c: evpvohovs. 

a Archilochus, Frag. 25 ed. Bergk and ed. Edmonds ; 
Frag. 22 ed. Diehl. 

6 Aristotle {Rhetoric, iii. 17, 1418 b 31) says that Archi- 
lochus (who long resided in Thasos) speaks, not in propria 
persona, but through the mouth of Charon the carpenter. 
Charon is, then, the Thasian, if we can believe that Plutarch 

198 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 470 

desiring the power to produce thunder and lightning. 
Thus, through being always conscious that they lack 
things which are beyond them, they are never grate- 
ful for what befits their station. 

I want no wealth of Gyges rich in gold, 

Nor have I ever envied him ; I am 

Not jealous of gods' works, nor love a great 

Kingdom : such things are far beyond my ken. a 

" But he was a Thasian," one may say. & Yet there 
are others, Chians, Galatians, or Bithynians, who are 
not content with whatever portion of either repute 
or power among their own fellow-countrymen has 
fallen to their lot, but weep because they do not 
wear the patrician shoe ; yet if they do wear it, they 
weep because they are not yet Roman praetors ; if 
they are praetors, because they are not consuls ; and 
if consuls, because they were proclaimed, not first, 
but later. What is this other than collecting excuses 
for ingratitude to Fortune in order to chastise and 
punish oneself ? But he, at least, who has a mind 
filled with salutary thoughts, knowing that the sun 
looks down upon countless myriads of men, 

As many of us as win the fruit of the spacious earth, d 

if he be less famous or wealthy than some others, does 
not sit down in sorrow and dejection, but since he 
knows that he lives ten thousand times better and 

drew the quotation directly from Archilochus, and not from 
a florilegium (aliter, Fowler, Harv. Stud. 9 \. p. 144). Plutarch 
probably means that one nationality is no more exempt from 
this vice than another, but the argument is very oddly stated. 

c For the importance of being announced first in the 
renuntiatiO) see, for example, Cicero, Pro Muren-a, viii. 18. 

d Simonides, Frag. 5 ed. Bergk,4 ed. Diehl, 19 ed. Edmonds, 
verse 17 ; quoted again in Moralia, 485 c, infra, 743 f. 

199 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(470) (xvptcov {JLvpiOLKLs iv tooovtols evo^pioveuTepov L^fj 
kcll fieArcov, vfivcov tov iavrov oaijjiova koll tov 
jiiov 68 to 1 irpoeioiv. 

'Ei> 'OAu/xm'a (.lev yap ovk eart vlkcxv eVAeyo/xevov 
avTLrrdXovs > iv 8e tco /3ia> ra Trpdypbara 8l8cool 
TTepiovra ttoXXcov piiya <j>povelv, koll ^tjXcotov €lvcll 
E fiaXXov rj l^rjXovv irepovs, dv ye 8tj firj tov Jiptdpeco 
jJLrjSe tov c Hpa/cAeous" ttoltjgtjs aeavrov dvTaycovL- 
gttjv. otclv ovv ixdvv davpLdo'fls cos Kpeirrova TOV 
ev tco <£>o petto Ko/ju^ofjievov, vnoKvipas deaoai /cat 
tovs fiaord^ovras' kcll otclv Siafialvovra rrjv cr^e- 
8iav iiCLKapioris tov &ep£r/v eKelvov, cos 6 'EAAtict- 

7TOVTIOS, l§6 KCLL TOVS VTTO fXaOTL^L SiOpVTTOVTOLS 
TOV "AOtO KCLL TOVS 7T€pLK07TTOfl€VOVS COTCL Kol pLVCLS 

€77t tco 8iaXv9rjvai ttjv ye<f>vpav vrro tov kXv8covos , 
(Xjita kclI ttjv €K€Lva>v drroOecopcov Sidvoiav otl tov 
gov fitov kclI ra ad 77pay/xara pLCLKCLpL^ovcLV . 
P '0 UtoKpdTrjs aKovoas tlvos tcov cfrtXcov XeyovTos 
cos 7ToXvTeXrjs rj 7toXls, Y [xvds 6 Xlos otvos, rj 

7TOp(f)Vpa TpiCOV [JLVCOV, TOV (JLeXlTOS Tj KOTvXrj 7T€VT€ 

8pti)(iJLcov," Xaficov clvtov Trpooiqyaye toZs dX(f>iTOLs, 

" SfioXoV TO T)fJLL€KTOV, €VTeXrjS Tj TToXlS "' €LTCL TOLLS 

iXalats, " Sveiv ^aA/coi^ 2 rj ^otvtf "• eira tolls ££oj- 
jjllol, " SeVa SpaxjALov, evTeXrjs rj ttoXls." ovkovv 
koll rjjiels, otclv aKovocofiev eTepov XeyovTos cos 
fJLLKpd ra kclO' t)[jlcls 7Tpdy\ACLTa kclI Xvirpd htivojs, 

1 ohto Cobet : iv o8a>. 

2 hveiv xclAkoiv] 8vol ^aA/coi? (or ^aA/caw) most MSS. 

3 After x°L yL £ some mss. add cureAr/? r) ttoXls. 

° Cf. Herodotus, vii. 56 : " O Zeus, why have you taken 
the likeness of a Persian and changed your name to Xerxes, 

200 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 470 

more suitably than tens of thousands in so great a 
number, he will go on his way praising his own 
guardian spirit and his life. 

Now at Olympia you cannot win the victory 
by selecting competitors, but in this life circum- 
stances permit you to take pride in your superiority 
to many, and to be an object of envy rather than 
envious of the others — unless, indeed, you make a 
Briareus or a Heracles your opponent. Whenever, 
then, you are lost in admiration of a man borne in his 
litter as being superior to yourself, lower your eyes 
and gaze upon the litter-bearers also ; and whenever 
you account happy, as the man of Hellespont a did, 
that famous Xerxes crossing his bridge, look also 
upon those who are digging through Athos b beneath 
the lash, and those whose ears and noses are mutilated 
because the bridge was broken by the current. Con- 
sider also their state of mind : they account happy 
your life and your fortunes. 

When Socrates c heard one of his friends remark 
how expensive the city was, saying " Chian wine costs 
a mina, a purple robe three minae, a half-pint of 
honey five drachmas,' * he took him by the hand and 
led him to the meal-market, " Half a peck for an 
obol ! the city is cheap " ; then to the olive-market, 
" A quart for two coppers ! " ; then to the clothes- 
market, " A sleeveless vest for ten drachmas ! the 
city is cheap." We also, therefore, whenever we hear 
another say that our affairs are insignificant and in a 

and now lead the whole world with you in your desire to 
uproot Greece ? Surely you might have done all this with- 
out these means." 

b Cf, 455 d, supra. 

c Cf. Teles, pp. 12-13 ed. Hense ; Diogenes Laertius, vi. 
35 (of Diogenes). 

201 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fJLT] vrrarevovrcov /x^S' en it poirevovTCov , e^eanv 
471 elrrelv, " XafiTrpd ra kolO* rjfxdg irpdy [ic\Ta /cat 
IflXcOTOS TjfJLCOV 6 jStos* ov TrpoaaiTovfiev OVK 
axOofiopov/JLev ov /coAa/ceuo/xev." 

11. Ov (JL7]V dAA' €77€t 77/50? €T€pOV? (JL&WoV Tj 

7700? avrovs vri* apeXreplas effllopLeOa £,rjv, /cat 

77oAu TO SvO^TjXoV Tj (f)VOLS €^OUO"a KOLL TO fidoKOLVOV 

ov x a ^P €L tooovtov toZs Ihiois ooov dvtarat to is 
aXXoTplois dyadols, izr) \lovov opa tol Xafjarpa /cat 

TCL 7T€plfi6rjTa TCOV L^7]XoV[JieVOJV V7TO GOV /Cat OdV- 

fjLa^ofjLevtov, dAA' dvaKaXvifjas /cat otacrrctAas' tocnrep 
dvOrjpov TTapaTTeTaopLa ttjv 86£av olvtcov /cat ttjv 
e7n(f)dv€Lav ivTos yevov, /cat KaToifjo, 770AA0: 8vg- 
B X € PV KaL froXXds drjolas ivovaas olvtols. 6 yovv 
YliTTdKos eKelvoSy ov [xeya [lev dvopetas fJbeya 
8e oocf)ias /cat St/catoow?]? /cAeo?, etarta ^evovs' 
ineXOovaa 8' rj yvvrj [xz.t opyrjs dveTpei/je ttjv Tpd- 
Tre^av tcov Se ^evcov 8iaTpa / nevTC0V i " e/cdora) ti," 

€(f>7], " rjfJLlOV KCLKOV €GTLV CO 8e TOVfJLOV, 1 CXplGTCX 
TTpdTT€L." 

ovtos /xa/cdpto? ev ay op a yoixt£eTat, 
orav 2 S' dvoi^rj ttjv Ovpav y z TptaddXtog- 
yvvrj /cparet irdvTcov, erriTdooei, pLa^T dec. 
aTro 77Aetovojv oovvclt , eyco cvn ovoevos. 

rotaura 77oAAd /cat ttXovtcq /cat So^t? /cat /3aatAeta 
TTpoaeoTiv d8rjXa toZs noXXols' imTrpooOei yap 6 
TV(j)og. 

C co /xd/cap 'ATpeiSr), pioiprjyeves , dA/3tdSat/xov 

1 rovfjiov] rovro \iovov in some mss. 

2 orav] eirav Moralia, 100 e. 

8 r-qv dvpav] ras Bvpas Moralia, 100 e. 

202 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 470-471 

woeful plight because we are not consuls or governors, 
may reply, " Our affairs are splendid and our life is 
enviable : we do not beg, or carry burdens, or live 
by flattery." 

11. Yet since, however, through our folly we have 
grown accustomed to live with eyes fixed on everyone 
else rather than on ourselves, and since our nature 
contains much envy and malice and does not rejoice 
so much in our own blessings as it is pained by those 
which other men possess, do not look only at the 
splendour and notoriety of those you envy and wonder 
at, but open and, as it were, draw aside the gaudy 
curtain of their repute and outward appearance, 
and get inside them, and you will see many dis- 
agreeable things and many things to vex them there. 
Thus, when that renowned Pittacus, a whose fame 
for bravery and for wisdom and justice was great, 
was entertaining some guests, his wife entered in a 
rage and upset the table ; his guests were dismayed, 
but Pittacus said, " Every one of us has some 
trouble. He that has only mine is doing very well 
indeed/' 

This man's held happy in the market-place, 
But when he enters home, thrice-wretched he : 
His wife rules all, commands, and always fights. 
His woes are more than mine, for mine are none ! 6 

Many such evils attend wealth and repute and king- 
ship, evils unknown to the vulgar, for ostentation 
hinders the vision. 

O happy son of Atreus, child of destiny, 
Blessed with a kindly guardian spirit ! c 

* Cf. 461 d, supra, of Socrates. 

b Kock, Com. Att. Frag., hi. p. 86, Menander, Frag. 302, 
verses 4-7 (p. 397 ed. Allinson, L.C.L.) ; cf. Moralia, 100 e. 
c Homer, II., iii. 182. 

203 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(471) e^coOev ovtos 6 fiaKap tabids, ottXojv /cat Ittttojv /cat 
orparias ^ept/cc^u/xeV'qs" at Se rtbv rradcbv (jxjoval 
77/50? rrjv K€V7]v 86£av evSoOev avrtfjiaprvpovar 

7j€vs /xe fxeya KpovlSrjs drrj iveSrjae ^apeir] 

/cat 

tpqXw <j€, yepov, 
t^Xco o' dvSpa)v 8$ olklvSvvov 
jStov e^enipaa* dyvws, d/cAe^s 1 . 

e^eariv ovv /cat tovtois toZs emXoyiGjxols oltt- 
apvreiv rod Trpos rrjv rvy^v iiepupipLoipov /cat Sta 
to OavjJbd^eLV rd rcbv ttXtjgiov iKrarreivovvros rd 
ot/ceta /cat KarafidXXovros . 
D 12. Ovx ijicioja, roivvv evOvpuiav KoXovei to jjlt] 

GV(JLfJL€TpOLS XpTJaOoLl 77/309 TTJV V7TOK€l[JL€Vr]V SvVCLfllV 
Op/JLCLIS (JL)G7T€p IGTIOIS, dXXd [Xtl^OVOOV €<f)l€(JL€VOVS 

rals iArrLoiv etr' dnoTvyxdvovTas alriaaOai haifiova 
/cat Tvyy]v dXXd jjltj ttjv avrtov dfieXrepiav. ovSe 
yap 6 ro£ev€LV to) dporpco fiovXofjLevos /cat ra> /3ot 
tov Aayoj 1 Kvvrjyerelv Svarv^^S euriv ov8e ra> 
ypi(f)OLS /cat crayrjvatg iXd(f)ovs purj Xafx^dvovri pirjSe 
vs 2 SalfJLOJV evavriovrai pioxOrjpos, aAA' dfieXrepLa 
/cat pbcopla toZs dovvdrois eVt^ctpouorty. atrtov 8* 
rj (j)cXavTLa pLaXiora, cfriXoTrpwrovs ttoiovool /cat 
<J)lXovlkovs z £v iraac /cat Trdvrojv IruhpaTTopLevovs 
E drrXriGTajs . ov yap ttXovglol \iovov opuov /cat Adytot 
/cat Icrxvpol /cat ov\lttotiko\ /cat rjSels etvat /cat 

1 Xaya>] Xayojv, Xayajov et sim. in most mss. 

2 us-] most mss. have ols or et?. Some mss. rewrite the 
sentence completely, but their variants are too improbable to 
be cited in full. 

3 <J)iAovlkovs Diibner : cj>l\ov€ikovs, 

204 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 471 

Such felicitation comes from externals only — for his 
arms and horses and far-flung host of warriors ; but 
against the emptiness of his glory the voice of his 
sufferings cries out in protest from the very heart : 

The son of Cronus, Zeus, entangled me 
In deep infatuation, 

and 

I envy you, old man ; 
I envy any man whose life has passed 
Free from danger, unknown and unrenowned. 6 

By such reflections also, then, it is possible to reduce 
the violence of our fault-finding with fate, fault- 
finding which, through admiration of our neighbours' 
lot, both debases and destroys our own. 

12. Further, another matter which greatly inter- 
feres with tranquillity of mind is that we do not 
manage our impulses, as sailors do their sails, to 
correspond to our capacity ; in our expectations we 
aim at things too great ; then, when we fail, we blame 
our destiny and our fortune instead of our own folly. 
For he is not unfortunate who wishes to shoot with 
his plough and hunt the hare with his ox, nor does 
a malicious destiny oppose him who cannot capture 
deer or boar with fishing creels or drag-nets ; it is 
through folly and stupidity that such men attempt 
the impossible. And self-love is chiefly to blame, 
which makes men eager to be first and to be victorious 
in everything and insatiably desirous of engaging in 
everything. For not only do men demand to be at 
the same time rich and learned and strong and con- 

a Homer, //., ii. Ill, ix. 18. 

b Agamemnon to his old servant : Euripides, Iphigeneia 
at Aulis, 16-18. 

205 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

c/)lXol fiaatXeojv /cat ttoXzcov apxovres d^covow, dAA' 
el jJLTj kclI kvvols e^ovat TTpoarevovras dpeTjj Kal 
Ittttovs Kai oprvy as koX aXeKTpvovas, dOvpovoi. 

Alovvolos 6 Trpeaftvrepos ovk lyyaTra pbeycoTos cov 
rtov rore Tvpdvvojv, dAA' on OtAo^eVou rod iroir]Tov 
fir) fieAriov fjSe 1 pL7]8e 7TepLrjv iv ra> StaXeyeaOat 
YlAaroDVOS, opytodels Kal Trapo^vvdels rov fxev els 

TGLS AcLTOfJLLCLS ivifioXe TOV S' OL7T€§OTO TTefJu/jCLS €t*9 

Aiyivav. ov tolovtos 6 'AAe^avSpos, dAA' erret 
"KpiacDV 2 6 GTaSioSpojJLOs dpuXXojpievos avTto rrepl 
rd^ovs e8o£ev eKtbv Trapelvai, ocj)68pa SvqyavaKTrf- 
* aev. ev 8e Kal 6 7Tol7jtlk6s 'A^iAAcu? vneiTrcbv 

roios icbv olos ov tls 'A^attDv x a ^ KO X LT( ^ va)V 

€7TrjV€yK€V 

iv TroXefjLO)' dyopfj 84 t apueivovis eloi Kal dAAot. 

Meyd/3u£ov 8e rov U4porjv els to ^ojypacf)€Lov 
472 dvafidvra to 'AttcXXov /cat AaActV im^eipiqoavTa 

776/06 TTJS TeX vr lS €7T€OTOpLlOeV 6 'A^eAA^? €L7TO)V, 

" eo)s p*ev rjovx^av rjyes, i8oK€is tls elvac Std tol 
Xpva la /cat ttjv rropcfrvpav, vvvl Se /cat raurt tol 
TplftovTa ttjv to^pav 7rai8dpia /caTayeAa gov 
<f)XvapovvTOs ." 

'AAA' eVtot tovs ptev Utojlkovs olovTai irai^eiVy OTav 
aKovaojoi tov oocf)6v Trap* avTots p^r] piovov (f)pOVLpLOV 
Kal 8iKaiov Kal dv8 petov dXXd Kal pyyropa koX 

1 $8e] flSet in most mss. 
2 Kptacjv] fipLoojv in most mss. 



Cf. 3Ioralia i 334 c, and Nachstadt's references ad loc. 
b Ibid. 58 f. 



206 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 471-472 

vivial spirits and good company, and friends of kings 
and magistrates of cities, but unless they shall also 
have dogs and horses and quails and cocks that can 
win prizes, they are disconsolate. 

The elder Dionysius a was not content with being 
the greatest tyrant of his age, but because he could 
not sing verses better than the poet Philoxenus or 
get the better of Plato in dialectic, enraged and 
embittered, he cast Philoxenus into the stone- 
quarries, and, sending Plato to Aegina, sold him into 
slavery. Alexander b was not of this temper, but 
when Crison, the famous sprinter, ran a race with 
him and appeared to slacken his pace deliberately, 
Alexander was very indignant. And when the 
Homeric Achilles c had first said, 

Of the bronze-clad Achaeans none is a match for me, 

he did well to add, 

In war ; but in speaking others are better than I. 

But when Megabyzus the Persian came up to the 
studio of Apelles d and attempted to chatter about 
art, Apelles shut his mouth by saying, " As long as 
you kept still, you seemed to be somebody because of 
your gold and purple ; but now even these lads who 
grind the pigments are laughing at your nonsense." 
But some think that the Stoics 6 are jesting when 
they hear that in their sect the wise man is termed 
not only prudent and just and brave, but also an 

c //., xviii. 105-106. 

d Cf. Moralia, 58 d ; Zeuxis, according to Aelian, Varia 
Hist or ia, ii. 2. 

* Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., iii. p. 164, Frag. 655 cf. 
Moralia, 58 e ; Horace, Sermones, i. 3. 124 if. See also 
Siefert, op. cit,, p. 54, note 2. 

207 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(472) 7TOir)T7]v Kal arparrjyov Kal ttXovglov kcli fiaaiXca 
TTpoaayopevofjievov , avrovs Se ttolvtcov ol^lovgl tov- 
tqjv, Kav [jlt] rvyxavcoGLV y avicovrai. Kairoi Kal rchv 

B Oecov aAAo? a'AA^v ^X (X)V ovvapuv, 6 fxev evvdXios, 6 
Se {lavTetos, 1 6 Se KepStpos errovopbd^erai' Kal rrjv 
' Acfcpooirrjv o Zeus', cos 1 ov fierov avrfj TroXepaKoyv 
epytov, €ttI yap,ovs airooreWei Kal daXdpiovs. 

13. Ttva yap ov8e ovvvirapyeiv aAAa, pu&XXov 
VTrevavTiovadai 7re<f)VKev aXXr^Xois rcbv cnrovha^opLe- 
voov olov aGKiquis X6ya>v Kal pLaOrjpLarajv dvdXrjiJjLs 
aTTpaypLoovviqs Setrat Kal ct^oAtJs', hvvdpbeis Se ttoXi- 
riKal Kal (f)iXiai jSacrtAe'cov ovk avev Trpaypbdrajv 
ouS' daxoXiwv TTepiyLvovrai. Kal pbrjv " olvos 2 re 
Kal aapKcov ipLcfroprjaeLS 3 acopia puev la^vpov ttolovgl 
Kal pajpbaXeoVj ifjvx^jv S' dadevrj ' '• Kal xprjpLarajv 

C eVt/xe'Aeta pikv avv^x^S Kal rripr)ois au£et ttXovtov, 
VTrepoi/jca* Se Kal 7T€pi(f)p6vr]uis b pbeya TTpos (fitXoao- 
</>tav i(f)68iov. 66 ev ov rrdvra Travrajv iarcv, dXXd 
Set rep UvOlko) ypapLpian ireiOopevov avrov Kara- 
pLaOelv, etra xPV°^ ai npos eV o Tre^vKe, Kal per) rrpos 
aXXov d'AAore fiiov t,rjXov eA/cetv Kal 7rapa/3ta£ecr#at 

T7]V <f>VGlV 

1 /Ltavreto?] fxavrcjos (or -coos) in most mss. 

2 oivos] otvot Stobaeus. 

3 i/ji(f)opi]G€ts Stobaeus : epicfroprjoLS. 

4 VTTcpoijjia Se Kal TTepi<f>p6vqaLS^ dvvTTcpoipta Se Kal otoif>poovvT) 
Stobaeus. 

5 7T€pi<f)p6v7]aLs\ 7Tapatj)poGvvr) many mss. 

208 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 472 

orator, a poet, a general, a rich man, and a king ; 
and then they count themselves worthy of all these 
titles, and if they fail to get them, are vexed. Yet 
even among the gods different gods hold different 
powers : one bears the epithet " War-like, " another 
" Prophetic," another " Gain-bringing " ; and Zeus a 
dispatches Aphrodite to marriages and nuptial 
chambers, on the ground that she has no part in 
deeds of war. 

13. There are, indeed, some pursuits which can- 
not by their very nature exist together, but rather 
are by nature opposed to each other ; for example, 
training in rhetoric and the pursuit of mathematics 
require a quiet life and leisure, while political 
functions and the friendship of kings cannot succeed 
without hard work and the full occupation of one's 
time. And b "wine and indulgence in meat " do 
indeed " make the body strong and vigorous, but the 
soul weak " c ; and unremitting care to acquire and 
preserve money increases wealth, yet contempt and 
disdain for it is greatly conducive to progress in 
philosophy. Therefore not all pursuits are for every- 
one, but one must, obeying the Pythian d inscription, 
" know one's self," and then use one's self for that one 
thing for which Nature has fitted one and not do 
violence to nature by dragging one's self tow T ards the 
emulation of now one sort of life, now another. 

a Cf. Homer, II., v. 428 ff. 

b This passage to the beginning of the quotation from 
Pindar below is quoted by Stobaeus, vol. iii. p. 559 ed. 
Hense. 

c Words of Androcydes : cf. Clement of Alexandria, 
Stromateis, vii. 6 ed. Stahlin; see also Moralia, 995 e, 
Athenaeus, iv. 157 d. 

d Cf. Moralia, 164 b. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(472) eV apiiaoiv Ittttos 

tv §' dporpco /Sou?, rrapa vavv S' Wvet rdyiOTa 

SeA</>tV, 
Kanpcp Se fiovXevovra 2 <f)6vov Kvva xprj rXddvpiOV 
i^evpeiv. 

6 S' acr^aAAcov /cat XvTrovpievos on pbrj /cat Xecov 
earlv 

opeolrpoc^os, dA/ct rreTroiOwg, 

ajJia /cat kvvlSiov MeAtratov iv koXttco XVP a? y vvaL " 
D /co? ndrjvovpievov, oVoVA^/ctos' ion. rovrov S' 
ovSev n fieXriajv 6 fiovXopievos dpua /xev 'E/x77-e- 
SokAtjs tj YlXdrojv rj A^/xd/cptTOS" etvat irepl KoapLov 
ypdcf>a>v /cat rfjs ra>v ovtqjv aXrjdeias y ap,a Se 
rrXovoia ypat avyKaOevSeiv d)$ JZvcjjopiajv, rj rtov 

€7TLK(x)pLCOV COV* 'AAe£dVSpO> OVpL7TLV€LV 0>9 M^StO?* 

dyavcLKTtov Se /cat Xvrrovpievos et jit^ davpLa^erat 
Sta 77A0UTOV a>9 'lafirjvtas /cat St' dperrjv <hs 
ETrapL€Lvo)v8as . ovSe yap ol S/)o/zet9, on p,r) rovs 
toov TTaXaicrTwv (frepovrai crrecfadvovs , dOvpLovaiv 
dXXd rots avrwv dydXXovrai /cat yaipovoi. 
Hiirdprav eAa^c?, ravrav /cdoyzet. 
/cat yap 6 HoXojv, 

1 £v] v<f> y Moralia, 451 d, supra. 

2 povXevovra] fiovXevovTL in most mss.; cf. 451 d, supra. 

3 Tdv iiriKcoyicxiv tov Pohlenz : Iojv €7tl Ko>fjLov Reiske : T6UV €7Tl 

KOJfJLOV. 

210 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 472 

The horse is for the chariot ; 

The ox for the plough ; beside the ship most swiftly speeds 
the dolphin ; 

And if you think to slay a boar, you must find a stout- 
hearted hound. a 

But that man is out of his wits who is annoyed and 
pained that he is not at the same time both a lion 

Bred on the mountains, sure of his strength, 6 

and a little Maltese dog cuddled in the lap of a 
widow. c But not a whit better than he is the man 
who wishes at the same time to be an Empedocles or 
a Plato or a Democritus, writing about the universe 
and the true nature of reality, and, like Euphorion, to 
be married to a wealthy old woman, or, like Medius/* 
to be one of Alexander's boon companions and drink 
with him ; and is vexed and grieved if he is not ad- 
mired for his wealth, like Ismenias, and also for his 
valour, like Epameinondas. We know that runners 
are not discouraged because they do not carry off 
wrestlers' crowns, but they exult and rejoice in their 



Your portion is Sparta : let your crowns be for her ! • 
So also Solon / : 

a Pindar, Frag. 234 ; cf. 451 d, supra. 

b Homer, 0d. 9 vi. 130. 

c Cf. O. Hense, Rheinisches Museum, xlv. 549, note 1. 

d Cf. Life of Alexander ', lxxv. (706 c) ; Moralia, 65 c, 
124 c ; Arrian, Anabasis, vii. 225. 1. 

e Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 588, Euripides, Frag. 723, 
from the Telephus ; cf. Moralia, 602 b ; Paroemiographi 
Graeci, ii. p. 772. 

1 Frag. 4, verses 10-12 ed. Diehl; Frag. 15, verses 2-4 ed. 
Edmonds ; cf. Moralia, 78 c, 92 e, Life of Solon, iii. (79 f). 

211 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

dAA' tjijl€ls olvtols 1 ov Sta/x£t?/fd/xe#a 
E Trjs aperrjs rov ttXovtov eVet to /xev efineSov 
ear i, 2 
XprjlAOLTa S' avdpcoTTCov dXXore dXXos e^et. 

/cat Tirpdrcov 6 <J)Vglk6s, aKovoas on TToXXairXa- 
glovs e^et MeveSrjfjios pLaOrjrds, " ri ovv," €<j>7], 
OavfjiaoTov, el irXeLoves elacv ol XovecrOai* rtov 
aXeicjieoOai flovXofJLevcov ; " 'ApiGTOTeXrjs Se Trpos 
'AvTLTrarpov ypdcf)OJV, <l ovk 'AAe^dVSpaj puovov," 
€(f)7j, " 7TpocrrjK€L /zeya (jypoveiVy on Kparel ttoXXqjv 
dvOpooTTCov, dAA' oi>x rjTTOV ols virdpx^ irepl dewv 
a Set So^dl^eiv." tovs yap ovtoj ra oik: eta ae/x- 
vvvovras ovk ivoxXrjoei rd rcov ttXtjolov. vvv 8e 

F TTjV fJL€V* dfJLTTeXoV GVKOL (f)€p€LV OVK d^LOVjJL€V Ov8e 

ttjv eXaiav fiorpvs' avrol 8' iavrovs, idv pLrj koli rd 
rcov ttXovgloov a/xa /cat ra rcov Xoyicov /cat rd rcov 
Grparevofievcov /cat rd rcov (friXoooc/iovvrcov /cat rd 
TCx)V KoXdKeVOVTCQV KOL rd rcov TTapprjOLa^ofJievcov 
/cat rd rcov (peiSofxevoov /cat ra rcov harravcovrcov 
exoojiev Trporep^fiara, avKo^avrodfjiev /cat a^apt- 
arovfiev aurot? 6 /cat Karac/ypovovfiev cos ivSecos /cat 
evreXcos 6 ptovvrcov. 
473 Upos Se rovrco /cat rrjv $voiv 6pco\xev vTTO\xi\xvr)- 
GKovoav rjfJL&s. cos ydp rcov Orjptcov erepois d<£' 
erepcov TrapeGKevaoe rr]v rpocfrrjv etvcu /cat ov uavra 
GapKocjxxyeZv rj aireppioXoyeZv rj pi^copvx^Zv eVot^- 

1 avrols] tovtols Theognis, 316, Stobaeus. 

2 ion] alei Theognis. 

3 After Xoveodai some mss. add OeXovres* 

4 fiev] in two mss. (G, W) only. 

6 avTols Bernardakis : avrols. 

212 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 472-473 

But we shall not exchange with them our virtue 
For their wealth, since virtue is a sure possession, 
But money falls now to this man, now that. 

And Strato, the natural philosopher, when he heard 
that Menedemus had many more pupils than he 
himself had, said, " Why be surprised if there are 
more who wish to bathe than to be anointed for the 
contest ? " a And Aristotle, 6 writing to Antipater, 
said, " It is not Alexander alone who has the right to 
be proud because he rules over many men, but no less 
right to be proud have they who have true notions 
concerning the gods." For those who have such 
lofty opinions of their own possessions will not be 
offended by their neighbours' goods. But as it is, 
we do not expect the vine to bear figs nor the olive 
grapes, but, for ourselves, if we have not at one and 
the same time the advantages of both the w r ealthy 
and the learned, of both commanders and philo- 
sophers, of both flatterers and the outspoken, of 
both the thrifty and the lavish, we slander ourselves, 
we are displeased, we despise ourselves as living an 
incomplete and trivial life. 

Furthermore, w r e see that Nature also admonishes 
us ; for just as she has provided different foods for 
different beasts and has not made them all carni- 
vorous or seed-pickers or root-diggers, so has she 

° Cf. the anecdote of Zeno, Moralia, 78 d-e, 545 f. 

6 Frag. 664 ed. V. Rose; c/. Moralia, 78 d, 545 a; 
Julian's Letter to Themistius, 265 a (ii. p. 231 ed. Wright, 
L.C.L.). 

c " Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather 
grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles ? " 

6 €vt€\ojs Reiske : drcXcjs. 
VOL. VI H 213 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(473) crev, ovrco rots' dvdpamois iroiKiXas irpos rov fiiov 
d(f)opjjLas e'Soj/ce, 

jJLTjAoPoTa r' dpora r' dovt^oAd^oj 1 re /cat ov 
itovtos rpec/yet. 

Set 8r) to 7Tp6c(f)opov eavrols iXopiivovs /cat 
SiOLTTOvovvTas iav to tcov aAAojv, /cat purj rov 
'HatoSov eAey^etv ivSeiarepov elirovra 

/cat Kepapievs Kepapiel Koreei /cat re/crovt reKrcov. 

ov yap [jlovov rovs opborexvovs /cat tovs ofiorpo- 
B 7701^9 £r]AoTV7TovvT€s , dXXd /cat Aoytou? TrAouatot 
/cat ttXovolovs evSo^oi /cat St/coAdyot goc^lotols, 
/cat vat jita Ata KwpicpSovg evrjpLepovvras iv flea- 
roots' 2 /cat opxyvTas /cat Oepdnovras iv auAats* 
fiaoiXeojv iXevOepoi /cat evirarpihai KaTaredapL^r]- 
/xeVot /cat pLaKapi^ovres , ov puerpiajs Xvttovolv 
avrovs /cat rapdrrovoiv. 

14. "Ort 8' zkclotos iv iavrcp to 7-779 evdv pitas 
/cat hvodvpclas e^et rapaela, /cat tou? tow dyaOcbv 
/cat KaKcov ttlOovs ovk " iv Atd? ou'Set " /cara/cet- 
piivovs dAA' eV 7-77 ^XV 'cet/xeVous' / at Sta^>opat tojv 
rradajv SrjXovaiv. oi jiev yap dvor]TOi /cat irapovra 
C ra xprjard napopcbui /cat dpieXovoiv vtto* tov 
avvrerdudaL 77009 to pceXXov del rats c^povrlcnv, oi 
Se (fcpovipLOL /cat to firjkef 9 ovra 5 rep pLvrjpLoveveiv 

1 cpyt^oAo^co Pindar, Isthm. 9 i. 48 : SpviQoAoxtp* 

2 flearpois] dearpco Schol. HeS. 

3 /cetjLteVof?] c^Z. van Herwerden. 

4 v7ro] wrep in most mss. 

5 ovra] eoVra in many mss. : perhaps a quotation from 
poetry or Ionian philosophy. 

214 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 473 

given to men a great variety of means for gaining 
a livelihood, 

To shepherd and ploughman and fowler and to him whom 

the sea 
Provides with sustenance. 

We should, therefore, choose the calling appropriate 
to ourselves, cultivate it diligently, let the rest alone, 
and not prove that b Hesiod spoke inexactly when 
he said, 

Potter is angry with potter, joiner with joiner. 

For not only are men jealous of fellow-craftsmen and 
those who share the same life as themselves, but also 
the wealthy envy the learned, the famous the rich, 
advocates the sophists, and, by Heaven free men 
and patricians regard with wondering admiration 
and envy successful comedians in the theatre and 
dancers and servants in the courts of kings ; and by 
so doing they afford themselves no small vexation 
and disturbance. 

1 4. But that every man has within himself the store- 
rooms of tranquillity and discontent, and that the jars 
containing blessings and evils are not stored " on the 
threshold of Zeus," c but are in the soul, is made 
plain by the differences in men's passions. For the 
foolish overlook and neglect good things even when 
they are present, because their thoughts are ever 
intent upon the future, but the wise by remembrance 

a Pindar, Isthmian Odes, i. 48 ; cf. Moralia, 406 c. 

b Works and Days, 25 ; the whole passage, to the end of 
the chapter, is quoted in the Munich scholia on this verse 
of Hesiod (Usener, Rheinisches Museum, xxii. 592). 

c Cf. Homer, II., xxiv. 527 ; Moralia, 24 b and the note, 
105 c and the note, 600 c ; Plato, Republic, 379 d ; Siefert, 
op. cit., pp. 37 f. and the notes. 

215 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(473) ivapywg ovra ttolovolv iavrols. to yap Trapov rep 
eAa^tcrro) rod xP ovov fxopicp diyzlv Trapaoxov etra 
ttjv atoOrjoLv eKcfrvyov ovk4tl So/cet TTpos rjjJL&s ouS' 

rjfJL€T€pOV €LVaL TOLS aVOTjTOLS' dXX d)OTT€p O €V 

"Aioov L^wypacfrovpLevos oxoivoarpocfros ova) tlvl 1 
7rapL7jcnv eTTL^ooKopLeva) KaravaXLoKeiv to TrXeKo- 
pLevov, ovra) roiv ttoXX&v dvatoOrjros /cat a^aptcrros' 
VTToAafjLpdvovoa XrjOrj /cat /carave/xo/zeV^ irpa^lv re 
D Traoav dcfravl^ovoa /cat Karopdajfia /cat oxoXrjv Itt'l- 
X a pw *at ovparepLc^opdv /cat airoXavGW, ovk id rov 
filov eva yeveodaL, ovpLTrXeKopLevajv tols irapovoi 
ra)V irapa)yr)pL£va)v aAA' ayorrep erepov rov £x^$ 
ovra rod orjpiepov /cat rov avpiov opbolajs ov rov 
avrov rep orjpiepov Statpovaa, irav to yLVopievov 
€v6vs eh to dyivryrov tco dpLvrjpLovevTO) KaOioTTjOLV. 
ol p,kv yap iv Tats oxoXats Tas av^rjaets dvaipovv- 
T€s d>s tt)s ovoias ivoeXex&S peovorjs, Xoyco 
ttolovolv rj/jLcov eKaoTOV dXXov iavTod /cat aAAov ol 
8e Tjj pLVTjpir] ra 2 TrpoTepov pLr) OTeyovTes p<r]$' 
dvaXapL^dvovTes aAA' VTreKpelv iwvTes Zpytp ttolov- 
olv eavToijs kclO rjfiepav diroSeeLS /cat Kevovs /cat 

E T7)S aVpLOV €KKp€pLapL€VOVS , CO? TCOV TT€pVOL /Cat 

TTpeprjv /cat x@*$ °v ^P ^ clvtovs 3 ovtojv o*3S' oXa>$ 
avTols yevopLevojv.* 

15. Kat tovt ovv ttjv evdvpbiav eTTLTapdooeL* 

1 ovco rivX\ tpTivi most mss. : e/mcraj rivi D. 
2 ra] omitted in most mss. 

3 avrovs Xylander : avra>v or avrov, 

4 yevo/xcVcov] ywofjLevwv in most mss. 

216 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 473 

make even those benefits that are no longer at hand 
to be vividly existent for themselves. For the 
present good, which allows us to touch it but for the 
smallest portion of time and then eludes our per- 
ception, seems to fools to have no further reference 
to us or to belong to us at all ; but like that painting 
of a man a twisting rope in Hades, who permits a 
donkey grazing near by to eat it up as he plaits it, so 
insensible and thankless forgetfulness steals upon the 
multitude and takes possession of them, consuming 
every action and success, every pleasant moment of 
leisure and companionship and enjoyment ; it does 
not allow life to become unified, when past is inter- 
woven with present, but separating yesterday, as 
though it were different, from to-day, and to-morrow 
likewise, as though it were not the same as to-day, 
forgetfulness straightway makes every event to have 
never happened because it is never recalled. For 
those who in the Schools do away with growth and 
increase on the ground that Being is in a continual 
flux, in theory make each of us a series of persons 
different from oneself b ; so those who do not pre- 
serve or recall by memory former events, but allow 
them to flow away, actually make themselves defi- 
cient and empty each day and dependent upon the 
morrow, as though what had happened last year and 
yesterday and the day before had no relation to 
them nor had happened to them at all. 

15. This, then, is a matter disturbing to tranquillity 

a Ocnus or " Sloth " ; the painting was by Polygnotus in 
the Lesche at Delphi: Pausanias, x. 29. 1. Cf. also Pro- 
pertius, iv. 3. 21-22: dignior obliquo funem qui torqueat 
Ocno, | aeternusque tuam pascat, aselle, famem; Diodorus, 
i. 97 ; Pliny, Natural History \ xxxv. 137. 

b Cf. Moralia, 392 d, 559 b. 

217 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

KOLK€LVO fJL&AAoV, OTOLV , OJ<J7T€p CLL JJLvlOLL TCOV AeLCOV 
T07TCOV €V TOLS KOTOTTTpOLS (ITToAlodaVOVOl TOLLS Se 

rpaxvrrjai rrpoaexovrai koll tolls dfjivxcus, ovtcos 

avdpCDTTOL TCOV lAapCOV KCLL 7TpOOT]VCOV 0L7T0pp€0VT€S 

ifjLTrAeKOJVTOLL toXs toov drjocov dvapLvrjaeoL' fi&AAov 

8' <J0G7T€p iv 'OAvvOtp TOVS KOLvOdpOVS XeyOVGLV, €LS 

tl x co P lov epLfiaAovTas 1 o KaAeLTCLL " K.av9apcoAe- 
9pov," €KJ3rjvaL fjirj ovvajxevovs aAA' €K€L OTpecfro- 

F fJL€VOVS KCLL KVkAoVVTCLS €Va7To9vr}GK€LV, OVTCOS €LS 
TTjV TCOV KCLKCOV [LVJ]\ir]V V7TOppVCVT€S aV€V€yK€LV fJLTJ 

OeAcoGL /^S' dvanvevaaL. Set S' coonep iv ttlvoklco 
XpcopLOTCOv iv Tjj ^Jvxfj T &v TrpaypidTCOv rd (/xuSpa 

Kol AajJLTTpd TTpofidAAoVTOLS, dTTOKpVTTT€LV TO OKV- 

Opcorrd koll me£etv itjaAelifjaL yap ovk €otl rravTa- 
ttololv ouS' dTTaAAayrjvaL. " ttolAlvtpottos 2 yap 

474 dpflOVLTj KOGjJLOVy OKCOG7T€p Avp7]S KOL TO^OV," KOL 

tcov dvdpcoTTLVCov KaOapov ovo€v ov8* dpiLyes. aAA' 
coGTrep iv fJLOVGLKrj papels (f)66yyoL koll o^els iv Se 

ypafipLCLTLKfj (f)COVTj€VTa KCLL tUpCOVCL ypdfJLfJLOLTa, fJLOV- 

glkos oe kol ypafjLfjLaTLKos ovx ° OaTepa Suo-^epcu- 
VCOV Kol V7TO(/)€VyC0V aAA' 6 ttolgl xPV a ^ aL Ka ^ 
[JLLyVVVCLL TTpOS TO oIk€LOV ilTLGTafieVOSy OVTCO KCLL 

tcov irpaypidTCOV dvTLOTOLXLOLS ixdvTCOV (irrel /caret 

TOV l&VpLTTL&rjV 

ovk dv yevoLTO X^P^ ivOAd kol koko, 

aAA' €GTL TLS GVyKpOLGLS, COOT €^€6V KGlAcOs) , 

1 ifx^aXovras Bernardakis : i/x^aXXovras. 
2 TraXLvr pottos] -naXivrovos D and Moralia, 369 b. 

a Cf. Aristotle, De Mirabilibus Auscultationibus, 120 
(842 a 5 f.) ; Pliny, Natural History, xi. 28. 99. 
b Cf. Moralia, 599 f— 600 a ; 863 e. 

218 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND 473-474 

of mind ; and another, even more disturbing, arises 
when, like flies which slip off the smooth surfaces 
of mirrors, but stick to places which are rough or 
scratched, men drift away from joyous and agreeable 
matters and become entangled in the remembrance of 
unpleasant things ; or rather, as they relate that when 
beetles have fallen into a place at Olynthus which is 
called " Death-to-Beetles," a they are unable to get 
out, but turn and circle about there until they die in 
that place, so when men have slipped into brooding 
upon their misfortunes, they do not wish to recover 
or revive from that state. But, like colours in a 
painting,** so in the soul it is right that we should 
place in the foreground bright and cheerful experi- 
ences and conceal and suppress the gloomy ; for to 
wipe them out and be rid of them altogether is 
impossible. " For the harmony of the universe, like 
that of a lyre or a bow, is by alternatives," c and in 
mortal affairs there is nothing pure and unmixed. 
But as in music there are low notes and high notes, 
and in grammar there are vowels and consonants, yet 
a musician or a grammarian is not the man who dislikes 
and avoids the one or the other, but rather the man 
who knows how to use all and to blend them properly , d 
so also in human affairs, which contain the principles 
of opposition to each other (since, as Euripides e has 
it, 

The good and bad cannot be kept apart, 
But there's some blending, so that all is well), 

Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , i. p. 162, Heracleitus, 
Frag. 51 ; cf. Moralia, 369 b, 1026 b ; " by alternatives," 
that is, bv alternate tightening and relaxing. 

d Cf. Plato, Philebus, 17 b IF. 

e Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 369, Frag. 21, from the 
Aeolus ; quoted again in Moralia, 25 c-d and 369 b. 

219 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(474) ov Set roZs erepotg i^aOvfielv o*5S' arrayopeveiv 

B aAA' djonep apfJLoviKovs apbfiXvvovras del rols /cpetr- 

togl rd (fravAa /cat rd xelpova rots ^p^arot? 

eparepiXanfidvovTas , ifxpieXeg to tov fiiov juttytxa 

TToielv /cat ot/cetov auTots*. 1 

Ou yap, a>9 6 M.evav8p6s (frrjoiv, 

drravri Sat/za>v aVSpt ov\iirapiOTOvrai?' 
evdvs yevojjieva), {ivaraywyos tov fiiov 
dya96s 3 

dXXd /xaAAov, d>s 'E/XTreSo/cA?]?, Strrat Ttves e/ca- 
otov rjficov ywofievov 7rapaAa/x/3dVoi;<7t /cat /car- 
dpxovTai /xotpat /cat Sat/xovcs" 

4V0' T^aav Xdovirj re /cat 'HAtoV^ Tavaooiris , 
Arjpis &* atjitardeaaa /cat 'AppLovlrj depLepwiris, 
KaAAtarai r' At'cr^p^ T€ Qoojod T€ Arjvalrj 3 re, 
C NrjfjLepTrjs t ipoeooa [xeXdyKovpog* r 'Aaa^eta. 

16. "£Iot€ 5 tovtcov eKaoTov GTrepfJLaTa tojv rraOcov 
dvaK€KpajjL€va SeSeypLevrjs rjfJLOJV ttjs yeveoecos /cat 
Sta tovto rroXXrjv dvcopLaXiav ixovorjs, ev^eTai fxev 
6 vovv k'xojv ra jSeArto^a TrpocrooKa Se /cat #dVepa, 
XpfJTCLi 8' dfJL(/)OT€poLS to dycLV d</>atpa)v. ov yap 

fJLOVOV " 6 TTJS OLVpiOV 7)KlOTa SeOfJLeVOS," OJS (f)7]OLV 

'Em'/coupo?, * rfiioTa TTpoaeiOL rrpds ttjv avpiov," 
dXXd /cat ttXovtos €v<f)paivei /cat So£a /cat Svvafjus 
/cat dpxrf /xaAtara rou? tJkiotcl rdvavTia Tapfiovv- 

1 aureus 1 Stegmann : aurois". 

2 avfiTTapLGTarai] ovfnrapacrTaTeT most MSS. 

3 &r}va{i) Bentley, confirmed by mss. : Seivatr], 

4 fieXdyKovpos Tzetzes : /xeAay/cap7ro9. 

5 cuarc] a>s* oe Wyttenbach. 
6 Kal after apx^ deleted by Xylander. 
220 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 474 

we should not be disheartened or despondent in 
adversity, but like musicians who achieve harmony by 
consistently deadening bad music with better and 
encompassing the bad with the good, we should make 
the blending of our life harmonious and conformable 
to our own nature. 

For it is not true, as Menander ° says, that 

By every man at birth a Spirit stands, 
A guide of virtue for life's mysteries ; 

but rather, as Empedocles b affirms, two Fates, as it 
were, or Spirits, receive in their care each one of us 
at birth and consecrate us : 

Chthonia was there and far-seeing Heliope, 
And bloody Deris, grave-eyed Harmonia, 
Callisto, Aeschra, Thoosa, and Denaea, 
Lovely Nemertes, dark-eyed Asapheia. 

16. The result is that since we at our birth re- 
ceived the mingled seeds of each of these affections, 
and since therefore our nature possesses much 
unevenness, a man of sense prays for better things, 
but expects the contrary as well, and, avoiding excess, 
deals with both conditions. For not only does " he 
who has least need of the morrow," as Epicurus c 
says, " most gladly advance to meet the morrow,'* 
but also wealth and reputation and power and public 
office delight most of all those who least fear their 

a Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 167, Frag. 550 (p. 491 ed. 
Allinson). 

6 Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , i. pp. 360-361, Frag. 122. 
The names are intended to mean Earth-maiden, Sun-maiden ; 
Discord, Harmony ; Beauty, Ugliness ; Swiftness, Slow- 
ness ; Truth, Uncertainty. 

c Usener, Epicurea, p. 307, Frag. 490 (p. 139 Bailey) ; cf 
Horace, Epistulae, i. 4. 13-14. 

vol. vi H 2 221 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(474) rag. rj yap G(j)oSpa rrepl ekclgtov imOvpLta 

D cj^ooporarov </>o/3ov ipLrroiovoa rod pur) rrapajxevelv , 

dadevrj rrjv ydpiv iroiei /cat dfiefiaiov coarrep <f)A6ya 

KaraTTveofievrjv. to Se St'Sojcrt rrpds rrjv Tvy?\v 

doetbs /cat arpofiajs elrrelv 6 Xoyiapios, 

r)8v jjl€V dv tl cj)€pr]s, oXiyov S' d^os dv aTToXeLTrrjs , 

tovtov rjStara noiel xprjoOaL toIs irapovoi to 
OappaXeov /cat jjltj SeScos avrcov ttjv drro^oXr^v <hs 
acfyoprjrov. e^ean ydp rrjv *Ava£ayopov ScddecrLV, 
acf)' rjs irrl rfj reXevrfj rod TratSos dv€(f>d)vrjG€v y 
" rjSecv Ovrjrov yevvtfaas," purj QavpbdXovTas [xovov 
dXXa /cat pLLpLovpcevovs imXeyeiv €KOLGTCp to>v 
Tvyy)pGyv s " otSa rov ttXovtov ecfyrjpiepov eyoov koX ov 
E /3e/3atov "' ', otSa rrjv dpxty d^eXeaOai Swapuevovs 
rovs SeSoj Koras "' " otSa ttjv yvvaiKa xp r j (JT V v 
yvvaiKa 8' ovaav /cat rov <j)LXov avOpamov ovra, 
£a>ov (f)Vorei evpberdfioXov, ojs 6 HXdrcov eLTrev." 
at yap roiavrai rrapaaKeval /cat Sta^e'cret^, idv tl 
GvpLJ3fj twv afiovXrjTOJV piev ovk aTTpoaSoKrjrwv 8e, 
purj Se^o/xeyat to " ovk dv &psf)v " /cat to " d'AA' 1 
rjATTL^ov /cat to TavT ov rrpoacooKajv, oiov 
TTrjorjpiaTa /capSta? /cat crcfivypLovs d(f)aipovaL /cat 
Ta)(v iraXw to pbavitoSes /cat TapaTTopuevov ISpvov- 
glv. 6 piev ovv JUapvedSrjs errl TrpaypLaTOJV pieydXajv 

F V7T€pLLpLVT)aK€V OTL TTaV /Cat 0A0V COTtV €t? Xv7T7]V 

dyov z /cat dOvpciav to aTrpoorSoKrjTov. rj yap 

1 to aAAa Meziriacus : 7ro\Aa. 2 olov] oca Reiske. 

3 dyov added by Capps. 

° Perhaps a fragment of Callimachus (cf. Frag. Anon. 
371 ed. Schneider); see also Seneca, Be TranquillitaU 
Animii xi. 3. 

222 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 474 

opposites. For the violent desire for each of these 
implants a most violent fear that they may not 
remain, and so renders pleasure in them weak and 
unstable, like a fluttering flame. But the man whom 
Reason enables to say to Fortune without fear and 
trembling, 

Welcome to me if any good you bring ; 
Hut if you fail, the pain is very slight, 

his confidence and the absence of fear that their loss 
would be unbearable cause him to make most pleasant 
use of present advantages. For it is possible not only 
to admire the disposition of Anaxagoras, b which made 
him say at the death of his son, " I knew that my 
son was mortal," but also to imitate it and to apply 
it to every dispensation of Fortune : " I know that my 
wealth is temporary and insecure,' ' " I know that those 
who bestowed my magistracy can take it away," " I 
know that my wife is excellent, but a woman, and that 
my friend is but a man, by nature an animal readily 
subject to change, as Plato c said." For men of such 
preparedness and of such disposition, if any thing- 
unwished yet not unexpected happens, disdain senti- 
ments like these : " I never should have thought it," 
or " I had hoped for other things," or " I did not 
expect this," and so do away with anything like throb- 
bings and palpitations of the heart, and speedily restore 
again to quiet the madness and disturbance of their 
minds. Carneades, indeed, reminded us that in 
matters of great importance it is the unexpected d 
that is completely and wholly the cause of grief and 

b Cf. 463 d, supra, and the note. 

* Epistle xiii. 360 d ; cf. 463 d, supra, and the note. 

d Cf. 449 e, supra. 

223 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

MoLKeSovcov paaiXeua ttjs 'PtojLcai'cov rjyefioviag 
TToWoorrjiiopiov rjv dXXd Uepcrevs fiev diro^aXwv 
MaKe8ovtav avros re KareOprjvei tov iavrov Sat- 

fJLOVCL KCLL 7T&GLV iSoK€L SvOTVX^CFTaTOS av6p(x)7T(X)V 

475 yeyovevai Kal ^apvnoTjxoTaros' 6 Se tovtov Kpa- 
Tiqaas Al/jllXlos irepco TrapaSiSovs ttjv opiov tl yrjs 
Kal daXarTTjs dpxovaav Svvapuv earec^avovro Kal 
€0vev evSaijjiovL^ofxevos, €lk6tojs* ovtos [xev yap 
2]8eL XafM^dvojv dpxty d7To8o9rjoojJL€vrjv, tKeZvos 8' 
direjiaXe jjltj TrpoohoKTjoas. ev Se Kal 6 TTOLrjrrjs 
olov iuri to irapa irpoaSoKLav i8(Sa^€V 6 yap 
'OSvoaevs tov [lev Kvvos aaivovros 1 i^eSaKpvcre, 
rfj 8e yvvaiKi KXaiovorj TrapaKaOrjixevos ovSev €7ra9e 
tolovtov ivravOa fiev yap d(/)LKTO rep Xoyiopbco to 
TrdOos viToyzipiov e^cov Kal TrpoKaTeiX^jiiievov, els 
S' eKelvo 2 [jltj 7rpoo8oKrjoag aAA' £i;aL<f)vr)s oia to 
7rapd8oi;ov £ve7reoev. 
B 17. Ka#oAou S' inel rtov dftovXrjTOJV ra puev 

(j)VO€L TO XvTTOVV Kal fiapVVOV €7TL(f)€p€L, TCt §6 

irXeioTa 86£rj Svox^patveiv iOi^ojJLeOa Kal fiavOd- 
vofxeVy ovk 3 dxpycFTov ioTL 7rpos TavTa jxev 4, exew 
aec to tov M.evdv8pov irpox^pov 

ov8kv 7T€7TOv9as 8ewov av pirj 7rpooTTOifj 

1 aaivovros Hartman : Oavovros. 

2 eVeu>o Reiske, confirmed by mss. : ixdvov. 

8 Kal before ovk deleted by Stephanus and Hutten. 

4 fji€v] omitted in most mss. 

° 0/., for example, Life of Aemilius Paulus, xxxiv. 1-2 
(273 c-e). 

6 Od. 9 xvii. 302-304 : anofjiopgaTO haKpv. 
224 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 474-475 

dejection. For example, the kingdom of Macedonia 
was infinitely smaller than the Roman dominion, yet 
when Perseus lost Macedonia, both he himself be- 
wailed his own evil genius and every one thought that 
he had become the most unfortunate and ill-starred 
man in the world a ; but Aemilius, his conqueror, 
handed over to another his supreme command of 
practically the whole earth and sea, yet was crowned 
and offered sacrifice and was esteemed fortunate — 
and with good reason, for he knew that he had taken 
a command which would have to be relinquished 
again, whereas Perseus lost his kingdom when he had 
not expected to do so. And well has the Poet taught 
us how strong the effect of an unexpected happening 
is : Odysseus, for instance, shed a tear when his 
dog fawned upon him, & yet when he sat beside his 
weeping wife, c gave way to no such emotion ; for into 
the latter situation he had come with his emotion 
under control and fortified by reason, but he had 
stumbled into the former without having expected it, 
and suddenly. 

17. And, to speak generally, although some of the 
things which happen against our will do by their very 
nature bring pain and distress, yet since it is through 
false opinion that we learn and become accustomed 
to be disgruntled with the greatest part of them, it is 
not unprofitable to have the verse of Menander d 
ever ready against the latter : 

No harm's been done you, if you none admit 

c Ibid. xix. 208 ff. ; quoted in 442 d, supra, where see the 
note. 

d Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 52, Frag. 179, from the 
Epitrepontes ; Allinson, p. 127. The translation is that of 
A. M. Harmon. 

225 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(475) (tl yap rrpos ere Iotl, ftrjcrlv, 1 av litjt€ oapKos 
aiTTTfrai litjt€ ipvxfjs, olov cgtl hvayeveia Trarpos 
rj /xot^eta yvvaiKos rj arec/xivov tlvos r) 7rpoe8pias 
o\(j)aipeois , cov ov KOjXverai TrapovTOJv avOpcoiros Kal 
to acoiia jSeArtcrTa SiaKeifievov ^eiv kcli ttjv 

foXW')' ^POS 8e TCL (f)VO€L 80KOVVTCL Xv7T€LV, Old 
C VOOOL KCLL TTOVOL KCLI ddvOLTOL <J)lXo)V KCLI T€KVOJV, 
€K€LVO TO Evpi7TL$€lOV 

OLfJLOL* TL 8' olpiOL; 8vrjTOL TOL 7T€7r6v9aLl€V. 

ovSels yap ovtoj tov TraOrjTLKov KaTacfyepoiievov Kal 
6\io6avovTOS avTikaiifiaveTai Xoyos, d>g 6 tt)s 
Koivfjs Kal (f>VGLKf)s dvdjjLvrjGLv ttolcvv dvdyKrjs, fj Sia 

TO GWLLa LL€LLiyLl€VOS 6 dvdpOJTTOS LiOVTjV TaVTTjV TTJ 

Tvyr\ Xafirjv 8l8o)glv, ev 8e toIs KvpiojTaTOis Kal 
LieyiOTOis du(j>aXr)s eaTTjKev. 

f O ArjLifJTpLOs ttjv M.eyap€0)v rroXiv KaTaXafichv 

rjpd)T7JG€ TOV 2rtA770)Va, LLTj TL TWV €K€LVOV 8Lrjp7Ta- 

orai. Kal 6 HtlXttojv ecf)7] LirjSev' I8elv " ra/xa " 2 
(pepovTa. Kal tolvvv ttjs Tvyy)S iravTa raAAa 
XerjXaTOvarjg Kal TrepLaLpoviievrjs 3 eypiiiv tl tolov- 
j) tov iv iavTols y 

oloV K OVT€ (f)€pOL€V 'A^CUCH OVT dv dyOL€V. 

1 <f)rjGLv] <j>aoiv in some mss. ; (£77/11 or (frrjaofMcv van Herwerden. 
2 Tafia] rav i^iordyiav Pohlenz ; eVtara^av Diibner. 

n The 7rpoe8pta was the privilege of sitting in the front 
seats at public games, or the theatre, or public assemblies, 
granted to distinguished citizens, foreigners, or magistrates. 
226 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 475 

(for what, he means, if they touch neither body nor 
soul, are such things to you as the low birth of your 
father, or the adultery of your wife, or the deprivation 
of a crown or of front seats, a since when these mis- 
fortunes are present a man is not prevented from 
having both body and soul in the best of condition ?) ; 
and against those things which seem to pain us by 
their very nature, as sicknesses, anxieties, and the 
death of friends and children, we should have ready 
that famous verse of Euripides b : 

Alas ! — Yet why alas ? Our sufferings 
Are but what we mortals must endure. 

For no reasoning so effectively engages the emotional 
part of us, when it is being borne down and is 
slipping, as that which reminds us of the common and 
natural necessity to which man is exposed through his 
composite and corporeal nature : it is the only hold 
he gives to Fortune, while in his most vital and 
important parts he stands secure. 

When Demetrius took the Megarians' city, he asked 
Stilpo if any of his possessions had been plundered. 
And Stilpo said, " I saw no one carrying off my pro- 
perty." c And therefore when Fortune plunders and 
strips us of everything else, we have something 
within ourselves of the sort that 

Achaeans could never harry or plunder.* 1 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec Frag. 2 , p. 449, Frag. 300, from the 
Bellerophon ; cf. Boswell's Life of Johnson, aetat. 45 (vol. i. 
p. 277 ed. Hill). 

c " Virtue " according to Moralia, 5 f ; " knowledge " in 
the Life of Demetrius, ix. (893 a) : ovhiva yap dbov einoTaiJLav 
anocfre povTa. 

d Adapted from Homer, II. , v. 484 

227 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(475) 66ev ov Set it avr air aviv eKraireivovv 1 ovSe /carajSaA- 

XeiV T7]V (j)VOLV, (I)S fJLTjSeV laXVpOV fJLTjSe (JLOVLfJLOV 

f>tryS' VTrep rrjv Tvyr)v exovoav , dXXd Tovvavrtov 
elSoras on puKpov eon jiepos rov dvdpamov to 
oaOpov 2 /cat iTTiKrjpov, 3 cS 4 Several rrjv rvxrjv, rrjs 
Se fieXriovos fiepiSos avrol KparovjieVy ev fj rd 
jieyiora rcov dyaOcov lopvOevra, So£at re x/o^arat 
/cat fxaOruxara /cat Aoyot reXevrwvres els dperiqv, 
avacfrai perov e^pvai ttjv ovoiav /cat aScdcfrdopov, 
dveKTrXrjKTOvs 5 rrpos to pieXXov etvat /cat OappaXeovs, 

E Trpos* rrjv rvxv v Xeyovras, a HcoKpdrrjs Sokcov rrpos 
rovs Karrjyopovs 1 Xeyew npos rovs StKaoras eXeyev, 
ws diroKTelvai [lev "Avvros /cat MeA^ro? Svvavrat, 
fSXdifjai S' ov hvvavrai. /cat yap rj Tvy?) Swarat 
vooco nepifSaXelv , d<j>eXeodai xPVI JLaTa > Sta/3aAetv 
TTpos Srjfiov rj rvpavvov /ca/coV Se /cat SetAoV /cat 
ra7T€Lv6(j)pova /cat dyevvrj /cat <f)dovepov ov Svvarat 
TTOirjaat rov dyadov /cat dvSpdjor] /cat fjLtyaXoifjvxov* 
ov8e rrapeXeodai rrjv Siddeoiv, 9 rjs del rrapovorjs 
rrXeov fj KVpepvrjTOV rrpos OdXarrav o(f>eX6s eon 

Y rrpos rov j8tov. Kvflepvrjrrj yap ovre KVfia rrpavvai 
rpaxv /cat rrvevpba hvvarov eonv, ov9* ottol fiovXerai 
Seo/xeVa> Xipuevos rvxecv ovre 6appaXea>s /cat 

1 iKTaneLVOvv ovSe KaTa/3aAAeiv] Ta-rreivovv Stobaeus ; but cf. 
471 c, supra. 

2 to oaOpov kcll] oaOpov re kcll Stobaeus. 

3 iTTiKrjpov Stobaeus and G : to eirLKypov* 

4 <L] o Leonicus and some mss. 

6 av€K7r\rjKTovs Stobaeus : ol7]tt^tovs, 

6 7rpos Madvig, confirmed by mss. : kolI npos. 

7 KaTTjyopovs Stobaeus : Kariqyopovs dvvrov /cat ixcXtjtov, 
228 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 475 

Therefore a we should not altogether debase and 
depreciate Nature in the belief that she has nothing 
strong, stable, and beyond the reach of Fortune, but, 
on the contrary, since we know that the corrupt and 
perishable part of man wherein he lies open to 
Fortune is small, and that we ourselves are masters of 
the better part, in which the greatest of our blessings 
are situated — right opinions and knowledge and the 
exercise of reason terminating in the acquisition 
of virtue, all of which have their being inalienable and 
indestructible — knowing all this, we should face the 
future undaunted and confident and say to Fortune 
what Socrates, 6 when he was supposed to be replying 
to his accusers, was really saying to the jury, " Anytus 
and Meletus are able to take away my life, but they 
cannot hurt me." Fortune, in fact, can encompass us 
with sickness, take away our possessions, slander us 
to people or despot ; but she cannot make the good 
and valiant and high-souled man base or cowardly, 
mean, ignoble, or envious, nor can she deprive us of 
that disposition, the constant presence of which is of 
more help in facing life than is a pilot in facing the 
sea. For a pilot cannot calm a savage wave or a 
wind, nor can he find a harbour wherever he wishes at 
need, nor can he await the event confidently and 

° The following passage is cited in Stobaeus, vol. ii. p. 161 
ed. Wachsmuth, as from TXkovrapxov He pi cf>i\tas ; but 
Patzig (Quaest. Plutarch. , p. 34) is doubtless right in thinking 
that ifiiXias is a scribal error for €v6v(.uas. 

b Cf. Plato, Apology, 30 c-d ; the same form of this state- 
ment with almost the same differences from Plato's words is 
found in Epictetus, i. 29. 18, and the Encheiridion, liii. 4. 

8 C. Wachsmuth would add kol yewaiov koll iXtvdepiov ; cf, 
485 a, infra. 

9 BidOeaiv] hiaQzoiv to>v kolXcjv Stobaeus. 

229 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

arpofjujos VTTOjJielvaL to ovpifiaZvov dAA' ecu? ovk 
OLTreyvcoKe rfj Tiyyr\ -^pcjojievos, 

(pevyeL fieya XaZcfros vttootoXlools els 1 iveprepov 

LGTOV 

ipeficoSeos e/c OaXdaarjs, 

476 eVetSdv Se to neXayos 2 vTrepoyr\> rpejKDV KdOrjrai 
Kol TraXXofjievos. rj Se rod (f)povi[xov hiddeois rots 
re GCOjjLaTLKoTs napey*- 1 yaXrjvrjv irrl TrXeXcrrov, 
€kXvovocl ras tcov voacov KaraoKevas ey/cpareta 
/cat Statrry oaxfipovt, /cat fxerpioig ttovois' kclv tis 
e^cx)8ev dpx^j rrdOovs ojOTrep StaSpo/x^ yevrjraL 
GTnXdSos, " evoraXel /cat Kovcfrrj /cepat'a Traprjvey- 
Kev," cu? </>rjcrw 'Aa/cA^TrtdSr^* irapaXoyov Se' 
twos /cat fieydXov KaraXafiovros /cat KparrjaavTOS, 
iyyvs 6 At/xr)v feat irdpeoTiv diroviq^aaOai rod 
otopLdTos worrep e</>oA/ctou firj areyovros. 

18. Tov [lev yap dvorjrov 6 rod davdrov (/>d/3o? 
oi>x o rod t,rjv ttoOos eKKpepiaoOaL TOV GcbpLCLTOS 
B 770tet, TrepnreTrXeyixivov oocnrep tov 'OSvoaea tco 
ipivetp SeSot/cora ttjv Xdpu/3Stv VTTOKei\xivr\v 3 

€v9* ovt€ ixt/xvetv dvefios ovre nXelv 3 id, 

/cat npos TdVTa hvoapeoTCOs /cat npos e/cetva nepi- 

1 els] most mss. have ecos or Iot'. 

2 eVetSav Se to ireXayos added by Pohlenz from Demosthenes, 
Third Philippic, 69. 

3 ovre irXelv] ovt eKirXtlv Suidas and Diogenianus. 

° Of. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. 2 , iii. p. 730, Edmonds, Lyra 
Graeca, iii. p. 474, or Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 910, 
ades. 377. The text is quite uncertain, though Pohlenz's 
interpretation seems better than any earlier one. Cf. also 
230 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 475-476 

without trembling ; as long as he has not despaired, 
making use of his skill, 

With the mainsail dropped to the lower mast 
He flees from the murky sea, a 

whereas when the sea towers over him, he sits there 
quaking and trembling. But the disposition of the 
wise man yields the highest degree of calm to his 
bodily affections, destroying by means of self-control, 
temperate diet, and moderate exertion the conditions 
leading to disease ; even if the beginning of some 
evil comes from without, " he rides it out with light 
and well-furled sail/' as Asclepiades h has it, just as 
one passes through a storm. But if some great un- 
foreseen disaster comes upon him and masters him, 
the harbour is close at hand and he may swim away 
from his body, as from a leaky boat. 

18. For it is the fear of death, not the desire for 
life, which makes the fool dependent on his body, 
clinging to it as Odysseus d did to the fig-tree through 
fear of Charybdis below, 

Where breezes let him neither stay nor sail,* 

so that he is displeased at this and fearful of that. 

Moralia, 169 b, where the fragment is quoted in another 
form. 

h Asclepiades of Samos; cf. Knox, Choliambica, p. 270, 
who rewrites the line. 

c Apparently by suicide : cf. the admiration Plutarch 
expresses for Demosthenes' suicide (Comp. Cic. and Dem., v. 
888 c) ; but his position is quite different in the polemic 
against Epicurus, Moralia, 1103 e. 

d Homer, Od. 9 xii. 432 ; cf. De Anima, vi. 4 (Bernardakis, 
vol. vii. p. 26). 

e Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 81, Aeschylus, Frag. 250, 
from the Philoctetes ; Frag. 137 ed. Smyth (L.C.L.). 

231 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(476) 8ea>s exovra. 6 8e ttjv rrjs ifsv)(r)s cfrvaiv ol/jlcug- 

y€7TOJg eTTLVOCOV 1 KOLl TTJV €19 TO fieXriOV aVTTJS fj 

firjdev kolklov ev tt) reXevTrj pLeraftoXrjv emXoyi^o- 

JJL€VOS, OV [XiKpOV 6^66 TTjS TTpOS TOV jStOV €v6vfJLL(lS 

€(/)68lov ttjv Trpos tov ddvarov d<f>ofiiav, cS yap 
e^eari Trjs pcev ap€GTrjs 2 Kal oiKeias pbep&os 
€7TiKpaTovor]s rjSeojg tfqv, tcov 8' dXXoTpiwv Kal 
rrapa (f)vatv vrrepfiaXXovTGOv d8ea>s aTreXdelv elrrovTa, 

voei /z o oaLfjLOJV avTos, orav eya> UeAoj, 

C ri dv ' TOVTCp xaAerrov r) SvokoXov r) rapax^)8es 
ipariTTTOV err iv or\o ai\iev ; 6 yap eliroov, " rrpo- 
KaTelXrjiJLiiai a y to Tvxrj, Kal rraaav rrjv ar)v 
a$r\p7)\xai TrapeLahvaiv," ov jjloxXoZs ov8e kXciglv 
ov8e T€iX€crtv eddppvvev eavTov, dXXa 86ypLaoi Kal 
Xoyois oov Traoi jjl€T€gtl tols PovXojJLevoLs. Kal Set 
parj8ev a7Toyiv(jjoK€LV fjirjS y dmoTelv tcov ovtoj Ae- 
yojjLevojv, dXXd davfid^ovTa Kal IpqXovvTa Kal 
ovvevdovoioovTa rrelpav afia Xapipdveiv eavrov Kal 
KaravorjOLV iv tols eAdVrocn Trpos tcx fiei^ova, fir) 
<f)€vyovTa /xryS' airoodovvTa Trjs ipvx^js tt)v impLe- 

D Xeuav avTwv pir]8e 8 taS 18 pddKovT els to 3 " ra^a S' 
oif8ev ecrrat 8vax^p€GTepov .' '' aTOviav 4 yap epbTToiel 
Kal /zaAa/a'av dyvpuvaoTOV r) rrepl to paarov del 
8iarpif5ovoa Kal rrpos to tJ8lgtov eK ra>v dfiovXrjTOov 
dvaxoopovoa yXvKvO vp,La Trjs ifjvxfjs. r) 8e Kal voaov 
Kal ttovov Kal <j>vyrjs fieXeToooa <j>avTaaiav v<f>icrra- 

1 €7tivo(xjv] vttovocjv in all mss. except D. 

2 dpcarrjs Reiske : ap€Tr}s. 

3 els to added by Meziriacus. 

4 aroviav Reiske ; apyiav Diibner ; avoiav Xylander : avlav ; 
cf. 460 b, supra. 

232 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 476 

But he who understands somehow or other the nature 
of the soul and reflects that the change it undergoes 
at death will be for the better, or at least not for the 
worse, has no small provision to secure tranquillity 
of mind for facing life — fearlessness towards death. 
For he who can live pleasantly when the agreeable 
and congenial part of life is in the ascendant, but 
when alien and unnatural principles prevail, can 
depart fearlessly, saying, 

The god himself shall free me, when I will, 
what can we imagine might befall such a man as this 
that would vex or trouble or disturb him ? For he b 
who said, " I have anticipated you, Fortune, and 
taken from you every entry whereby you might get 
at me," encouraged himself, not with bolts or keys 
or battlements, but by precepts and reasoning in 
which everyone who desires may share. And one 
must not despair or disbelieve any of these arguments, 
but should admire and emulate them and, being filled 
with their inspiration, make trial of oneself and ob- 
serve oneself in smaller matters with a view to the 
greater, not avoiding or rejecting from the soul the 
care of these things, nor taking refuge in the remark, 
" Perhaps nothing will be more difficult than this." 
For languor and flabby softness are implanted by that 
self-indulgence of the soul which ever occupies itself 
with the easiest way, and retreats from the undesirable 
to what is most pleasant. But the soul which en- 
deavours, by study and the severe application of its 

° Euripides, Bacchae, 498; cf. Horace, Epistulae, i. 16. 
78-79 : 

" Ipse deus simul atque volam me solvet." opinor 
hoc sentit, " moriar." mors ultima linea rerum est. 
6 Metrodorus of Lampsacus, Frag. 49 ed. Korte. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(476) odai koI TrpoG^ta^ojjievrj rco XoyiopLtp irpos €Kolgtov 
evprjoei ttoXv to 1 KareifjevafJievov kcll 8lolk€Vov kcli 
uaOpov eV rots Sokovol x a ^ €7T °^ KaL cpofiepoZs, cos 
6 kol9' ckolgtov dTrooeLKvvcTL Xoyos . 

19. KatTOt TToAAoi KOI TO TOV WlevdvSpOV 7T€<f)pL~ 
KCLOlVy 

ovk kuTiv elrreiv c^covra, " tovt ov 7T€i(70/x(u/' 

ayvoovvres ooov earl irpos aXviriav dyaOov to 
E [AeXeT&v koI hvvaoOai Trpos ttjv Tvyrp; dvecoyooi 

TO IS SpsfJLaOLV OLVTiftXeTTZLV KCll pbTj TTOl€lV Iv OLVTLp TOLS 

cf>avTao~ias " aTpinTOVs dnaXas " 2 cooirep ivoKta- 

TpO(f)OVfl€VOV 7ToXXcLLS iXTTLGiV V7T€LKOVOaiS OL€L KCLI 
7TpOS fJLTjdeV OLVTLTeLVOVCraLS . €K€lVO \xivTOl KoX TTpOS 

tov Wivavc\pov eyp\iev etTretv, 

ovk eoTtv elnelv* ^covTa, " tovt* ov Treiao/JLCtL," 

dAA' €gtlv elrrecv £<wra, " tovt* ov ttoit]olo % ov 
ifjevcro[jLaL, ov pahiovpyrjaco, ovk ciTToaTeprjoco, ovk 
eTTifiovXevoto." tovto yap €</>' rjpuv Keipbevov ov 
fjiiKpov clXXa pieya irpos evOvpLiav irdpeoTiv. tooirep 
av TOVvavTiov 

r] avveots, otl ovvoiha SetV elpyaopuevos , 

F olov cXkos iv octpKi TTJ ipvxfi* T V V peTCLfieAeiav 
alfjudooovaav del kcll vvaoovoav evaTroXeiirei. Tas 
pi€V yap dXXas dvaupel Xvnas 6 Xoyos, ttjv 8e 

1 to] omitted in most mss. 

2 ctTraAa?] /cat a.7raAa? in most MSS. 

3 ovk earw threw] omitted in most mss. 

4 r V ^XJ}] T V S ^ V XV S m mos t mss. 

23i 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 476 

powers of reasoning, to form an idea of what sickness, 
suffering, and exile really are will find much that 
is false and empty and corrupt in what appears to 
be difficult and fearful, as the reason shows in each 
particular. a 

19. And yet many shudder even at the verse of 
Menander, 5 

No man alive may say, " I shall not suffer this," 

since they do not know how much it helps in warding 
off grief to be able by practice and study to look 
Fortune in the face with eyes open, and not to manu- 
facture in oneself " smooth, soft " c fancies, like one 
reared in the shade of many hopes which ever yield 
and hold firm against nothing. We can, however, 
make this reply to Menander : " True, 

No man alive may say, * I shall not suffer this,' 

yet while still alive one can say, ' I will not do this : I 
will not lie nor play the villain nor defraud nor 
scheme/ " For this is in our power and is not a 
small, but a great help toward tranquillity of mind. 
Even as, on the contrary again, 

My conscience, since I know I've done a dreadful deed, d 

like e an ulcer in the flesh, leaves behind it in the soul 
regret which ever continues to wound and prick it. 
For the other pangs reason does away with, but 

a Cf. Cicero, Disputationes Tusculanae, iii. 81 f. 

b Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 103, Frag. 355, v. 4. 

c Probably a quotation of Od., xxi. 151. 

d Euripides, Orestes, 396 ; cf. Diels, Frag. d. Vorso- 
kratiker 5 , ii. p. 199, Democritus, Frag. 264. 

* The following passage is cited by Stobaeus, vol. iii. 
p. 604 ed. Hense. 

235 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fierdvotav avrog ipyd^erat 1 SaKvofJLevrjs ovv at- 
G X^ V V r y$ faxys 2 KaL KoXa^ofJLevrjs 3 v<f? avrfjs. 
477 cos yap ol piyovvres 7)TTidXois /cat rrvperols Sta/ca- 
o/xevot tqjv ravrd 4, 7raaypvru)v e^toOev vtto Kavpuaros 
rj Kpvovs jjl&AAov ivoxAovvrai /cat kolklov e^ovaiv, 
ovtlos iAa<f)poT€pas €^€t Ta rvxQpd rds Xvrrag 
tooirep e^coOev im^epoixevas' to Se 

ov tls epiOL Ttovo aAAos €7Tcutios, aAA eycxj 
avros 

iTTiOprjvovfJLevov rots' apLapravopuevoLS evoodev i£ 
avrov ftapvrepov iroiel rep aloxpep to dAyecvov. 
odev ovt ot/ct'a TToXvreXrjs ovre XP VG ^° V irArjdos 
ovt* a£la>pLa yevovs ovre pieyeOos dpxfjS, ov Xoyov 
xdpt<S ou 6 o€iv6tt]s euSt'av Trape^ 1 j8t'a> /cat yaXrjvrjv 
rocravrrjv, oarjv ^X ? KaOapevovcra rrpaypLarcov /cat 
B ^ovXevpbdrcjov 7Tovrjpa)v /cat rrjv rod fiiov 7T7]yrjv to 
fjdos drdpaxov exovva /cat dpLtavrov d<f>* rjs at 
/caAat TTpd^ets piovaai /cat rrjv ivepyetav ivdov- 
GLtbSrj /cat tAapai> pierd rod p,eya (f>povelv exoven /cat 
rrjv pLvrjparjv rjStova /cat fiefiaiorepav rr\s YiLvoapiKrjs 
yrjporp6(/)ov eArn'So?. ov yap " at puev At/3ava>- 
rpiSes," ojs eXeye Kapvedorjs, " kolv airoK€va>Qa)cn, > 

1 ipyd^erai] evepyd^rai G and Stobaeus, as Madvig had 
conjectured. 

2 rrjs ipvxyjs] omitted in most mss. 

3 haKVOfJL€V7)S . . . Ko\a£,Ofl€Vr)s] b0LKV0fJL€V7)V . . . KoXa(,o{i€vr)v 

most mss. 

4 ravTCL Gaisford : ravra, 

5 T&vh* Schneider, confirmed by Teles' version : tcuv. 

236 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 476-477 

regret is caused by reason itself, since the soul, to- 
gether with its feeling of shame, is stung and chastised 
by itself. For as those who shiver with ague or burn 
with fevers are more distressed and pained than those 
who suffer the same discomforts through heat or cold 
from a source outside the body, so the pangs which 
Fortune brings, coming, as it were, from a source 
without, are lighter to bear ; but that lament, 

None is to blame for this but me myself, 

which is chanted over one's errors, coming as it 
does from within, makes the pain even heavier by 
reason of the disgrace one feels. And so it is that no 
costly house nor abundance of gold nor pride of race 
nor pomp of office, no grace of language, no eloquence, 
impart so much calm and serenity to life as does a soul 
free from evil acts and purposes and possessing an 
imperturbable and undefiled character as the source 
of its life, a source whence flow fair actions b which 
have both an inspired and joyous activity joined with 
a lofty pride therein, and a memory sweeter and more 
stable than that hope of Pindar's c which sustains old 
age. For do not censers , d as Carneades said, even if 
they have been completely emptied, retain their 

° Assigned by Schneider to Callimachus (Frag. anon. 372) ; 
cf. also Teles, ed. Hense, p. 8 ; Sternbach, Gnomologicum 
Parisinum, 331 (Acad. Litt. Cracov., xx. 1893). The verse 
was perhaps suggested by Homer, //., i. 335. 

b Cf. von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., i. p. 50, Zeno, Frag. 
203 ; see also Moralia, 56 b, 100 c. 

c Frag. 214 Bergk, 233 Boeckh ; p. 608 ed. Sandys. See 
also Plato, Republic, 331 a. 

d On the form XifiavcoTptSes see F. Solmsen, Rheinisches 
Museum, liv. 347. 

6 ov] rj in some mss., as Pohlenz had conjectured (Zeit.f. 
wiss. Theol., I.e., p. 93, n. 1). 

237 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(477) ttjv evoohiav errl ttoXvv y^povov dva^epovaiv^ iv 
8e rfj i/jvxf] T °v vovv eyovTos at /caAat rrpd^eis ovk 
del /ce^aota/xevr/y /cat rrpoo^arov ivaTroXeiirovoi 
ttjv irrlvoiav, vcfS rjs to ^atpov dpSerat /cat re- 
drjXe /cat Kara<f)poveZ toov SSvpopievcov /cat AotSo- 
C povvrcov tov filov, cos riva kolkoov xcbpav rj <j)vya- 
Slkov tottov ivravOa toXs ifjvxcus drroSeSetyixevov ; 
20. "Aya/xat he. tov 1 Aioyevovs, os tov iv 
AaKeSaifiovL £evov optov rrapaoKeva^opievov els 
eopTTjV Tiva /cat </>tAoTt/xouuevov , " dvrjp S' ," elirev, 
" dyaQos ov tt&oclv rjjjLepav eopTrjv ryyetrat; " /cat 
rrdvv ye XapLTrpdv, el aoocfrpovovfjLev. iepov puev yap 
dyiojTaTov 6 Koofios eart /cat OeorrperreGTaTov' els 
he tovtov 6 dv9poo7TOs elodyeTai Sta ttjs yeveoeoos 
ov yeipoK\LriTOov ouS' dKtvrjTOOv dyaXfiaTOJv OeaTTjs, 
aAA' ota vovs delos ata^ryra /zt/xr^jitaTa 2 votjtcov, 
<j)7)ulv 6 HXaToov, e[i(f)VTOv dpxty i^oofjs eypvTa /cat 
D KLvrjueoos e(f)7jvev, tJXlov /cat oeXrjvrjv /cat acrrpa /cat 
TroTapLovs veov vhoop e£ievTas z del /cat yrjv (f)VTols T€ 
/cat Repots Tpo<f)ds* dva7TefJL7Tovoav. cov tov /Stov 
pcvrjULV ovtcl /cat TeXeTTjv TeXeLOTaTTjv evOvficas 5 Set 
fjieoTov elvai /cat yrjOovs' oi>x ojoirep oi ttoXXoI 
KpoVta /cat Ataata 6 /cat Ila^a^vata /cat toiclvtols 
dXXas rjpLepas Trepifievovaiv, w rjodoooi /cat aVa- 
TTvevcrojoLV, ojvt]tov yeXooTos 7 jLtt/xot? /cat opxyjOTals 
puodovs TeXeoavTes • etr 9 e/cet piev evcf)rjfjLOL s Kadij- 

1 tov] to Reiske : to tou Bernardakis. 

2 fiLfjLTjfjLaTa early editors : /u^Ta. 

a itjievras] ££iovr as most MSS. 4 rpo$as\ rpv(j)as most MSS. 

5 €vdvfj,tas] ev<ff7]fuas most MSS. 

6 Ataata] hiovvaia most MSS. 

7 (LvrjTov yeAojTos- Wyttenbach : ojv)7tov yiXurra. 

8 ev<j)ruxoi\ evOvjjLoi Meziriacus and some mss, 

238 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 477 

fragrance for a long time, a and in the soul of the 
wise man do not fair actions leave behind the re- 
membrance of them eternally delightful and fresh, 
by which joy in them is watered and flourishes, and 
he comes to despise those who bewail and abuse life 
as a land of calamities or a place of exile appointed 
here for our souls ? 

20. And I am delighted with Diogenes, who, when 
he saw his host in Sparta preparing with much ado 
for a certain festival, said, " Does not a good man 
consider every day a festival ? " And a very 
splendid one, to be sure, if we are sound of mind. 
For the universe is a most holy temple and most 
worthy of a god ; into it man is introduced through 
birth as a spectator, not of hand-made or immovable 
images, but of those sensible representations of 
knowable things that the divine mind, says Plato, b has 
revealed, representations which have innate within 
themselves the beginnings of life and motion, sun and 
moon and stars, rivers which ever discharge fresh 
water, and earth which sends forth nourishment for 
plants and animals. Since life is a most perfect 
initiation into these things and a ritual celebration of 
them, it should be full of tranquillity and joy, and not 
in the manner of the vulgar, who wait for the festivals 
of Cronus G and of Zeus and the Panathenaea and 
other days of the kind, at which to enjoy and refresh 
themselves, paying the wages of hired laughter to 
mimes and dancers. It is true that we sit there on 

a Cf. Horace, Epistulae, i. 2. 69 : 

quo semel est imbuta recens servabit odorem 

testa diu. 
b Cf Timaeus, 92 c, Epinomis, 984 a. 
c The Roman Saturnalia. 

239 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(477) fxeOa kogjjllcus' ovoels yap ohvperai fivovfJLevos ovoe 
dprjvel Tlvdia Oecofxevos rj ttlvojv 1 iv Kpovtots* as 8' 
E o deos rjfjuv copras x°P r ]y € ^ Kai fAvaraywyei /car- 
aivyyvovGiv y iv oSvpfiols ra ttoXXol /cat fiapvdv- 
fiLais /cat fxepLfjivaLS €7titt6vois oiarpifiovTes. /cat 
rcjov [lev opyaviov yaipovoi rots €7TiT€p7T€s rjx°v aL 
/cat tcx)v opveajv tols aSovac, /cat ra rrait.ovra /cat 
GKiprcovra rtbv l^cpojv rjoeajs optoai,, /cat rovvavriov 
wpvofxevois /cat f3pvxa)[JL€VOLS /cat aKvdpajTrd^ovaiv 
dVtaWar rov 8' eavrtov jStov dfieihrj /cat KaTr](f)rj 
/cat T'ot? arepTTeordrois Trddeoi /cat 77ody/zao~t /cat 
(f)povTicn paqokv rripas e^oucrat? 7tl€^6jjl€VOV del 
F /cat avvOXtpofxevov opcovres, ovx onajs 2 avrol fjiev z 
eavrols dvaTTVorjv riva /cat pqcrrwvrjv rropL^ovatv*' 
TroOev; dAA' ou8' erepwv TrapaKaXovvrojv rcpoo- 
Se^ovrat Aoyov a) xp<ja\ievoi /cat Tot? Trapovoiv 
dfJL€[Ji7TTa)s gvvoigovtcli 6 /cat tcov yeyovoraw eu- 
XapLGTOis pLvrjfjLovevGovaL /cat 77po? to Aot77ov t'Acoj 
r^v oWt'Sa /cat <f>aiopdv exovres dSeoj? /cat dV- 

VTTOTTTOJS TTpoad^OVOLV? 

1 7rtVajv Basel edition : 7retvo>i\ 

2 ou^ oTrajs 1 ] omitted in most MS9. 

3 /xcv] omitted in a few mss. 



240 



ON TRANQUILLITY OF MIND, 477 

those occasions decorously in reverent silence, for no 
one wails while he is being initiated or laments as he 
watches the Pythian games or as he drinks at the 
festival of Cronus ; but by spending the greater part 
of life in lamentation and heaviness of heart and 
carking cares men shame the festivals with which the 
god supplies us and in which he initiates us. And 
though men delight in sweetly sounding instruments 
and singing birds, and take pleasure in seeing animals 
romping and frisking, and, on the contrary, are dis- 
pleased when they howl and bellow and look fierce ; 
yet though they see that their own life is unsmiling 
and dejected and ever oppressed and afflicted by the 
most unpleasant experiences and troubles and un- 
ending cares, they not only do not provide them- 
selves with some alleviation or ease — from what 
source could they do so ? — but even when others urge 
them, they do not accept a word of admonition by 
following which they would acquiesce in the present 
without fault-finding, remember the past with thank- 
fulness, and meet the future without fear or suspicion, 
with their hopes cheerful and bright. 

4 nopt^ovGiv] TTopi&iv most mss. 

5 avvoiaovrai] avvoioovoi all mss. except G, S. 

6 iTpood^ovaiv] 7rpd£ovGi,v Meziriacus. 



241 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE 

(DE FRATERNO AMORE) 



INTRODUCTION 

In this essay Plutarch has arranged his material some- 
what more methodically than is his usual practice. 
In chaps. 1-7 he shows that Brotherly Love is in 
accordance with nature ; in 9-1,9 he tells us how we 
should conduct ourselves toward a brother : (a) while 
our parents are alive, (b) when they are dead, (c) when 
the brother is our inferior, (d) when our superior ; 
and also the reasons for quarrels and the treatment 
thereof. He closes with some pleasant tales of 
affection for brothers' children. 

That Plutarch wrote this work after De Adulatore 
et Amico, De Amicorum Mtdtitudine 9 a and the Life of 
Cato Minor was demonstrated by C. Brokate (De 
aliquot Pint, libellis, diss. Gottingen, 1913, pp. 17-24, 
58 ; and see the excellent tables on pp. 47, 61). 
Plutarch appears to have retained a certain amount 
of more or less irrelevant material on friendship from 
his recent work on these treatises, and also to have 
drawn upon some portions of Theophrastus's treatise 
On Friendships 

The essay is No. 98 in the Lamprias catalogue. 

a This point was subsequently shown, but with much less 
care and detail, by G. Hein (Quaestiones Plut., diss. Berlin, 
1916, p. 37), who seems to have been ignorant of Brokate's 
far superior work. 

b Cf. Brokate, op. cit., pp. 7 if. 
vol. vi i 245 



478 IIEPI OIAAAEAOIAS 

1 . Ta 7raAatd tlov AtoGKopcov 1 a^tSpu/xara Hrrap- 
ridrai u SoKCLva " kolXovolv eon 8e Svo £vXa 
B TrapdXXrjXa Svcrl irXayiois ine^evypieva, kcll SoKel 
rep (pcXaSeXcfxx) tlov Oecov olkelov glvcll rod aVa- 
Orjixarog to kolvov kcll dSiaiperov. ovtco 8rj kcll 
clvtos vpZvy & Ntypcve /cat Kvrjre, 2 to ovyypapLpLa 
tovto 7T€pl ^tAaScA^tas' dvaTL0rj[jLL, kolvov dt;iois 
ova i Sa> pov. i$ a yap irpoTpeTreTCLL, tclvtcl irpaT- 
tovtcs rj8rj pLapTVpeloOai jjl&XXov rj TrapaKaXeloOaL 

86^€T€' KCLL TO )(CLLpOV VfJLtOV €(j> OLS KCLTOp9oVT€ 
TTOLTjOeL TTJ KpLO€L TTjV eTTLflOVTJV j3€/3cLLOT€pCLV y LOOTTep 

iv XP 7 ] 01 " ^ KaL ^XokoXols deaTaZs evrjfjiepovvTtov. 

3 ApLOTCtpxos pi€V ovv 6 QeoSeKTOv TraTrjp, em- 

C gklotttcov to TrXfjOos tlov oo^lotcov , eXeye TrdXaL 

1 AiooKopcov] hiooKovpojv in most mss. 
2 Kvrjre Patzig : Kvvre. 

° Cf. M. C.Weiites, Amer. Jour. Arch., xxiil, 1919, pp. 1 ff.; 
this passage is cited by Eustathius on II. 9 1125. 60. 

b The identity of Avidius Nigrinus and Avidius Quietus is 
not certainly established ; see Prosopographia Imp. Rom., 
i. pp. 189-190. 

c Nauck, comparing Suidas, s.v. Theodectes, and 
Stephanus Byzantius, would correct " Aristarchus " to Aris- 
tandrus, the father of the tragic poet Theodectas of 
Phaselis. 
246 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE 

1. The ancient representations of the Dioscuri are 
called by the Spartans " beam-figures " a : they 
consist of two parallel wooden beams joined by two 
other transverse beams placed across them ; and 
this common and indivisible character of the offering 
appears entirely suitable to the brotherly love of 
these gods. In like manner do I also dedicate this 
treatise On Brotherly Love to you, Nigrinus and 
Quietus, b a joint gift for you both who well deserve 
it. For as to the exhortations this essay contains, 
since you are already putting them into practice, you 
will seem to be giving your testimony in their favour 
rather than to be encouraged to perform them ; and 
the pleasure you will take in acts which are right will 
make the perseverance of your judgement more firm, 
inasmuch as your acts will win approval before spec- 
tators, so to speak, who are honourable and devoted 
to virtue. 

Now Aristarchus, c the father of Theodectes, by way 
of jeering at the crowd of sophists, used to say that in 
the old days there were barely seven Sophists , d but 

d That is, the Seven Wise Men. Plutarch so uses oofaorris 
(cf. Moralia, 96 a, where all mss. but one read oofaarov; 
857 f) ; so also Aristotle, Frag. 5 ed. V. Rose. Of. the 
earlier usage of Herodotus, i. 29 (where Wells's note is hope- 
lessly wrong) ; ii. 49 ; iv. 95 ; Hippocrates, De Vet. Med., 20. 

247 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(478) jJL€V €7TTCL GOC^LGTOig 1 [JLoAlS y€l'iadai, TOT€ Se fJLTJ 

pqSicos dv ISicbras togovtovs evpeOrjvac iyco 8' 
opto kclO* rjfJL&s rrjv (fuXaSeA^lav ovrw GirdvLov 
ovoav cos rrjv /.ucraSeA</>iai> inl tcov 7raAaLcov y rjs ye 
to, (fxivevra Trapaheiyfiara rpaycohiais kol Qearpois 
6 filos i^e8ooK€ Sea to TrapdSo^ov ol 8e vvv av- 
dpooTTOi Travres, orav Ivrvyyavoaoi xprjarols dSeA- 

<f)OLS, OavpLOL^OVCTLV OV§€V 7JTTOV Tj TOVS MoAlOViSoLS 

€K€lvov$, av{JL(f)V€is toZs GoofxaGL yeyovevai ookovv- 

tcls, kclI to -)(py)odai Koivtos toZs TTCLTpooois XRVl 10 " 01 

koX (f)iAois /cat oovAois ovtcos clttlgtov rjyovvraL koll 

D repartdoes, cbs to xpfjodai \xiav ifjv)(f)V hvelv 

GCO/JLOLTOOV X € P ai KCLL 7TO(J ^ KCLL 0(f)9aA[JLoZs. 

2. Katrot to irapaSeLyfia Trjs xprjoeoos tcov aScA- 
(f)Cov tj (f>vo*LS ov {laKpav edrjKev, aAA' iv avTco too 

GO) {MOLT l TCI TrA<ELGTCL TCOV OLVayKCLLCQV OITTCL KCLL 

dSeA^a /cat SISv/jlol jxrjxavrjGajiev^q , x ei *P a S ttoSols 
ofifjuar 9 cSra pZvas, ioiSa£ep otl TavTa 2 GCOT-qpLas 

€V€KOL KCLL GVfJL7Tpd^€COS KOlVrjS OV Sta^Opa? KOL 

lidxj]S ovtcos OLeGTTjoev aura? T€ Tag x €i *P a S €L$ 

TToXXoVS KCLL CLVLOOVS ScLKTvAoVS CJ^taacra TTCLVTLOV 

opydvcov e^/xcAeWara kcll TeyyLKtoTaTa irapeGxev, 
E logt ' 'Avat; ay 6 pav top rraAaLov iv rat? X € P (7L T V V 

CLLTLCLV TLdeodaL TT)S dvd pLOTTlVYjS GO<f>LOLS KCLL GVV" 

ioecos. dAAd tovtov [lev k'oLKev dArjOes etvcLL 
TOVvavTLOv ov yap otl x^Zpas €GX ev dvdpajTros go- 

1 oo(j>iaras] ao<f>ovs in some mss. 
2 ravra] ravra Trdvra in some mss. 

a Cf. Moralia, 1083 c; Fraser's note on Apollodorus, 
ii. 7. 2 (L.C.L. vol. i. p. 249). 

6 Cf. Hierocles, Frag. Be Fraterno Amove (Stobaeus, 
vol. iv. p. 663 ed. Hense). 
248 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 478 

that in his own day an equally large number of 
non-sophists could not easily be found. And accord- 
ing to my observation, brotherly love is as rare in 
our day as brotherly hatred was among the men of 
old ; when instances of such hatred appeared, they 
were so amazing that the times made them known to 
all as warning examples in tragedies and other 
stage-performances ; but all men of to-day, when they 
encounter brothers who are good to each other, 
wonder at them no less than at those famous sons of 
Molione, a who, according to common belief, were 
born with their bodies grown together ; and to use 
in common a father's wealth and friends and 
slaves is considered as incredible and portentous as 
for one soul to make use of the hands and feet and 
eyes of two bodies. 

2. And yet the illustration of such common use by 
brothers Nature has placed at no great distance from 
us ; on the contrary, in the body itself she has con- 
trived to make most of the necessary parts double 
and brothers and twins b : hands, feet, eyes, ears, 
nostrils ; and she has thus taught us that she has 
divided them in this fashion for mutual preservation 
and assistance, not for variance and strife. And 
when she separated the very hands into a number of 
unequal fingers, she supplied men with the most 
accurate and skilful of instruments, so that Anaxa- 
goras c of old assigned the reason for man's wisdom 
and intelligence to his having hands. The contrary 
of this, however, seems to be true d : it is not because 
man acquired hands that he is wisest of animals ; 

' Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , ii. p. 30, § 102. 
d Of. Aristotle, De Partibus Animalium, iv. 10 (687 a 
17 ff.). 

249 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(fxLrarov, dAA' on cfrvcrei AoyiKov rjv /cat reyyiKoVy 
opydvcov cf)VG€L tolovtojv ervx^v. €K€lvo 8e ttclvtI 
SrjXov, d)S drro OTreppbaros ivos /cat puds o\p)(fjs rj 
<f)v<JLS a8eA(f)ovs 8vo /cat rpels /cat TrXeiovas €7TOLrjacv 
ov 7Tpog 8ia(f)opdv /cat dvrira^iv, aXX ottcos X^P^ 
ovres aXArjAois jjl&AAov avvepycocnv. oi yap 8rj 
rpiaco/JLaroL /cat e/caroy^ctpes', etWp iyevovro, crvp,- 
<f)V€Ls ovres ttolol tois pbepeacv, ovoev €ktos avrcov 1 
F ov8e x^pls i8vvavro TTOtelv o toZs d8eAcf>oZs vrrdpxei 
/cat fjLevew /cat OLTToSrjfjLelv dfjia /cat rroAireveadai /cat 
yeajpyeZv 8vvapbevois 8t* dAArjAcov, dvirep fjv rj <j)VOis 
e8a)K€V evvoias /cat ovfufiajvias dpx^v (frvAdrTcoaw 
el 8e paq, tto8o)v ovdev, ot/xat, Stotaouatv dAArjAovs 
VTTOGKeAi^ovTcov /cat 8aKTvAa>v ifiTrAeKO/JLevcov /cat 
8taarp€(f)opL€VOJv rrapd (frvcrw vtt* dAArjAcov. jjl&AAov 
8' djG7T€p iv ravrw awfiaTL puds Koivcuvovvra (f>v- 
479 aecos /cat rpocfrfjs rd vypd /cat £r]pd /cat xfsvxpd /cat 
depfid rfj o/zovota /cat ovpLcjiojvia rrjv dpLcrrrjv /cat 
rjSiurrjv Kpdacv ipLTTOteZ /cat appboviav, rjs ^ajpts" 

OVT€ 

ttAovtov 
<f>acrlv OVT€ 

rds lao8aipiovos dvdpoj- 
7TOLS j3aoiArji8os dpxds 

€lvcll two, X®-P LV KaL ovrjcriv dv 8e rrAeove^ia /cat 
crraats' avrols iyyevrjTou, Ste</>#€tpev ata^tara /cat 

GVV€X €€ T0 ^ ov > OVTOJS d8€A(f)d>V OpLO^pOOVVTJ 

1 avra>v Bernardakis : avr&v. 

a Cf. Xenophon, Memorabilia, ii. 3. 18-19. 
250 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 478-479 

it is because by nature he was endowed with reason 
and skill that he acquired instruments of a nature 
adapted to these powers. And this fact is obvious to 
everyone : Nature from one seed and one source has 
created two brothers, or three, or more, not for 
difference and opposition to each other, but that by 
being separate they might the more readily co-operate 
with one another. For indeed creatures that had 
three bodies and an hundred hands, if any such were 
ever really born, being joined together in all their 
members, could do nothing independently and apart 
from one another, as may brothers, who can either 
remain at home or reside abroad, as well as undertake 
public office and husbandry through each other's help 
if they but preserve that principle of goodwill and 
concord which Nature has given them. But if they 
do not, they will differ not at all, I think, from feet 
which trip up one another and fingers which are un- 
naturally entwined and twisted by each other. But 
rather, just as in the same body the combination of 
moist and dry, cold and hot, sharing one nature and 
diet, by their consent and agreement engender the 
best and most pleasant temperament and bodily 
harmony — without which, they say, there is not any 
joy or profit either " in wealth " or 

In that kingly rule which makes men 
Like to gods b — 

but if overreaching and factious strife be engendered 
in them, they corrupt and destroy the animal most 
shamefully ; so through the concord of brothers both 

5 From Ariphron's Paean to Health : cf. 450 b, supra. 
The present passage is paraphrased by Stobaeus, vol. iv. 
p. 658 ed. Hense. 

251 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(479) KaL yevos /cat olkos vyiaivei /cat TedrjXe, /cat <$t'Aot 

KCLL GVVTjOeLS LQOTT€p ifJLfJLeXrjS X°P°$ OV0€V OVT€ 

7T pdooovaiv evavriov ovre Xeyovcnv r) (jypovovoiv 

eV he hixooraairj /cat 6 irdyKCLKos efifiope Tt/x^s", 

oIk£t7)s hidfioXos rj /coAa£ irapevhvs dvpalos r) 
B iroXirrjs fidoKavos. d>s yap at voaoi rots oxo/xaat 

flT] TTpO(JL€jJi€VOLS TO OLK€LOV 7ToXXo)V €[JL7TOLOV(JLV 

aroTTCov /cat fiXafiepwv ope^etSy ovtoos r) npos to 
ovyyeves hiafioXr) /cat vcfropacris opuXias eTrdye- 
tcu cfxivXas /cat Trovrjpds eh to entires 1 e£a>8ev 
emppeovcras. 

3. *0 puev ovv 'Ap/caSt/co? fJbdvTig aVay/cata>9 2 
7708a ^vXivov TrpooeTTOtricraTO /ca#' 'HpohoTOP tov 
otKeiov OTepyjOeLS' dheX(f)6s he iroXepLtbv dheX(j)cp /cat 

KTO)jJL€VOS 69v€LOV i£ dyopOLS t) TTaXdLCFTpaS €TCLipOV 

ovOev k'oiKev dXXo noielv rj odpKivov /cat ovjMJyves 
€Kovolo)s aTTOKOijsas jJLeXos* dXXoTpcov 7TpocrTi8eod at 4, 
Q /cat TTpocrappLOTTeiv . avTrj yap r) TTpoahexojievr] /cat 
^TjTOVoa (fjiXiav /cat opaXiav XP € ^ a hthdcrKei to ovy- 
yeves Ti\iav /cat Trepieneiv /cat hiafivXaTTeLV, d>s 

d(f)lXoVS /Cat djJLLKTOVS /Cat fJLOVOTpOTTOVS tff]V fJLTj 

hwapiivovs pLrjhe irecfyvKOTas. odev 6 MevavSpos 
6p9cos 

1 eKXiTres] eWiires some mss. 

2 avayKaLcos] hu«iLa>$ Stobaeus. 

3 jjueXos] ixipos most mss. 

4 TrpooTiOeoOai] irpooTpifizodai, Stobaeus. 

a Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec, iii. p. 690 ; Edmonds, Elegy 
252 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 479 

family and household are sound and flourish, and 
friends and intimates, like an harmonious choir, 
neither do nor say, nor think, anything discordant ; 

Even the base wins honour in a feud ° : 

a slandering servant, or a flatterer who slips in from 
outside, or a malignant citizen. For as diseases in 
bodies which cannot accept their proper diet engender 
cravings for many strange and harmful foods, so 
slander and suspicion entertained against kinsmen 
ushers in evil and pernicious associations which flow 
in from outside to fill the vacant room.** 

3. It is true that the Arcadian prophet c of neces- 
sity manufactured for himself, according to Herodo- 
tus, a wooden foot, deprived as he was of his own ; 
but the man who quarrels with his brother, and takes 
as his comrade a stranger from the market-place or 
the wrestling-floor, appears to be doing nothing but 
cutting off voluntarily a limb of his own flesh and 
blood, and taking to himself and joining to his body 
an extraneous member. Indeed it is our very need, 
which welcomes and seeks friendship and comrade- 
ship, that teaches us to honour and cherish and keep 
our kin, since we are unable and unfitted by Nature 
to live friendless, unsocial, hermits' lives. Wherefore 
Menander d rightly says, 

and Iambus, ii. p. 284 ; quoted also in Life of Alexander, 
liii. (695 e) ; Life of Nicias, xi. (530 d) ; Comparison of 
Lysander and Sulla, i. (475 f). 

b Cf 468 c-d, supra, 

c Hegisistratus of Elis in Herodotus, ix. 37. The first 
sentence of this chapter is paraphrased by Stobaeus, vol. iv. 
p. 675 ed. Hense. 

d Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 169, Frag. 554 (p. 493 eel. 
Allinson, L.C.L.) ; v. 4 is quoted in Moralia, 93 c. 

vol. vi I 2 253 



\ 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(479) OVK €K 7TOTOJV KCLl T7)S KdO' TJfiepdV Tpvcfrfjs 1 
^r)TOV[X€V CO 7TLGT€VaOjJi€V TOL TOV fliOV {<f)r}<Jl) , 

rrdrep. ov irepiTrov oler 2 i^evprjKevai 
dyadov exaoTos, dv exj] <f)iXov OKidv; 

cr/ctat yap eloiv ovtojs at iroXXal <^tAtat /cat \xi\xr\- 

D jitara /cat et'ScoAa rfjs 7Tpa)Tr]s €K€ivr]s, rjv ttoliol re 

Trpos yovels rj envois d8eXtf)ols re 7rpos d8eX<f)ovs 

€pL7T€7TOLrjK€, Z KOLKeLVTjV 6 fJLTj OefiofJLeVOS fJL7]8e TlfJLLOV 

dpd riva 4, ttlotlv evvolas rots dAAorpiois 8l8ojolv; 
77 ttoZos ris icrrt tov iTolpov iv (f)iAo(f)po(jvvais Kdl 
ypdpLfiaoiv dSeXtfcov rrpooayopevajv, rep S' doeXcfrtp 
fir]0€ ttjv avrrjv 686v olopievos 8elv f5a8Lt > eiv; d>s 
yap ct/coVa Koojxelv d8eXcf)ov to 8e acojxa tvttt€lv 
kol aKpajTrjpid^eiv \xaviKov, ovtlo Tovvopua oefie- 
oOai Kal Tipbdv iv eTepois avTov 8e fjuaeiv Kal 
(f)€vy€tv ov)( vyiaivovTos ioTiv, oz)S' iv vco 7tcottot<= 
ttjv <f)VGLV d)$ dytwTaTov /cat \1iy1OT0v iepcov 5 
Xa/36vTO$. 
E 4. OtSa yovv i/xavTov iv *Pa)fJL7) Suctv d8eX(f)d)V 
dva8e£dpLevov 8lacTav, tov aTepos eSo/cet cf)LXocrocj)€LV 
v)v 8' ojs €OLK€V ov fiovov dSeXcfros dXXd Kal </>tAo- 
aocf)os ifj€v8eTTLypa(f)Os /cat ifjevSwvvpLos* ifJiov yap 
d^LovvTos avTov ojs aSeA^oV 6 dSeA<^a> /cat tStcurry 
<f)iX6cro(f)OV 7Tpoo(f)ep€cr9aL, " TavT ," etVrev, " d)$ 
Trpos 18lo)T7jv dXrjOtos, iytb S' ov ae\ivov ov8e fxeya 
7TOLOvjJLai to e/c tlov avTtov fJLOpiojv yeyovevac. 
av jxeVy €<prjv eyaj, orjAos et paqoe to e/c pboptajv 

1 Tpv<j>rjs] one ms. has rpo(f>r\s, Grotius's conjecture. 
2 oUt Xylander : oloi r or ols r, 

3 €fJL7T€7TOLr)K€] 7T€7rOL7]K€ TUOSt MSS. 

4 dpd nva] dpa (or apa) rCva (or rtvt) ; Spa Pohlenz. 
5 Upcov] Upov many mss. 
254 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 479 

Not from drink or from daily revelling 
Do we seek one to whom we may entrust 
Our life, father. Do we not think we've found 
Great good in but. the shadow of a friend ? 

For most friendships are in reality shadows and 
imitations and images of that first friendship which 
Nature implanted in children toward parents and in 
brothers toward brothers ; and as for the man who 
does not reverence or honour this friendship, can 
he give any pledge of goodwill to strangers ? Or 
what sort of man is he who addresses his comrade as 
" brother " in salutations and letters, but does not 
care even to walk with his own brother when they 
are going the same way ? For as it is the act of a 
madman to adorn the effigy of a brother and at the 
same time to beat and mutilate the brother's body, 
even so to reverence and honour the name " brother " 
in others, but to hate and shun the person himself, 
is the act of one who is not sane and has never yet 
got it into his head that Nature is the most holy 
and great of sacred things. a 

4. I remember, for instance, that in Rome I under- 
took to arbitrate between two brothers, of whom one 
had the reputation of being a philosopher. .But he 
was, as it appears, not only as a brother but also as 
a philosopher, masquerading under a false name and 
appellation ; for when I asked him to conduct himself 
as brother to brother and as philosopher to lay- 
man, " What you say," said he, " as to his being a 
layman, is correct, but I account it no momentous 
or important matter to have sprung from the same 
loins." " As for you," said I, " it is obvious that you 

a For the hyperbole contrast 491 d, infra. 

8 aSeA^ov added by Stegmann. 

255 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yeyovevai pceya /cat oepvov rjyovpLevos. 19 dXX 61 

F ye d'AAot Trdvres, el /cat fxrj cf)povovacv ovrtos, 

Xeyovai yovv /cat ahovaiv, cos yovevoi Tipirjv pberd 

0€OVS TTpdjTTJV KOLL fl€yi(JTr]V 7] T€ (f>VGLS O T€ T7]V 

<f>voiv ooo^cov vofjios OLTTeSojKe' /cat OVK eonv 6 TL 
jjl&XXov avOpajTTOL Ke^apia\ievov Oeois Spoooiv rj 
tok€vglv avrchv /cat rpo^evoi " TraAatds irrl veois 1 
SaveicrOeiaas " ^dpcras evpLevoos /cat rrpodvpbcxjs 

€KTLVOVT€S. OuS' CLV TToXiV fJL€L^OJV eTTiSei^LS ddeOV 

yeyove rrjs irepi yoveis oAiycopias /cat TrX^pLfieXecas' 
480 Sto tovs piev dAAous- /ca/ca)? 7rot€tv dnelpy]rai y \ur\Tp\ 
8' avrov /cat irarpl to fxrj Trape^eiv 2 Spoovras del 
/cat Xeyovras dfi cov ev^pavovvrat, kolv firj npoofj 
to Xvttovv, dvocriov rjyovvrai /cat dOeofiov. TtV 
ovv ecrrt rrapd rraihoov yovevatv rj Trpa^ts rj x a P 1 ^ 
rj ScdOeois pcaXXov evfypalveiv SvvajjLevrj rrjs npos 
dSeXcj)6v evvoias fiefiaiov /cat (f)iXLas; 

5. Kat 3 tovto ye pdScov eonv drro rchv evavrioov 
KarafiaOetv. ottov yap oiKorpifia Ti[ioo\ievov vtto 

fJLTJTpOS Tj TTCLTpOS VIOL TTp07T7]XaKL%OVTeS /Cat <f)VTOOV 

/cat xoopLcov ols e^aipov dfieXovvres dvitoaiv avrovs, 
/cat kvcov tls oLKoyevrjs rrapopoopievos /cat lottos 
B aWerat (f)iXooropya>v /cat ^lXotljjloov yepovroov, 
d^Oovrai 8e rots ttolioIv aKpodpcara /cat Oedfiara 
/cat a^A^ras' ouV eOavfia^ov avrol Siaovpovai /cat 
Kara(f)povovoiv' t)ttov fierpioos eyovaiv* viols 8ta 

1 viois Madvig: viais or vias. 

2 7Tpoa€X€Lv some mss. ; others add iavrovs. 

8 kqX Reiske : r). 4 ovs Reiske : oaovs. 

5 €xovglv] egovotv Xylander and Kronenberg. 

° Cf. Commentarii in Hesiodum, 65 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. 
p. 84), on Works and Days, 707. 
256 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 479-480 

consider it no important or momentous matter to have 
sprung from any loins at all." But certainly all other 
philosophers, even if they do not think so, at least do 
affirm with constant iteration that both Nature and 
the Law, which upholds Nature, have assigned to 
parents, after gods, first and greatest honour a ; and 
there is nothing which men do that is more accept- 
able to gods than with goodwill and zeal to repay 
to those who bore them and brought them up the 
favours " long ago lent to them when they were 
young." b Nor is there, again, a greater exhibition 
of an impious nature than neglect of parents or 
offences against them. Therefore, while we are for- 
bidden to do wrong to all others, yet to our mother 
and father, if we do not always afford, both in deed 
and in word, matter for their pleasure, even if offence 
be not present, men consider it unholy and unlawful. 
Hence what deed or favour or disposition, which 
children may show toward their parents, can give 
more pleasure than steadfast goodwill and friendship 
toward a brother ? 

5. And surely this fact is quite easy to perceive 
from the contrary. For when we observe that parents 
are grieved by sons who maltreat a servant honoured 
by mother and father, and neglect plants or farm-lands 
in which their parents took delight, and that remiss- 
ness in caring for some house-dog or horse hurts 
elderly persons who feel a jealous affection for them ; 
and when, again, we observe that parents are vexed 
when their children disparage and hiss at concerts 
and spectacles and athletes all of which they them- 
selves used to admire ; when we observe these things, 
is it reasonable to suppose that parents are indifferent 

6 Plato, Laws, 717 c ; cf. 496 c, infra. 

257 



PLUTARCH'S M0RAL1A 

(480) (f)€pojjL€voLS /cat fiLorovaiv dAA^Aous' /cat kolkcos Ae- 
yovai /cat 7Tpos epya /cat irpd^eis avrirarropLevotg 
del /cat KCLTaAvopLevoLs vrr* dXXrjXojv; ovk av eliroi 
rig. ovkovv rovvavriov epcovres dXXi^Xcov /cat cf)t- 
Xovvreg dSeX(f)OL, /cat ooov rj <f)vais rols awpbaot 
SUarrjoev, iirl ravro rols irddeoi /cat rols npdy- 
jjiaaiv aTToSiSovres, 1 /cat Xoyovs kolvovs /cat Starpt- 
f3ds a/xa /cat vratSta? /xct' dAA^AaJV fyovres, rjoelav 
C /cat /xa/captav irapeoKevaKaoi yrjporp6(f)ov rols yo- 
vevoi ttjv (f)iXa8eX(f)Lav . our€ ydp cfrtXoXoyos Trarrjp 
ovra>s pure (fuXoTL/JLOs ovt€ (f)iXoxp^] pharos yeyovev 
a*)? c/)lX6t€KV09' Sto rous vlovs oiire Xeyovras ovre 
nXovrovvras ovr dpxovras rjSecos ovra>s d)S </>t- 
Xovvras dXXrjXovs 6pa>otv. ' ArroXXajvlSa yovv rrjv 
Kv&Krjvrjv, JLvpuevovs 8e rod paatXeajs [xryripa /cat 
rpicjv dXXwv, 'ArrdXov /cat (DtAeratpou /cat > Adr]- 
vaioVy Xeyovai jLta/capt£etv eavrrjv del /cat rot? deols 
Xa<pi<v £X €LV °v $ L( * T ° v ttXovtov ov8e Std rrjv rjye- 

fJLOVLOLV, dAA' OTL TOV$ rpels VLOVS itOpCL TOV 

npeo^vrarov 8opvcf)opovvras /cd/cetvov iv /xeaot? 
D avrols 86para /cat £t(f>r) (f>opovotv dSecos StatraS- 
fjuevov. axjnep av rovvavriov, 'Apra^ep^rjs 2 alodo- 
pi€vos ^Q>x ov T ° v v ^° v GTrifiefiovXevKora rols d8eX(f)ols 
ddvpirjoas direOave. 

XaXerrol TToXzpioi yap dSeX^cbv, 

ojs FjVpLirLorjs etprjKev, ovres x a ^ €7T( * )TaT0L ro ^ 

1 aTTohi86vT€s] eViSiSoWc? Wyttenbach, which Rouse prefers. 
2 'Apraf epfqs Palmerius : £ep£r)s. 

a Perhaps with a reference to Pindar, Frag. 214: cf. 
477 b, supra, and the note. 
258 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 480 

when sons quarrel, hate and malign each other, and 
array themselves ever against each other's interests 
and activities, and are finally ruined by each other ? 
No one can say that the parents are indifferent. 
Hence when, on the other hand, brothers love and 
feel affection for each other, and, in so far as 
Nature has made them separate in their bodies, 
so far do they become united in their emotions 
and actions, and share with each other their studies 
and recreations and games, then they have made 
their brotherly love a sweet and blessed " sustainer 
of old age " a for their parents. For no father is 
so fond of oratory or of honour or of riches as he is 
of his children ; therefore fathers do not find such 
pleasure in seeing their sons gaining a reputation 
as orators, acquiring wealth, or holding office as in 
seeing that they love one another. So they report 
of Apollonis of Cyzicus, mother of King Eumenes b 
and three other sons, Attalus and Philetaerus and 
Athenaeus, that she always congratulated herself 
and gave thanks to the gods, not because of wealth 
or empire, but because she saw her three sons mem- 
bers of the body-guard of the eldest, who passed 
his days without fear surrounded by brothers with 
swords and spears in their hands. So again, on the 
contrary, when Artaxerxes c perceived that his son 
Ochus had plotted against his brothers, he despaired 
and died. 

For cruel are the wars of brothers, 

as Euripides d says, and they are cruellest of all to 

b Cf. 489 d f., infra ; Gnomologicum Vaticanum, 293 
(Wiener Stud., x. p. 241). 

c Cf. Life of Artaxerxes, xxx. (1027 b). 

d Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 675, Frag. 975. 

259 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

(480) yovevaiv avToZs 1 elatv 6 yap puatbv tov d8eA<f>6v 
avrov kclI fiapvvofxzvos ov hvvaTai pirj tov yevvrj- 

GOLVTOL fJL€/JLcf)€<79aL KCLL TTjV T€KOVOaV. 

6. '0 fxev ovv YleioioTparos emyapLcov evrjAiKots 
ovgl toZs viols €(j)rj kclAovs KayaOovs eKeivovs 
7]yovfjL€Vos €tl TrAeiova)v eOeAetv tolovtojv rrarrjp 
yeveodai. xP v i GTOL ^€ KCLl 8iKaiot TraZ8es ov puovov 
E Sta tovs yoveZs dyarTrjaovai pcaAAov aAA^Aoi;?, aAAa 
Kal toi)s yoveZs Si' dAA^Aous" ovtojs del Kal (j>po- 
vovvTes Kal AeyovTes, on toZs yovevaiv dvrl ttoAAojv 
%dpiv * 6<f)eiAovTes pdAidTa Sid tovs d8eA(f>ovs 

6(j>€iAoVGLV, OJS TOVTO 8rj KTrjfJLaTCOV diraVTQJV TLfJUO)- 

TaTov Kal tJSlgtov e^ovTes Trap* avTtov. ev ye tol 
Kal "Opaqpos 7re7TOL7]Ke TrjAepia^ov ev GvpL^opa 
Tavd8eA(j)ov 2 TiOefxevov 

aSSe yap rjpbeTeprjv yeverjv piovvojoe ¥Lpoi'LO)v. 

6 S' 'HcrioSos- ovk ev rrapaiveZ " piovvoyevrj rraZSa" 
TtDy rraTpcoajv errtKArjpov elvai, Kal raura to)v 
Movocov yeyovdbs pLa6r]Tiijs, as- ofjiov Si' evvoiav del 
P Kal <f)iAaoeA(f)iav ovoas ovtojs covopua^ov, pbovoas. 
Ylpos p^ev ovv yovels r\ </>iAaSeA</>ia tolovtov eoTiv, 
a)OTe to cf)iAeZv d8eA(/)dv evOvs aTroSet^iv elvai tov 

1 avrols] clvtlov Hartman. 
2 The mss. read to dvaSeA<£ov and tov dSeA<£6V. 

a Perhaps this sentence is paraphrased by Stobaeus, vol. iv. 
p. 658 ed. Hense. 

b Cf. Moralia, 189 d ; related also of Cato Maior in 
Plutarch's Life, xxiv. (351 b). 

c Paraphrased by Stobaeus, vol. iv. p. 658 ed. Hense. 

d Od., xvi. 117. 
260 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 480 

the parents themselves. For he that hates his own 
brother and is angry with him cannot refrain from 
blaming the father that begat and the mother that 
bore such a brother." 

6. So Peisistratus, 5 marrying for a second time when 
his sons were full grown, said that because he con- 
sidered them to be honourable and good he wished 
to become the father of more children like them. 
Excellent and just sons will not only love each 
other the more because of their parents, but will also 
love their parents the more because of each other ; 
so will they always both think and say that, though 
they owe their parents gratitude for many favours, it 
is most of all for their brothers that they owe it, c 
since these are truly the most precious and delightful 
of all the possessions they have received from them. 
Well indeed has Homer d also depicted Telemachus 
as reckoning his brotherless condition a misfortune : 

The son of Cronus thus has doomed our race 
To have one son alone. 

But Hesiod e does not well in advising " an only son " 
to inherit his father's estate — and that too when he 
was himself a pupil of the Muses/ who, in fact, 
received this name 9 just because they were " always 
together " {homou ousas) in concord and sisterly 
affection. 71 

Now T , as regards parents, brotherly love is of such 
sort that to love one's brother is forthwith a proof ( <~^~ 
of love for both mother and father ; and again, as / 

e Works and Days, 376 ; cf. the Commentarii in Hesiodum, 
37 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 70). 
* Theogony, 22. 

9 A fanciful derivation : Movoai from 6fxov ovaai. 
h Paraphrased by Stobaeus, vol. iv. p. 659 ed. Hense. 

261 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/cat rrjv pirjrepa (j)iXelv /cat rov rrarepa, 7rpds Se 
TratSa? av 1 St'Say/xa /cat TTapdheiyjia (j)iXaoeX<f>las 
otbv ovdev dXXo, /cat rovvavriov av Trovrjpdv djorrep 
e£ dvrcypd(/)ov rrarpcpov rrjv /xtaaSeA^tW dvaAa/x- 
481 fidvovoLV. 6 yap ev St/cat9 /cat ordaeai /cat dycucrt 
77^69 doeX(f>ovs eyyeyrjpaKO)s, elra rovg vlovs 
d/xovoeZv TrapaKaXojv, 

dXXojv larpos avros eXKeaiv fipvajv, 

daOevrj iroieZ rot? epyois rov Xdyov. el yovv 6 
Qrjfialos 'Ereo/cA^9 rrpds rov doeX(/)dv elprjKws, 

darpajv av eXOoipJ rjXlov rrpds dvaroXds 
/cat yijs evepde Swards a>v opaaai rdoe, 
rrjv 6ed>v 2 \ieyiorv)v war eyeiv Tvpavvioa' 

roZs avrov rrdXiv rrapeKeXevero reKvots, 

'lodrrjra rtjiav, rj <j)iXovs del* <t>lXois 
irdXeis re rrdXeoi avpLfiaxovs re avpLfxaxois 
avvSeZ' rd yap laov /zoVt/xov 4 dvdpdmois ecf)V, 

B rts oi)K av avrov Kare^pdvqoe ; ttoZos 8' av r\v d 
'Arpevs, el rotavra heiTrviaas rov dSeX<f)dv eyvajfio- 
Xdyei rrpds rods rraZSas, 

<f>iXa)v ye jJLevrot xpfjacs rj rrpds alfiaros 
fidvrj KaKov peovros 6 dxfteXeZv <f)iXeZ; 

1 av] avrov most MSS. 

2 decov] rcov decov most mss. 

3 del] elvai most MSS. 

4 fjLovifiov] vofit/jLov some mss. here and the mss. of Euripides, 
but cf. 484 b, infra. 5 peovros] irapovros Nauck. 

a Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 703, Euripides, Frag. 
262 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 480-481 

regards children, for them there is no lesson and 
example comparable to brotherly love on their father's 
part. And, on the other hand, the contrary is a bad 
example for children who inherit, as from a father's 
testament, his hatred of brothers. For a man who 
has grown old in law-suits and quarrels and content- 
ions with his brothers, and then exhorts his children 
to concord, 

Healer of others, full of sores himself, a 

weakens the force of his words by his own actions. 
If, at any rate, Eteocles b of Thebes had said with 
reference to his brother, 6 

To where the sun and stars rise would I go, 
And plunge beneath the earth — if this I could — 
To hold Dominion, greatest of the gods, 

and then had proceeded to exhort his own children/* 

Revere Equality, which ever binds 
Friend to friend, state to state, allies unto 
Allies : Nature made equal rights secure, 

who would not have despised him ? And what sort 
of man would Atreus have been, if, after serving his 
brother that dinner, 6 he had then proceeded to 
preach to his own children : 

And yet the use of friends, fast joined with ties 
Of blood, alone brings help when troubles flow ? f 

1086; quoted also in Moralia, 71 f, 88 d, 1110 e. Cf. 
Aeschylus, Prometheus, 473 ; and larpe, depdnevGov aeavrov. 

5 Euripides, Phoenissae, 504-506. 

c Polyneices. 

d Phoenissae, 536-538, but it is Jocasta who speaks here, ex- 
horting Eteocles to concord : cf. Moralia, 643 f. 

e Atreus served to his brother Thyestes Thyestes' own 
children at a feast of pretended reconciliation. 

' Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 912, ades. 384. 

263 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(481) 7. Ato /cat yoveojv kclktjv yrjporp6(/)ov ovoav /cat 

KaKLOVa TTOuSoTpOcfxDV T6KVC0V €KK<l9aLp€lV 7TpOOT]K€l 

ttjv puaaSeX^lav. eari Se /cat 77pos" ttoAltcls 8ta/3o- 
Ao? /cat Karrjyopos' olovrai yap ovk av e/c roorjaSe 
avvTpo<j>ias /cat ovvrjdeias /cat OLKeLorrjTOS ex^povs 
/cat TToXefiiovs yeveadai pur) 7roAAd /cat Trovrjpd avv- 
C etSoras* dAA^Aots" /xeyaAat yap atrtat pieydXrjv 
StoXXvovaiv 1 evvoiav /cat (f)iXiav. 69 ev ovSe paoicos 
avOcs evSexovrai SiaXvoei?' tborrep yap ra ovpLira- 
yevra, Kav xaXdaj] to ex^KoXXov, ev8ex €TaL ^dXiv 
SeOrjva'i /cat atwcA^eti;, av[i(f)vovs Se oxu/xaTos pa- 
yevros ?j crxcaOevTOs epyov earl koXXtjoiv evpeiv /cat 

GVfA(f)VGLV OVTWS at JLt€V U7TO ^OCta? GVV7]fJLfJL€Vai 

SiXiai i<av Siaartooiv ov ^aAemo? avOis avaXapb^d- 
vovGiVy doeXcf)ol Se rod Kara cf>vaiv eKTreaovres ovre 
pqSia>s Gvvepypvrai, Kav ovveXdojoi, pvrrapdv /cat 
vttotttov ovXrjv at StaAucrets" £<J)£Xkovt ai . rraaa piev 

D OVV €^0pa TTpOS dvdpOJTTOV dvOpCOTTCp /X€T(X TtOV 

pidXiara Xvttovvtojv evSvopievr] TraOcov, (j)iXoveiKias 
opyrjs <j)66vov pbvrjOiKaKias, SSvvrjpov eari /cat rapa- 
X&oes' rj Se rrpos d8eX(f)6v, <T) dvatcov re Koivojvelv 
dvdyKrj /cat lepcov narpcpajv opboracfrov re yeveadai 
/cat ttov avvoLKov rj yeirova x a) P^ (x)V > * v Oftyiaow 

1 bioWvovGLv Kronenberg : hiaXvovaiv. 



a Cf. 480 c, supra. 

b Cf. Racine, La Theba'ide : 

Mais, quand de la nature on a brise les chaines, 
Cher Attale, il n'est rien qui puisse reunir 
Ceux que des noeuds si forts n'ont pas sceu retenir. 
L'on hait avec exces lorsque Ton hait un frere. 

264 






ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 481 

7. Therefore it is fitting to cleanse away completely 
hatred of brothers, which is both an evil sustainer of 
parents in their old age a and a worse nurturer of 
children in their youth. And it is also a cause of 
slander and accusations against such brothers ; for 
their fellow-citizens think that, after having been 
so closely bound together by their common educa- 
tion, their common life together, and their kinship, 
brothers could not have become deadly enemies un- 
less each were aware of many wicked deeds com- 
mitted by the other. There must be, they infer, 
great reasons for the breaking-up of a great goodwill 
and affection. For this reason it is not easy to effect 
a reconciliation of brothers ; for just as things 
which have been joined together, even if the glue 
becomes loose, may be fastened together again and 
become united, yet if a body which has grown 
together is broken or split, it is difficult to find 
means of welding or joining it ; so friendships knitted 
together through long familiarity, even though the 
friends part company, can be easily resumed again, 
but when brothers have once broken the bonds 
of Nature, 6 they cannot readily come together, and 
even if they do, their reconciliation bears with it a 
filthy hidden sore of suspicion. Or rather, every en- 
mity between man and man which steals into the 
heart in company with the most painful emotions 
— contentiousness, anger, envy, remembrance of 
wrongs — causes pain and perturbation of mind ; but 
when the enmity is toward a brother, with whom it is 
necessary to share sacrifices and the family's sacred 
rites, to occupy the same sepulchre, and in life, per- 
haps, the same or a neighbouring habitation — such an 
enmity keeps the painful situation ever before our 

265 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(481) e^et to XvTrrjpov, VTTO[Li\xvr\(jKovoa Kaff rjfJLepav rfjs 
avoids /cat irapa(j)poovvr]s , St' rjv to tJSlotov /cat 
crvyyeveaTOLTOV TTpooamov tSetv 1 okvO pooiroTaTOV , rj 
re TTpoa(f)iAr]s e/c vecov (f>a)vrj /cat crvvrj9r)s aKovaai 
(fropepQJTaTr) yeyove. ttoXXovs Se tcov aXXoov dSeX- 

E <f)COV 6p<JL)VT€S OLKLCL JJU& T€ XpQJfJL€VOVS Kdl Tpa7T€^rj 

/cat ^cuptots' avepLTjTois /cat avSparroSoLs avTol /cat 
(f)iXovs SirjprjvTCU /cat £evovs, ix@pd TrdvTa tol 
7rpoo(f)LArj Tots' d8eA(f)OLS vejJLOVTes' /cat TavTa ttclolv 
iv fjieaa) Aoyt^eaOai rrapovTos, otl " AtjlgtoI " fiev 
T€ (f)iAoi /cat ovjjlttotoli, " kttjtoI " Se KrjSeoTal /cat 
avvrjOeis, tcov TrpajToov 2 coarrep ottXoov t) opydvoov 
8tacf)9apevTOOv, dSeXcfrov S' dvTLKTTjois ovk ecrrtv, 
coG7T€p ouSe x €L P°s d(f>aip<zd€LG7)s ouS' oifjeoos €K- 
KOTT€ior)S' dXX 6p9oos rj Hepols elnev, dvTi toov 
tckvcqv eAofievr] craJaat tov dheXcjiov, otl TratSa? fJiev 
eTepovs KTiqoaodai ovvaLT dv, dSeXcf)6s 8' aAAos" 
avTrj, yoveoov pbrj ovtcov, ovk dv yevoLTO. 

1 1 orjTa xpi] noieiv, cpairj tls av, otco 
F (fravXos dSeX^os yevoiTO ; " TrpooTOV eKeivo fjLvrjfio- 

V€V€LV, OTL TTCLVTOS dlTT€TaL ytVOVS faXlaS Tj (fxXvXoTTJS 

/cat /cara tov 2o</>o/cAea 

ra TrXeloTa <f>coptov atcr^pa (f>copda€Ls fipoToov. 
ovt€ yap to avyyevLKov ovt€ to eratpt/cov ovt€ to 

1 I8dv Reiske : etSetv, eiSe/77, or jSAeVeTat. 
2 TTpcbrojv] Trporepcov Xylander. 

a With reference to II., ix. 406-409 : 

\r)icrTol fiev yap re floes Kal t(j>ia firjAa, 

KTTjTol §€ TplTToSeS T€ KOI 17T7TCQV £av9a Kap7)Va' 

dvSpos $€ ^XV wttAtv iXOepiev ovtc Xuott) 
ovd* cAer^, iirel dp kcv afitLipCTai cpKos ohovrcov. 
266 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 481 

eyes, and reminds us every day of the madness and 
folly which has made the sweetest countenance of the 
nearest kinsman become most frowning and angry to 
look upon, and that voice which has been beloved and 
familiar from boyhood most dreadful to hear. And 
though they see many other examples of brothers 
using the same house and table and undistributed 
estates and slaves, yet they alone maintain different 
sets of friends and guests, considering as hostile 
everything dear to their brothers — and that too 
though all the world may readily reflect that while 
friends and boon-companions may be " taken as 
booty/ ' and relatives by marriage and familiars 
may be " obtained "° when the old ones, like arms or 
implements, have been lost, yet the acquisition of an- 
other brother is impossible, b as is that of a new hand 
when one has been removed or that of a new eye 
when one has been knocked out ; rightly, then, did 
the Persian c woman declare, when she chose to save 
her brother in place of her children, that she could 
get other children, but not another brother, since 
her parents were dead. 

8. " What then," someone will say, " must one 
who has a bad brother do ? " d We must remember 
this first of all : badness can lay hold on every kind of 
friendship ; and, according to Sophocles, 6 

Search out most human traits : you'll find them base. 

For it is impossible to discover that our relations with 

b Cf the passage of Sophocles, Antigone, 905 ff., now 
accepted by most critics as genuine. 
c Herodotus, iii. 119. 

d Cf. Hierocles in Stobaeus, vol. iv. p. 661 ed. Hense. 
• Frag. 853 ed. Pearson, 769 ed. Nauck ; cf. 463 d, supra. 

267 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ipconKov elAiKpives /cat airaOks /cat KaOapov eartv 
evpelv KaKias. 6 fxev ovv Aolkcov piiKpdv yvvcuKa 
482 yrj/JLas €(f>r] rd iXd-^iara helv alpeladai rcbv kolkwv, 
dSeX^otg Se ooj^ypovcos Trapaiveoeiev dv tls rd ot- 
Keiorara rcov kclkcov vnofxeveiv ptaXXov rj Treipdodai 
tcx)v dXXorpicov tovto ydp dveyKXrjrov ws dvay- 

KOLLOV, €K€LVO §6 lfj€KTOV d)S CLv8aLp€TOV. OV ydp 6 

GvpLTTorris ouS' 6 avvecfrrjfios ouS' 6 ijivos 

alSovs dxdXKevroLGLV e^eu/crat neSous, 

aAA' 6 avvat/JLog /cat avvrpcxfiog /cat opboirdrayp /cat 
ofJLOfJLrjTCop, a> /cat ttjv dpxrjv 1 et/cd? ioriv eTTi^ajpeiv 
evta /cat 7rap€iK€W Xeyovri rrpos d8eX(f)6v i^apiap- 
rdvovra, 

" rovveKa a 2 ov Svvafiat TrpoXnreiv Svgttjvov eoVra 

/cat (fiavXov /cat dvorjrov, pcrj /cat Xddco rt Trarpcoov 

B 77 pLTjTpCOOV €V€<JTCLyfJL€VOV 0*770 OTTepfJLCLTOS VOOrjfJLCL 

XaXencos /cat TTiKptos ra> puoeiv iv ool KoXd^cov . " 
rovs (Jiev ydp dXXoTplovs, d>s eXeye Qeocftpaoros, ov 
(j>iXovvra Set Kpiveiv dXXd Kpivavra (fyiXeiv ottov 8' 
rj cf>iJOis rjyefJLOVLav rfj Kploei Trpos evvoiav ov St- 
Scoolv ouS' aVa/zeWt rov 9pvXovpL€vov Twv dXoov 
pLeoLfivov dXXd ovyyeyevvrjKe rrjv dpxrjv rfjs (f)iXias, 

1 ttjv apxv v Wilamowitz : ttjv dperrjv or ra>v dfiapTrjixdrcov. 
2 rovveKa or'] tw ere /cat Homer. 

a Cf. Moralia, 758 d ; Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, 
viii. 12(1161 b 12 ff.). 

6 Plutarch might aptly have quoted Aristophanes, Ach- 
arnians, 909 : [jllkkos ya ia&kos ovtos. — ctAA' dnav kclkov. 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag, 2 , p. 549, Euripides, Frag. 595, 
probably from the Peirithoiis ; quoted again in Moralia, 
96 c, 533 a, 763 f. 
268 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 481-482 

relatives or comrades or lovers ° are unmixed with 
baseness, free from passion, or pure from evil. So the 
Spartan, when he married a little wife, 5 said that of 
evils one should choose the least ; but brothers one 
would prudently advise to put up with the evils with 
w T hich they are most familiar rather than to make 
trial of unfamiliar ones ; for the former procedure 
as being necessary brings no reproach, but the latter 
is blameworthy because voluntary. No boon-com- 
panion or comrade-in-arms or guest 

Is yoked in honour's bonds not forged by man," 

but he is who is of the same blood and upbringing, 
and born of the same father and mother. For such a 
kinsman it is altogether fitting to concede and allow 
some faults, saying to him when he errs, 

" I cannot leave you in your wretchedness d 

and trouble and folly, lest I might, unwittingly, punish 
harshly and bitterly, because I hate it, some ailment 
instilled into you from the seed of father or mother." 
For, as Theophrastus e said, we must not grow to love 
those not of our blood and then judge them, but judge 
them first and love them later ; but where Nature 
does not commit the initiative to judgement in con- 
ceiving goodwill toward another nor wait for the 
proverbial bushel of salt/ but has begotten with the 
child at its birth the principle of love, in that case 

d Adapted from Homer, Od. 9 xiii. 331. 

6 Frag. 74 (p. 181 ed. Wimmer, 1862); paraphrased by 
Stobaeus, vol. iv. p. 659 ed. Hense. 

/ That is, does not wait many years for the relationship to 
ripen into affection ; cf. Moralia, 94 a, and the references 
there cited. 

269 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(482) evravOa Set purj TTiKpovs elvai fjirjS' a/cptjSetS" tcov 
dpLapr^pbdrcov e^eraords. vvvl 8e ri dv Xeyois, el 
£evcov dvOpcoTTCov /cat dXXorpicov c/c ttotov twos r\ 
Traioids T) iraXaiorpas 7Tpoo(f)6apevTCOv dfiapr^pLara 
C paSccos evioi <f>epovres /cat rjSofjLevoL, SvokoXol /cat 
drrapainqroi rrpos tovs d8eX(j)ovs elow; ottov /cat 
kvvcls xaXeirovs /cat l7T7tovs, ttoXXoI 8e XvyKas, 
alXovpovs, TTidrjKovs, Xeovras rpecfrovres /cat aya- 
Trcovres, d8eX(f>cov oi>x virop^evovow opyds ?} dyvoi- 
as rj (friXoTijJLias, erepoi 8e TraXXaKioi /cat iropvais 
olkias /cat dypovs Karaypd<f>ovres vrrep OLKoneSov 
/cat ycovias irpos d8eX(f)ovs 8iapLovopLa-)(ovow , eira 
to) pnoa8eX(f)co pLioorrovrjp lav ovopia Oepievoi irepi- 
voorovaw ev rot? d8eX<j>ols rrjv /ca/ctav TTpoftaXXo- 
pievoi /cat Xoi8opovvres, ev 8e rot? dXXois pirj Sua- 
Xepacvovres dXXd ^pcopuevoi ttoXXtj /cat avvovres. 
D 9- Tat>Tt p,ev ovv ecrrco rrpooipua rod Xoyov irav- 
tos. dpxty oe rrjs StSacj/caAta? firj rrjv vepirjow 
rcov irarpcocov, cocnrep erepoi, Xdficopbev, dXXd rrjv 
en ^covrcov dfiapravofjievrjv rcov yovecov dpuXXav /cat 
tpqXorvTTiav. ol fiev yap e(f>opoi, rod 'AyrjoiXdov 
rcov diro8eiKvv puevcov del yepovrcov eKacrrco ftovv 
dpiorelov ire par ovros, e^rjjjLicooav avrov airiav virei- 
Trovres on tovs kolvovs l8iovs /craVat SrjpLaycoycov 
/cat xapi^opievos' via) S' dv ris rrapaweaeie Qepa- 
irevew yovels pirj Krcofievov eavrco [idvco fxrjb' els 



a Cf. Moralia, 94 a. 

b Cf. 456 f and 462 f, supra. 

e Cf. Life of Agesilaiis, v. (598 b). 

d The Spartan Council of Elders. 

270 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 482 

there should be no harsh nor strict censors of his 
faults. But as it is, what would you say of those who 
sometimes readily put up with the wrongdoings of 
strangers and men of no kin to themselves, men 
picked up at some drinking-bout or play-ground 
or wrestling-floor , a and take pleasure in their com- 
pany, yet are peevish and inexorable toward their 
own brothers ? Why some even breed and grow fond 
of savage dogs and horses, and many people do so with 
lynxes and cats, monkeys and lions, yet cannot endure 
their brothers' rages or stupidities or ambitions ; still 
others make over their houses and property to con- 
cubines and harlots, yet fight it out in a duel with 
their brothers over a site for a building or a corner of 
property ; and finally, giving the name of" hatred of 
evil " b to their hatred of their brothers, they stalk 
about pompously, accusing and reviling the wicked- 
ness in their brothers ; yet in others they take no 
offence at this same quality, but frequently resort to 
them and are often in their company. 

9. Let this, then, serve as a preamble to my whole 
discourse. But as the starting-point of my admoni- 
tions, let us take, not the division of the father's 
goods, as other writers do, but the misguided quarrels 
and jealousy of the children while the parents are yet 
alive. The ephors, when Agesilaiis c used to send 
an ox as a mark of distinguished service to each 
member of the gerousia d as he was appointed, fined 
him, alleging as their reason that by such demagogic 
means of gaining popular favour he was trying to 
acquire as his own personal followers men who be- 
longed to the state ; but one would advise a son to 
care for his parents, not with the design of acquiring 
their goodwill for himself alone or turning it away 

271 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

iaVTOV OL7TOGTp€cf)OVTa TTJV €VVOl(lV. Cb TpOTTCp TToXXol 

KaraSrjfjiayajyovai tovs d8eX(f)ovs, €V7Tp€7rrj irpo- 

<f>aoiv ov St/catW Se rfjs TrXeove^las ravrrjg exovres' 

E to yap fJLeyiorov rcov irarpcpajv /cat koXXigtov 

OL7TO(JT€pOVOLV OLVTOVS , TTjV €VVOlCLV , dvtXevdepOJS KOLL 
TTOLVOVpyCOS V7TOTp€XOVT€S, €V KOLLpCp TCLLS €K€LVO)V 

dcr^oAtats- /cat dyvoiais eVtrt^e'/xeyot /cat fjudXiora 
Trap(=xovT€s evroLKTOVs /cat KarrjKoovs avrovs /cat 
odxfipovas, ev ols eKeivovs djiaprdvovras rj So- 

KOVVTCLS OpCOGl. Set Se TOVVCLVTLOV, OTTOV (JL€V 6pyrj t 

CTUve/cSe'^ea&zt Ka ^ crvvvTToSveaOaL KaOdrrep rep ovv- 
epyelv iroiovvra Kovcfrorepav, 1 virovpyiais Se /cat 
xdpiui ovveiaiTOieiv dfACoayeiTCDs rov d8eX(f)6v eA- 

XetTTOVTOS §6 TTOVy KdipOV T) TTpd^LV €T€pCLV Tj 2 TTJV 

F (J)vglv alriaodai, ojs 3 Trpos aAAa 4 xP r J (Ji l jiajT ^P av KaL 
Gvverojrepav 5 ovaav . cv S' e^et KCLl TO T °v 'Aya- 

fJL€fJLVOVOS, (1)9 



OtrjGL VOOLO, 

aAA €jjl€ r eiaopoojv 

KapLol tovto 7rapaoovs to KaOfJKov." rjSecog Se /cat 
483 Ttbv ovofidrajv rot? fieTadiaeis oi irarepes Trpoaoe- 
Xovtcli /cat TTiorevovoi rots* viols drrXonqra puev ttjv 
pa8vfJLiav tow dSeXcfxjov ovofid^ovatv, opOorrjra Se 
ttjv aKaiorrjTa, to Se c/)lX6v€lkov aKara(f>p6vr]Tov % 

1 Kov(f>orepav Reiske : Kovfiorepov. 

2 tj added by Xylander. 

3 cos] omitted in most mss. ; some have cbs fidXXov; none 
have cos alone. 

4 d'AAa] aAA^Aa most mss. 

5 crvvercorepav Apelt : aepLVOTCpav. 

6 eiaopocov] most mss. add koX epLyv rroriheypievos 6ppt,rjv from 
//., x. 123. 

272 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 482-483 

from others to himself. It is in this way that many 
play the demagogue against their brothers, having a 
specious but unjust pretext for this rapacity; for 
they deprive them of the greatest and fairest of in- 
heritances, their parents' goodwill, by servilely and 
unscrupulously cutting across their brothers' path, 
opportunely making their attacks when the parents 
are occupied and unsuspecting, and, in particular, 
showing themselves dutiful and obedient and prudent 
in those matters in which they perceive their brothers 
to be in error, or seeming to be so. But the right 
way, on the contrary, when a son sees that his father 
is angry with his brother, is to take his share of it and 
bear the brunt of it together with his brother, by such 
assistance making the anger lighter, and then by 
rendering services and favours to help somehow or 
other to restore his brother to his father's grace. 
If there is error of omission, he can allege in the 
brother's favour the absence of opportunity, or that 
he was engaged on some other work, or his very 
nature, as being more useful and more intelligent 
in other directions. The saying of Agamemnon a 
also is admirable : 

" Not to slackness does he yield or foolishness, 
But looks to me, 

and to me he has committed this duty." And 
fathers are very willing to accept even the substitu- 
tion of other terms b and to believe their sons when 
they call their brothers' carelessness " simplicity," 
their stupidity " straightforwardness," and their 
contentiousness " inability to endure contempt " ; 

° On behalf of Menelaiis : II., x. 122-123. 
b That is, terms which excuse the fault ; cf. Moralia, 56 c. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(433) ware to) SiaXXdaaovrt Trepieori rrjv irpos rov 
dSeXcfidv opyrjv iXarrovv dfia /cat ttjv 77/369 iavrov 
evvocav aii^etv rod rrarpos. 

10. Ovtoj S' aTToXoyrjcrdpievov 77S77 irpos eKelvov 
Set TpiireaOai /cat KaOaTrreodai acfroSporepov, to 
dfjbdprrjfjLa /cat to eAAet/z/xa /xera Trappiqoias eVSet/cvu- 
fievov. ovre yap e\/>teVat Set rot? aSeA^ots" ovr av 

B 77aAtv €7r€(jL^aLV€LV dpLaprdvovoLV avrols (to \xev yap 
emxacpovTos ionv, e/cetvo Se avve^afxaprdvovros) , 
dAA' ojs 1 KTjSofJievcp /cat ovvaxOofievcp xprjodaL rfj 
vovdtTrjoei' 7) ylverat St) 2 Karrjyopos aSeA^ou o(f)o- 
Sporaros 7Tpos avrov 6 TTpoOv/JLoraros vnep avrov 
ovviqyopos TTpos rovs yovtZs yevopuevos. 

*Av Se firjSev d\xaprdva)v aSeA^o? eV atrta ye'- 
vrjrat, rdXXa ptev virovpyeZv yovevou /cat (/>e'oetv 
opyrjv re iraoav avrtbv /cat Sucr^epetav e7rtet/ces" at 
S' vnep d8eXcf)ov Trap* d^iav /ca/ccos" aKovovros 77 
TTaoxovros aVrtSt/ctat /cat St/catoAoytat irpos avrovs 
apbtfjiTTToi /cat /caAar /cat ou c^o/fyreW aKovoai ro 
Zoc^o/cAetoy, 

ai 7rat /ca/ctore, 3 Sta St'/c^s" taw irarpi, 

C TTapprjoia^opievov vnep doeX<f)ov Sokovvtos ayvojpio- 
V€LO0aL' /cat yap aurots* 7} roiavrr\ Slktj rots' eAey- 
^o/xeVots" 7Totet tt^ rjrrav tjSioj rr\s viktjs. 

1 1 . ' KiTodavovros ye ju,t)v irarpos epicfrvecrdai /xaA- 

1 dAA' a>s Capps : dAAd. 

2 777 vovQcrrjacr 77 yivcrai Srj Capps : rco vov0€tovvtl yivtrcu 
8c. 

3 7rat KOLKLGre] TrayKaKiore mss. of Sophocles. 

a Antigone, 742. 

274 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 483 

the result is that he who acts as mediator succeeds 
in lessening the anger against his brother, and at 
the same time he increases his father's goodwill 
toward himself. 

10. Only after the erring brother has been defended 
in this manner should the other turn to him and re- 
buke him somewhat sharply, pointing out with all 
frankness his errors of commission and of omission. 
For one should neither give free rein to brothers, 
nor, again, should one trample on them when they 
are at fault (for the latter is the act of one who 
gloats over the sinner, the former that of one who 
aids and abets him), but should apply his admoni- 
tion as one who cares for his brother and grieves 
with him. Otherwise he who has been the most 
zealous advocate before his parents becomes before 
the brother himself the most vehement of accusers. 

But if a brother is guiltless when he is accused, 
though it is right to be subservient to parents in 
everything else and to endure all their wrath and 
displeasure, yet pleas and justifications offered to 
parents on behalf of a brother who is being un- 
deservedly criticized or punished are honourable and 
not reprehensible ; nor must one be afraid that the 
words of Sophocles a will be addressed to him : 

Most shameless son, who with his father dare 
To litigate, 

when one is speaking with all frankness on behalf of 
a brother who seems to be receiving unfair treatment. 
For to the parents themselves, when they are proved 
wrong, such a " litigation " makes defeat sweeter 
than victory. 

11. After the father is dead, however, even more 

275 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(483) Xov rj rrporepov opOcos e^et rfj evvoiq rov d8eX(f)6v f l 
evdvs (JLev ev rep crvvSaKpveiv Kal ovvd^Oeodai koi- 

VOVJJL6VOV TO (frlXoOTOpyOV, V7TOVOLCLS 8e OepCLTTOVTCOV 

Kal Sta^oAa? eraepcov 2 erepcoa* 3 avrovs* irpoo- 
VefJLOVTCOV a7TQj9oVfJL€VOV } Kal TTLGrevovra TOLS T 
aAAot? a fjivOoXoyovai rrepl tojv AtocrKopoov rrjs 
(j)LXa8eX(f)ias, Kal on 6 UoXvSevKrjs rov Kara- 
ifjidvpi^ovra rd8eXcf)ov irpos avrov kovSvXoj naioas 

aTT€KT€LV€V. 

D 'Em 8e rrjv vefirjGLV rtov Trarpcpoov, pur) /car- 
ayyeLXavras aAA^Aots* TroXepiov ooarrep oi noXXoi, 

kXv9* , 'AAaAa, TloXepLov dvyarep, 

€K TrapaoKevrjs airavrav dXXd pcdXicrra 8rj Set 5 ttjv 

TjpiipaV £k€LV7]V (f>vXaTTOpi€VOVS , COS ToZs [JL€V €)(9pa? 

dvr]K€GTOv Kal 8cacj)opas, rots 8e <f>iXtas Kal opio- 
volas ovaav dpyy)v y pLaXiora puev avrovs Ka6 
iavrovs, el Se /jltj, <f)lXov kolvov rrapovros d/x</>o- 
repois pudprvpos evyvcoptovovvros 6 " 8lk7]s KXrjpois," 
fj cf)Tjcnv 6 UXdrcov, rd (f)iXa Kal TrpoorJKovra 
XapLpdvovras Kal 8i86vras oleaOai rrjv impLeXetav 
vepteodai Kal rrjv OLKovopLtav, -%pr\oiv 8e Kal kttjolv 
E £v pLecrtp Keiodai koivtjv Kal dvipfryrov drravrcov. ol 
Se Kal rirdas dnooTTtovres aAA^Acov Kal ovvrpo^ovs 

1 rov dSeXc/yov] rwv abeXcfrcjv or rovs aSeAfovs in most MSS. 

2 iraipcov Reiske, confirmed by mss. : irepcov. 

3 irdpaju Pohlenz : ireptos or erepois. 

4 avrovs Bernardakis : avrovs. 

5 8?) Set W.C.H. : hit or Set. 

r ' €vyva)jj,ovovi>Tos Pohlenz : cvyvajfjuovovvrcov or cvyvtofiovos • 

276 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 483 

than before it is right for the brother to cling fast 
to his brother's goodwill, immediately sharing his 
affection for the dead in tears and grief, rejecting 
the insinuations of servants and the calumnies of 
comrades who range themselves on the other side, 
and believing all the tales about the brotherly love 
of the Dioscuri and in particular the one which re- 
lates that Polydeuces a killed with a blow of his 
fist a man who whispered to him something against 
his brother.** . 

And when they seek to divide their father's goods, ) 
they should not first declare war on each other, as the 
majority do, and then, shouting 

Hearken, Alala, daughter of War, c 

go out to meet each other ready armed, but they 
must by all means be on their guard against that day 
of the division, knowing that for some brothers it is 
the beginning of implacable enmity and strife, but 
for others the beginning of friendship and concord. 
Let them preferably assemble alone by themselves ; 
otherwise, let there be present some common friend 
as a witness equally friendly to both, and then " by 
the lots of Justice," as Plato d says, let them, as they 
give and take what is suitable to each and preferred 
by each, be of the opinion that it is the care and ad- 
ministration of the estate that is being distributed, 
but that its use and ownership is left unassigned and 
undistributed for them all in common. But those who 
have outbidden their brothers by their shrewd cal- 

a Pherecydes : cf. Jacoby, Frag. d. gr. Historiker, i. p. 101. 
b Cited by Stobaeus, vol. iv. p. 659 ed. Hense (cf. also 
p. 675). 

c Pindar, Frag. 78 ; cf. Moralia, 349 c, with the note. 
d Critias, 109 b. 
vol. vi k 277 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kal GwrjOeLS rralSas VTrepfiaXopievoi} rots SiaAoyi- 
ofjLols, 2 arriaaLV avSpairoSov Ttfifj 3 rrXeov e^ovres, to 
Se fjLeyiarov Kal Tifjucorarov ra>v Trarpcooov, cf)iXlav 
d8e\(f)OV Kal ttlgtlv, drroXcoXeKores , 4 

Evlovs Se Kal aK€p8a)s (ftiXovziKias €V€Ka XPV' 
aafievovs toZs narpcoois ovOev eirieiKeorepov tj 
Xacfrvpois tGfiev cov Kal Xapt/cArJ? Kal ' Avrioyos 
rjaav ol 'Ottovvtloc Kal yap eKTrajpua StaKoifjavres 
dpyvpovv Kal IpLariov Siarepbovres aTTTjeoav, cjarrep 
€K rpayiKrjs rivos Kardpas 

- OrjKro) aiSrfpw Sajfia SiaXa^ovres . 

F ol Se Kal Sirjyovvrai 7rpos erepovs yavptcovres 
on tcov dSeXc/xjov iravovpyia Kal SpipLvrrjn Kal 
rrapaXoyiopLcp rrXeov eoypv ev tu> vefxecrdai, Seov 
dydXXeaOai Kal fieya (jypovelv eirieiKeia Kal ydpiri 
484 Kal vnei^ei 7T€pLyevo[jLevovs . b'Oev d^iov eanv b 
A6r)vo8d)pov pLe/JLvrjaOai, Kal pLepLvrjvrai ye Trdvres 
rrap* rjjxlv, r\v yap dSeX(f)6s avrto tt pea fivr epos 
ovofia Zevajv, Kal TroXXd rrjs ova las eniTpoiTevajv 
Ste^oprjore' reXos S' dpnaaas yvvauKa Kal Kara- 
StKaaOels dircbXeoe rrjv ovoiav, els to Katoapos 
rafjuelov dvaXr](f)9eXGav . o S' 'AOrjvoSajpos rjv jjiev 
en fieipaKiov ouSeVoo yeveicov, dirohodevros Se rod 

1 i>7T€pl3a\6iJL€voi Capps, confirmed by mss. : v-nepfiaWoixtvoi. 

2 SiaAoyiCT/xots" Emperius : Siwyfjuols. 

3 TLfifj H. Richards, confirmed by mss. : ri (jltj, 

4 oLTToXcoXeKores Cobet, confirmed by one ms. (C): airohe- 

htDKOT€S* 

5 eariv] omitted in most mss. 

a Compare the Judgement of Solomon. 

h Adapted from Euripides, Phoenissae, 68 : the curse of 

278 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 483-484 

dilations and then drag away from each other nurses 
and slave-boys, who have been brought up with 
their brothers and are their familiar companions, 
when they go away have got the better of their 
brothers by the value of a slave, but have lost the 
greatest and most valuable part of their inheritance, 
a brother's friendship and confidence. 

And some we know who, even with no thought of 
gain, but merely from the love of contention, deal 
with their father's goods with no more decency than 
they would with spoils taken from an enemy. Of 
this number were Charicles and Antiochus the Opun- 
tians, who would not part until they had split in two 
a silver cup and torn apart a cloak, a as though 
driven on by some imprecation from a tragedy to 

Divide with whetted sword their heritage. 6 

Some even relate to outsiders boastfully how by 
knavery and craftiness and jugglery of accounts they 
have got the better of their brothers in the apportion- 
ment, when they ought rather to rejoice and to pride 
themselves on having surpassed their brothers in fair- 
ness and generosity and compliance. It is worth our 
while to illustrate this point by citing the case of 
Athenodorus, and indeed all my countrymen still 
speak of him. For he had an elder brother named 
Xenon, who, as administrator of Athenodorus 's estate, 
squandered a large part of his substance ; at last 
Xenon raped a woman, was condemned in court, and 
lost the entire estate, made confiscate to the imperial 
treasury. But Athenodorus, although he was then 
still a beardless lad, yet when his portion of the 

Oedipus on his sons, exemplified by the speech of Eteocles 
cited in 481 a, supra; and cf. Aeschylus, Seplem, 789. 

279 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(484) fiepovs avTO) rd>v xprnjudrcov ov irepielhe tov dSeA- 
<j)6v aXX els fidadv airavra KaraOels ivetfiaro, /cat 
77oAAa 7T€pl ttjv vepaqoiv dyvoopiovovj.ievos 1 ovk rjya- 

B vaKTr)(j€V ovSe fJL€T€v6rjG€v, dXXd irpdoos /cat IXapws 
rjveyKe rdoeAcfrov ttjv avoiav, TrepifS6r)TOV ev rfj 
'EAAaSt yevopbevrjv. 

12. '0 [lev ovv HoXcov drrocfurjvdpLevos Trepl ttoXi- 
retas, obs looTrjs ordoiv ov iroiel, Xiav e8o£ev 
oxXlkws dpLdfiTjTLKrjv /cat SrjfAOKpaTiKrjv e-neiodyeiv 
dvaXoyiav dvrl rrjs KaXrjs yeoopieTpLKrjs' 6 8' ev 
ot/cta jrapaLvcov d8eX(f)OLS /zaAtara pcev obs 6 HXaTOov 
TTaprjvei tols ttoXltolls, " to ejiov " e^cupelv " /cat 
to ovk epuov," el Se pcrj, ttjv lotjv dyairav /cat ttjs 
Iotjs irepieyeoQai, /cat 2 kclXtjv Kpr)7TiSa /cat \iovi\xov 
ofJLOvolas /cat elprjvrjs KaTafiaXXopievos , 3 xprjodoo 
/cat 4 TrapaheLypLaoiv ev86£ois olov eart /cat to tov 

C II ittclkov Trpos tov /3aatAea Avooov Trvvdavopcevov 
ec xPVf JLaT zgtw CLVTOp, OLTTAaoL , enreVy r) 
eflovXopirjv, Ta§eXcf)ov TeOvq kotos." eirel 8' ov 
piovov ev xprjpidTGOv KTijoet /cat pbeiojoei too irXeiovi 
TToXepuov KadloTaTai TOvXaooov , dXX aTrXoos, fj 
(f>7]OLV 6 UXaTCOv, ev puev dvoopbaXla kcvtjglv ev 8' 
opbaXoTrjTL GTaocv eyylveodac /cat pLoviqv, ovtco Trdoa 

1 ayvcouovovjxevos Wyttenbach : ayvco/xovcuo/tcvoj. 

2 Kai added by W.C.H. 

3 After KaraBaXXoficvos the mss. read del or ecrri; deleted 
by W.C.H. 

4 /cat] Se Kai some mss. 

5 77 Casaubon : ei. 

C/. Life of Solon, xiv. (85 d). 

b Cf. Moralia, 719 b, 643 c : that is, arithmetical, instead 
of what Aristotle terms proportionate equality. 

c C/., for example, Plato, Gorgias, 508 a. 
280 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 484 

money was restored to him, he did not neglect his 
brother, but put down all the money before them 
both and apportioned it ; and even though he was 
being treated very unfairly in the division, he did not 
express indignation or change his mind, but calmly 
and cheerfully endured his brother's folly, which had 
become notorious throughout Greece. 

12. When Solon, a speaking of principles of govern- 
ment, said that equality does not create sedition, he 
was thought to be playing up too much to the crowd 
by introducing an arithmetical proportion, a demo- 
cratic principle, 5 instead of the sound geometrical 
proportion. As for a man who gives advice to 
brothers in the matter of a family estate after the 
manner of Plato's d advice to the citizens of his state, 
to abolish, if possible, the notion of " mine " and 
" not mine," but if he cannot do this, to cherish 
equality and cling to it, and thus lays a fair and 
abiding e foundation of concord and peace, let him 
also make use of eminent precedents, such as that 
reply of Pittacus to the king of Lydia / who inquired 
if Pittacus had money : " Twice as much," said he, 
" as I would wish, now that my brother is dead." 
But since it is not only the getting of money and the 
losing of it that makes " less grow hostile to more," g 
but in general, as Plato h says, in inequality movement 
is produced and in equality rest and repose ; thus all 

d Republic, 462 c ; cf. Moralia, 140 d, 767 d, and Aris- 
totle's attempted refutation, Politics, ii. 1. 8 (1261 b 16). 

e Perhaps with a reference to Euripides, Phoenissae, 538 
(cited 481 a, supra). 

f Croesus : cf. Diogenes Laertius, i. 75. 

9 Euripides, Phoenissae, 539 : rco ttX4ovi 8' aid tto\4ixiov kolO- 
iararai. 

h Republic, 547 a. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(484) pep dvicrorrjs eVtcrc/jaA^s' ion 77009 oiacj)opdv aSeA- 

(f)0)V, iv TTOLGL §' LOOVS y€V€o9 dl KOLI OfJLaXovg 1 

dSvvarov (rd [lev yap at (frvaecs ev9vs dvLoais vi- 
/JLOvaL, rd S' vorepov at rir^at (f)66vovs e/X77otoucrat 2 
/cat IpqXoTVTrLaSy aioyiGTCL voor\p.ara /cat Krjpas ovk 
D dtKiais fJiovov dXXd /cat ttoXzoiv oXeOpiovs), Set /cat 
ravra (pvXdrreodat /cat OepaTreveiv, av iyyevrjrat. 

TO) [JL€V OVV VTTepiyOVTl 7TapOLLV€G€l€V CLV TLS, 7TpO)TOV 

jitev iv z ots So/cct Sta(f)ep€LVy ravra kolvol iroieZv rols 
dSeX(f)oXg, ovvemKoop,ovvra rfj 86£rj /cat ovveio- 
TTOiovvra rals </>tAtats" /caV Xiyeiv heivorepos fj, 
XpfjoOai rrapexovra rrjv Svvajjuv, d)s e/cetVaw 4 parjOev 
rjrrov ovoav eVctra paqr oyKov iji^aiveiv rivd [ArjO* 
VTrepoifjiav, dXXd fiaXXov ivStSovra /cat ovyKaOUvra 
ra> rjOei rrjv vrrepoxrjv dv€7Ti(j)dovov rrotelv /cat rrjv 
rrjs rvxys dvajpuaXiav irravioovv , d>s dvvorov ion, 
rfj fJLerpiorrjrL rod (jipovr) pharos. 6 yovv 5 AevKoXXos 
ovk rj^iajoe rdSeX(/)ov rrporepos rrjv apxrjv Xafielv 
E rrpeofivrepos cov, dAAa rov avrov Trapels Kaipov rov 

€K€LVOV Tr€pi€jJL€lV€V. 6 S<E UoXvSeVKTJS OvSe OeOS 

r)9eXrjO€ fjiovos dXXd pc&XXov rjpbiOeos ovv rdSeXcj^o) 
yeveoOat /cat rrjs Oviqrrjs puepioos p.eraox^v ^ 7TL T <£ 
fieraSovvac rrjs dOavaoias €/C£tVa>. 

Sot Sc/ <f>alr) res av, ' c5 piaKapie, pirjdev 

1 S' locos yzveoOai OfiaXovs ? W.C.H. 

2 eiXTTOiovoai] lynroLOVGi most MSS. 

3 ev] in G only. 

4 €K€ivo)v van Herwerden, confirmed by mss. : €K€lvov. 

6 yovv] fMcv ovv most mss. 

° C/., for example, 468 b, supra. 
282 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 484 

manner of inequality is dangerous as likely to foster 
brothers' quarrels, and though it is impossible for 
them to be equal and on the same footing in all re- 
spects (for on the one hand our natures at the very 
beginning make an unequal apportionment, and then 
later on our varying fortunes beget envies and 
jealousies, the most shameful diseases and baneful 
plagues, a ruinous not only for private houses, but for 
whole states as well) ; against these inequalities we 
must be on our guard and must cure them, if they 
arise. One would therefore advise a brother, in the 
first place, to make his brothers partners in those 
respects in which he is considered to be superior, 
adorning them with a portion of his repute and adopt- 
ing them into his friendships, and if he is a cleverer 
speaker than they, to make his eloquence available 
for their use as though it were no less theirs than his ; 
in the next place, to make manifest to them neither 
haughtiness nor disdain, but rather, by deferring to 
them and conforming his character to theirs, to make 
his superiority secure from envy and to equalize, so 
far as this is attainable, the disparity of his fortune 
by his moderation of spirit. Lucullus, & for instance, 
refused to hold office before his brother, older though 
he was, but forwent his own proper time for candida- 
ture and awaited his brother's. And Poly deuces c 
refused to become even a god by himself, but chose 
rather to become a demigod with his brother and to 
share his mortal portion upon the condition of yielding 
to Castor part of his own immortality. 

" But you, fortunate man," one might say, " are so 

b Cf Life of Lucullus, i. (492 b). 

c Quoted by Stobaeus, vol. iv. p. 659 ed. Hense, joined 
with the Polydeuces quotation in 483 c, supra. 

283 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

eAoLTTOVVTt tcov TrpoaovTCOv dyaOcov vrrdpyei ovv- 
e^ojJLOiovv koI avvemKoopLelv , coarrep avyfjs 1 ano- 
Xavovra ttjs rrepl ae So^rjs r) aperrjs r) eurir^ta? 2 '." 
coarrep nAarcov tovs d8eX(f)Ovs els ra /caAAtcrra tcov 
avrov avyypapLpLaTOov depievos ovopbaoTOvs eTrolrjae, 
F TXavKCova puev koI 'ASeipuavTOV els tt)v TioXiTeiav , 
A.VTi<f)<jL)VTa Se tov vecorarov els tov II a ppLevlorj v. 
(13.) en Toivvv coarrep eyyivovrai toZs (f>vaeat /cat 
tolls ru^ats" tcov doeXcfrcov dvtaoTrjTes, ovtcos ev 

TTCLOl KOLL 7TOLVTQJS VTTepeyeiV TOV €T€pOV aOVVaTOV 

iaTL. ra piev yap GTOtxeld (f>aaw €K pads vXrjs 
485 yeyovevai, tols evavTiooraTas e\ovra SvvdpLecs' hvelv 
8' doeXcbtov €K puds pirjTpos kclI iraTpos tojvtov 
yeyovoTtov, ovOels eoopaKe tov pcev, cos tov z €K rrjs 
Urods o~o(f)6v, opiov kolAov evyapiv eXevOepiov ev- 
Tip.ov rrXovatov Secvov elrrelv TroXvpLaOfj* cf)iXdv8pco- 
7tov, tov S' €T€pov alaxpov a^apiv dveXevOepov 
CLTLpiov 5 diropov daOevrj rrepl Xoyov dptaOfj puadv- 
OpcoTTOv. dXX eveariv apLCoayerrcos kcll toXs dSo- 

^OTepOLS Kal TOL7T€LVOT€pOLS ptolpd TLS X^P LT °^ V 

SvvdpLecos r) rrpos tl kclXov evcjivias, 

cos dv* exivoTToSas Kal dvd Tprj^etav ovooviv* 
(fyvovTai piaXaKQ)v dvOea XevKotcov. 

TavTa tolvvv 6 ookcov rrXeov eyeiv ev dXXocs, dv pur) 

B KoXoVT) pLT)8' i7TLKpV7TTr) pLTjSe TTaVTOOV C0G7T€p €V 

1 avyfjs Emperius : avrijs. 

2 €l>TVxtas] (TVVTVXLCLS ill ITlOSt MSS. 

3 (Ls rov added by Reiske. 

4 7ToXvfiadij Polus : (friXo/jLaOfj. 

6 drifjiov aveXevOepov all mss. but G. 

6 ovojvlv] most mss. have 6§6v tva. 

284 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 484-485 

situated that, without in the least diminishing your 
present blessings, you can make another an equal 
sharer in them and give him a portion of your 
adornment so that he may enjoy the radiance, as it 
were, of your reputation or excellence or prosperity." 
Just so did Plato make his brothers famous by 
introducing them into the fairest of his writings, 
Glaucon and Adeimantus into the Republic, Anti- 
phon the youngest into the Parmenides. (13.) And 
further, just as there exist inequalities in the natures 
and the fortunes of brothers, so it is impossible that 
the one brother should excel at all points and in all 
ways. They say that the elements come into being 
from one substance, yet possess the most opposite 
faculties ; but of two brothers sprung from one 
mother and father, no one ever saw the one, like 
the wise man of the Stoics, a at once handsome, 
gracious, liberal, eminent, rich, eloquent, learned, 
philanthropic, and the other ugly, graceless, illiberal, 
dishonoured, needy, a poor speaker, unlearned, mis- 
anthropic. Yet somehow or other there inheres, in 
even the more disreputable and humble creatures, 
some portion of grace or faculty or natural aptitude 
for some good thing : 

As among urchin's foot and rough rest-harrow 6 
There grow the blossoms of soft snow-drops. c 

Therefore he who appears to have the better in other 
respects, if he does not try to curtail or conceal these 

a Cf. 472 a, supra, and the note ; this Stoic paradox is 

parodied at length by Horace in Satires, i. 3. 

b A field shrub with tough roots, also called "cammock." 
c Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec, iii. p. 689 ; Edmonds, Elegy 

and Iambus, ii. p. 282 ; quoted also in Moralia, 44 e, 621 e. 

vol. vi k2 285 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(485) dycovL rov d8eA(f>6v e£a>9fj rcov TTpcoreicov, dAA' 
dv9v7T€LKrj /cat a7TO(f)aLvrj rrpos 77oAAa fieArLto /cat 
XP^jcnficorepov eKelvov, vcfxupcbv del rov c/)Q6vov rrjv 
Trp6(f)aaiv cvanep vArjv rod irvpos aTroorpecrei, jjl&AAov 
S' oAcos ovk idaei Aafielv yeveoLV ov8e avaraaiv. 6 
8e /cat avvepyov, ev ols So/cct Kpeirrcov clvtos elvai, 
7tolovjjl€vos rov d8eA<f>6v del /cat ovpbfiovAov, olov ev 
Slkclls prjropLKos tov, ev op^at? TroAtrevofxevos , ev 
Trpd^eaL (friAoTrpdypLCuv, 1 avveAovTL S' elrrelv, firjSevos 
d^LoA6yov kclI TLfjLrjv <pepovros epyov irepiopGiv 
C diroAeLTTopLevoVy dAAa rcov kclAojv rravrcov kolvlovov 

a7TO(f)CLLVa)V Kdl XpCO^CPOS' TTCLpOVTL KCLI 7TepLjJLeVCJL)V 

dirovra, kcll oAlos ovvejAcfxiivcov on ttpclktikos fiev 
ovx rjrrov clvtov, 7TapaxcoprjTLK6s Se jjl&AAov eon 
86£r)s /cat hvvdjjLetQs , ovdev eavrov irapaipovpievos 
eKeivco jxeydAa irpooTiOiqoL. 

14. Ta> fiev ovv virepexovTL rotavrd tls dv irapcLL- 
veaeie' ra> 8e AetTropLevco TrdALV evdvjJLrjreov, cos ov\ 
els ov8e fjidvos clvtov nAovGLtorepos rj Aoyicorepos 
r} AapL7Tp6repog els 86£av 6 d8eA(f>6s eariv, dAAa 
TroAAaKLS ttoAAcov dTToAeLnercLi /cat pLvpiaKis pivpicov, 

evpveSovs 2 Sgol Kaprrov alvvpLeOa x@ ov °S' 
elre 8rj 3 iraoi Trepivoorel (f)6ovcov eire jjlovos clvtov 
D ev ToaovTOLS evrvxovotv 6 (JilAtcltos clvl& /cat 
avyyevecJTCLTos , vnepfioArjV erepco /ca/coSat/zortas' ov 

1 (jyiXoTTpaynwv Capps : ^lXikoXs or </>lAlkos. 

1 cvpveSovs Plato (Protag., 345 c) : evpvoSovs. 

3 S-q G : 8e. 4 /cat G : o. 

286 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 485 

points of vantage in his brother or thrust him, as 
though in athletic competitions, from the first places 
always, but yields in his turn and reveals that his 
brother is better and more useful in many respects, 
by thus continually removing all ground for envy, fuel 
for fire, as it were, will quench the envy, or rather 
will not allow it to spring up or begin at all. And 
he who continually makes his brother a helper and 
adviser in matters in which he himself is supposed to 
be superior, as in law-suits, being himself a barrister ; 
in the conduct of office, himself a politician ; in 
practical affairs, himself being fond of such — in brief, 
he that permits his brother to be left out of no task 
that is worthy of notice and would bring honour, but 
makes him a sharer in all honourable enterprises and 
employs him when present, waits for him when absent, 
and, in general, by showing that his brother is no less 
a man of affairs than himself, but merely more in- 
clined to shrink from fame and power — he deprives 
himself of nothing, but adds a great deal to his 
brother. 

14. Such is the advice, then, which one would give 
to the superior brother. The inferior brother, on the 
other hand, must reflect that his brother is not the 
only one who is richer or more learned or more famous 
than himself, but that he is frequently inferior to 
many others — ten thousand times ten thousand, 

As many as enjoy the fruit of spacious earth a ; 

whether, then, he envies every man as he walks about, 
or whether, among the vast number of fortunate 
beings, the only one that distresses him is his nearest 
and dearest, he has left no room for any other man 

° Simonides, Frag. 5, v. 17 ; cf. 470 d, supra, and the note. 

287 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(485) XeXotTTev. wairep ovv 6 MeVeAAos' coero Setv 
'Pajjxatovs tols Oeols X^P LV *X €LV ° TL 2/ct77t'o>y iv 
irepa 7r6Xei tolovtos a>v ovk eyevvrjOrj, ovrtos 
€Kclotos ev^eodcx) fidXiara jjlcv clvtos evrrpa^la Sta- 
cf)€petv, el 8e jultj, tov d8eXcf)6v avrov rrjv ^rjXovjjLevrjv 
kx€LV VTrepoyrp> /cat Svvapuv. oi S' ovtcd 7T€(f)VKaoiv 
drvx^S 1 7Tpos to koXov, ware </)lXols pikv iv86£ois 
dydXXeoOai /cat pueya (f)povetv dv £evovs rjyefJLovcKovs 
/cat ttXovglovs e^coc/t, rag Se tojv dSeXcfrcbv Xapu- 

E TTpOTTJTCLS CLVTCOV dfJL(lVpd)G€lS VOjJLl&W /Cat TTOYr£pO)V 

[lev evrvx^S irraipecrOai /cat Grpar-qyiais TrpoTrdn- 
ttojv XeyofJLevdLs, cLv ovSev drreXavoav ov8e fJLer- 
€Gx ov > dSeXcfxjov 8e /cA^povojLttats" /cat dpx&Zs /cat 
ydpiois €v86£ols dOvfieiv /cat TaireivovoOaL. /catVot 
/xaAtcrra puev efSet /xt]8' a'AAeo (frOovetv, el Se jjltj, 

Tp€7T€LV e^CO /Cat 77/30? €T6pOVS a7TOX€T€V€LV TO /3(X~ 

okolvov, a)G7T€p ol Tas GTaaeis Ovpa^e tols 77oAe/xots , 

77ept(777aW£S' 2, 

77oAAot fi€i> yap ifjiol Tpcoeg /cAetrot t eTTLKovpoi, 
770AA0J S' av goI 'A^atot 

<f)dovelv 7T€(f)VKaai /cat ttfXoTvneiv . 

15. 'A8eA(/>a> Se XPV f^V Kaddirep irXdoTiyya 

p€7T€LV £77t TOVVCLVTIOV, VlfjOVJJL€VOV Ta7T€LVOV/JL€VOV 

1 drvx^ls] arvx&s some mss. 

2 7ToX4fiois TT€pioTTcx)VT€s Pohlenz (irep acr dvres Bemardakis) : 

TToXefJLLOlS 7T€pU,OTO)VT€S. 

a Cf. Moralia, 202 a. 

b Or perhaps " praetorships " (so Wyttenbach). 

c Cf. Moralia, 91 f f. 

d Homer, Il. % vi. 227, 229 : Plutarch points the quotation 

288 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 485 

to surpass him in wretchedness. Just as Metellus, a 
therefore, thought that Romans should be grateful to 
the gods because so great a man as Scipio was not 
born in any other city, so each one of us should pray 
that, if possible, he himself may succeed beyond all 
other men, yet if this cannot be, that his brother may 
have that superiority and influence so coveted by 
himself. But some are by nature so unfortunate in 
matters of right conduct that they exult in famous 
friends and are proud if they are on terms of hospitality 
with commanders and men of wealth, but consider 
that their brothers' brilliance obscures their own ; 
and that while they are elated by the narration of 
their fathers' successes and their great-grandfathers' 
high commands, 6 matters from which they received 
no benefit and in which they had no share, yet they 
are depressed and dejected when their brothers 
inherit fortunes, are elected to office, or contract 
marriages with famous families. And yet they 
should by all means envy no one ; if this is im- 
possible, they should turn their malignancy out- 
wards c and drain it off on those not of their blood, 
just as men do who divert sedition from the city by 
means of foreign wars : 

Many Trojans have I and famous allies, 
And many Achaeans have you d — 

by nature suitable objects for envy and jealousy. 

15. But a brother should not, like the pan of a 
balance, incline the opposite way and be himself 
lowered when his brother is raised on high ; but just 

with " envy " and so does not retain the Homeric context, in 
which Diomedes indicates the other Greeks for Glaucus, and 
the other Trojans for himself, " to kill." 

289 



) 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F avrov, dAA', LQGTrep tlov dpcOfxajv ol ikdrroves tovs 
fji€L^ovag 77oAAa7rAa<7ia£ovTe9 koli n oXXaTrXao m£d- 
fJLevoi, avvav^etv dfia koli avvav^ecrOaL rots ayaQols. 
ovSe yap rcov SolktvXcov eXarrov e^ei rod ypd^ovTOs 
r] ipdXXovros 6 fJLTj 8vvd{JL€Vog tovto TTOielv jjbiqoe 
7T€<f>VK<jus, dAAa uvyKivovvrai koI ovvepyovGLv a- 
486 TTCLvres djJLOjayerroJs dXXr)Xois y warrep irrLTrjSes ovlgol 
yeyovoTes koI to ovXX7]7ttlk6v i£ avriOeoeoos rrpos 
tov pLeyiarov «al poj/JLaXewTarov 1 e^ovres. 

Ovrco koll T&parepos 'Avrcyovov fiaaiXevovTOS 
dSeA</>09 o)v koI ¥s.aodvopov YlepiXaos irrl to OTpa- 
Tiqyelv kcu, OLKovpelv erarrov avrovs' ^Avtlo^ol 
Se koli HeXevKOL koll TrdXtv Ypviroi koI Kv&ktjvoI 
ra Sevrepa Xeyetv 2 ov jxaOovres doeXcfzols dAAd 
rropcf)vpas koll StaS^aros' 6pey6[JL€VOL, rroXXwv [xev 

CLVTOVS KOLKCJV Kol dAA^AoUS", TToXXcOV 0€ T7JV ' AoiOLV 

iverrXrjoav . 

'E7766 §6 TOls (filXoTL/JLOLS fldXiGTa TtQV Tj9d)V 
B €jJL(f)VOVT0LL (j)6oVOL Kol £r)XoTV7TLOLL TTpOS TOVS TrXeOV 

e^ovTas iv §6£r) koI TLfifj, xprjGLjjLojTOLTOv £otl Trpos 

TOVTO TOLS d§eX(/)OLS TO flTj KTcLgOcLL fJLTjTe TaS TLfJids 
fJLTjT€ TaS SvvdfJL€LS dlTO TO)V OLVTCOV, dAA' €T€pOV d<j> 

erepov. /cat yap twv drjplojv rroXejJLos €gtl rrpos 
dXXrjXa tols drro tojv avTtbv rpe^opievoLS, kol twv 
ddXrjTCov ol rrpos ev dOXrjjjLa KapLvovres dvTayojvLGTaLy 
irvKTaL oe TrayKpaTLauTals (J^lXlol kol 8oAt^oSpo/xot 
TraXaLGTOLS evpueveZs zIol kol avvayojvLtooL Kal orrov- 

1 pajfMaXecorarov Reiske, confirmed by mss. : paj/xaAearrepov. 
2 Ae'yew] (jiepeiv D. 

Half-brother of Antigonus Gonatas (see F. Jacoby and 
Schoch, Pauly-Wissowa, BE, xi. col. 1617, 1621). 

290 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 485-486 

as lesser numbers multiply greater and are multiplied 
by them, so should he give increase to his brother and 
at the same time be increased along with him by their 
common blessings. For it is not true of the fingers, 
either, that the one which writes and plays musical 
instruments is superior to the one which cannot, by 
either nature or attainment, do so, but in some 
manner or other they all contrive to move together 
and assist each other, having been made unequal, as 
though of set purpose, and all deriving their power 
to grasp from the position of the others opposite the 
thumb, the largest and strongest of them. 

In this spirit Craterus, the brother of King Anti- 
gonus, and Perilaus, the brother of Cassander, as- 
signed themselves to the management of their 
brothers' military and domestic affairs ; but men like 
Antiochus and Seleucus, and again Grypus and 
Cyzicenus, b who had not learned to play parts second- 
ary to their brothers, but yearned for the purple and 
the crown, infected themselves and each other with 
many horrors, and infected all Asia also. 

But since envy and jealousy of those who surpass 
them in repute and honour are implanted by nature 
chiefly in men of ambitious character, to guard 
against these vices it is highly expedient that brothers 
should not seek to acquire honours or power in the 
same field, but in quite different fields. Wild beasts, 
to be sure, which depend for their food upon the 
same things, war against each other, and athletes 
who direct their efforts toward one and the same 
contest are rivals ; whereas boxers are friendly to 
pancratiasts and long-distance runners are well dis- 
posed toward wrestlers, and they mutually assist and 

b Antiochus, VIII and IX respectively. 

291 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(486) hd^ovocv virep a\\r]\a)v. hio /cat ra>v Twhapchcov 
rrvt; fxev 6 HoXvhevKrjs eVuca hpopiov 1 S' o KdoTCop. 

€V 8e /Cat TOV TeVKpOV "OfJLTJpOS TTeTToLrjKeV OL7TO 

C to^lktjs evhoKijJLovvra TaheX(f>ov npouTevovTOS iv 
toZs orrXirats' 

6 he fuv cra/cet KpvTrracrKe <f>aeiva). 

KOLl TO)V 17oXlT€VOJJL€VCOV ol GTpaTTjyOVVTeS TOL$ 

SrjpLaycoyovcriv ov ndvv 69ovovolv, ovhe ye rtbv 
prjropCov ol St/coAoyot rots aro(f)iGT€vov(Jiv ovhe tcov 
larptov ol rrepl oiairav tols x el P ov P7 ^> aAAa /cat 
orvpL7TapaXapL^dvovcrL /cat ovveuipiapTvpovai, to 8' 
duo rfjs avrrjg Teyyt]^ ?} hwdfiecog tpqrelv evho^ov 
elvat /cat nepifiXeTTTOV ovhev iv dheX^ols 2 Sta^epet 
rod pads ipcovTOLs dpi(f)OTepovs fiovXeod at irXeov 
eyeiv /cat fiaXXov evhoKLfietv tov eTepov tov eTepov. 
ol {lev ovv /ca#' €T€pas z ohovs fiahi^ovTes ovdev 
D dXXrjXovs obcfreXovcnv, ol he /3tot? XP ( * ) f JL€VOL hicufyopois 
tov T€ (j)96vov eKTperrovTai /cat avvepyovaiv aAA^- 
Aots* fJL&XXov, ojs ArjpooOevrjs /cat ¥Ldpr]s /cat 7raAty 
Ata^tVi]? /cat Eu/JouAos 1 /cat ^Trepelhrjs /cat Aea>- 
o6£vris y ol pcev XeyovTes iv ra> hrjixa) /cat ypd^ovTes, 
ol he OTpovrr)yovvTes /cat TrpaTTOVTes. odev aVa)- 
rara> Set Tat? imOviiiais Tpeueodai /cat Tat? 
</>tAoT6jUtats' tcov dSeA^cov rous" d(f>96vcos ho£rjs /cai 

1 8/oo/xov] bpofia) in many mss. 

2 aSeA^is Schwartz : </>av\ois, 
292 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 486 

cheer for each other. This, in fact, is the reason why. 
of the two sons of Tyndareus, Polydeuces won his 
victories in boxing and Castor in running. And 
Homer did well to represent Teucer as renowned in 
archery? while his brother was foremost among the 
heavy-armed : 

And he covered Teucer with gleaming shield. 

So, of those engaged in the service of the state, 
generals do not at all envy popular leaders ; nor, 
among those occupied with the art of speaking, do 
barristers envy teachers of rhetoric ; nor, among 
physicians, do dieticians envy surgeons ; but they 
even call each other into consultation and commend 
one another. For brothers to seek eminence and 
repute from the same art or faculty is precisely the 
same as for both to fall in love with one woman 
and each seek to outstrip the other in her esteem. 
Those, indeed, who travel different roads afford each 
other no help, but those who follow different 
modes of life both strive to avoid envy and are of 
greater service to each other, as were Demosthenes 
and Chares, 5 and again Aeschines and Eubulus, 
Hyper eides and Leosthenes, of whom the former in 
each pair harangued the people and drew up laws, 
the latter commanded armies and translated words 
into action. Therefore those who cannot, by their 
very nature, share without envy their brothers' re- 
putation and influence, should divert as far as possible 
from those of their brothers their own desires and 

a Ajax and Teucer : II. 9 viii. 272. 

b Cf. Comp. of Demosthenes and Cicero, iii. (887 c) ; Life 
of Phocion, vii. (744 f). 

3 kolB' irepas] erepas ? W.C.H. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Swdfiecos KOivojvelv firj 7Te(j)VK6rag, ottcos evcfypai- 

VOJOLV €Vr)ll€pOVVT€S dXXl]XoVS dXXd fJLTj Xv7TO)OL. 

16. Ylapa rrdvra he ravra (jyvXaKreov eorl kt)- 

E heorcov /cat OLKeccov /cat yvvaiKog eariv ore rfj 

cj)iXohot;ia avveTnriOepievrjs Xoyovg rrovrjpovg, * 6 

dheXcf)6s dyei /cat cfrepei Trdvra /cat Oavpid^erai /cat 

deparreverai, aol S' ovhelg rrpoaeiaiv ovV e^et? 

oepLvov ovoev. e^co piev ovv, cpairj ng av ev 

(fypovcbv, " dhzX<f>6v evhoKLjxovvra /cat \xerearl fiot 

rrjg ei<€LVov hvvdpieajg ro rrXelarov.*' 6 fiev yap 

?LajKpdtrjs eXeye fiovXeaOai Aapelov eyeiv jjl&XXov 

<f>iXov rf oapeiKOVy dSeXcjxx) he vovv eypvri /cat 

rrXovrov /cat dp\rjg /cat Xoytorrjrog ovk eXarrov 

dyaOov eariv apytov dheX(/)6g r) TrXovrtov r) Xoyov 

owdfjieL rrporjKOJV els ho£av. 

'AAAa ravrag pev ovr a> pcdXiara rag dvojjxaXiag 

F rraprjyoprjreov' erepai S' evOvg eyyivovr ai Sta</>opat 

rrepi rag r)XiKiag drraihevroig dheX(j)olg. emeiKcog 

yap ol re rrpeofivrepoi rcov veajrepajv apyeiv 

d^iovvreg del /cat rrpotaraaOai /cat rrXeov eyeiv ev 

navrl ho£r)g /cat Swdpteajg fiapelg elai /cat drjhelg, 

Dt re vea)repoi rrdXiv d^rjvLa^ovreg /cat dpaavvopievoi 

Kara<f)povelv /cat dXiycopelv doKovoiv. e/c he rovra>v 

ol piev d)s cf)9ovovpLevoi /cat KoXovopievoi cfrevyovoi 

487 /cat Svcrx^pacvovoL rag vovOeotag, ol 8' del 

rrjg VTrepoxrjg yXiyopievoi <f)ofiovvrai rrjv eKeivajv 

1 av added by Reiske, confirmed by G. 
2 to after rj deleted by Wilamowitz (tov Bernardakis). 

° With the substance of chapters 13-15 Cicero's remarks 
on inequality in friendship (Laelius, 19-20, 69-73) may be 
compared. 
294 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 486-487 

ambitions, so that by their successes they may give 
pleasure to each other instead of pain. a 

16. But, over and above these considerations, we 
should be on our guard against the pernicious talk of 
relatives, of members of our household, and some- 
times even of a wife who joins the rest in challenging 
our ambition by saying : " Your brother carries all 
before him and is admired and courted, but you are 
not visited by anybody and enjoy no distinction at 
all." " Not so," a sensible man would reply. " I have 
a brother who is highly esteemed, and most of his 
influence is mine to share." Socrates, for instance, 
remarked that he would rather have Darius than 
a daric as a friend, and for a brother who has good 
sense it is no less an advantage than the possession of 
wealth, high office, or eloquence, to have a brother 
who has attained to fame by virtue of office or 
wealth or eloquence. 

But although these means are the best for smooth- 
ing away such inequalities, yet there are the other 
differences which naturally arise among brothers who 
lack the proper training, differences due to disparity 
in their ages. For, generally speaking, elder brothers, 
when they claim the right always to dominate and 
to have precedence over the younger and to have the 
advantage in every matter where reputation and in- 
fluence are involved, are oppressive and disagreeable ; 
and younger brothers, in turn, being restive under the 
curb and becoming fractious, make it their practice 
to despise and belittle the elder. The result is that 
while the younger, feeling that they are being treated 
despitefully and are discriminated against, resent and 
try to avoid their elders' admonitions, the elder, ever 
clinging fast to their superiority, fear their brothers' 

295 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(487) av^TjOLV cos avTcov KardXvacv . coGTrep ovv eVt ttjs 
xdpuTos d^Louat /xet£ova tovs XapfidvovTas rjyeladai 
jjiLKporepav Se tovs StSoVras", ovtcos dv tis, tov 
Xpdvov irapaivcov tco p,ev TTpeafivreptQ ptrj jieyav 1 
vopLct^etv tco Se vecorepcp firj puKpov, VTrepoipcas /cat 
dpceXelas /cat tov Kara^poveXaOac /cat Karacfipoveiv 
dpLc^orepovs aVaAAa^etei'. eVet Se tco piev TTpea^v- 
repco to KijSecrOai /cat KaOrjyeladai /cat vovOerelv 

TrpOGTJKOV €GTL, TCO Se V€COT€pCp TO TLpL&V /Cat ^TjXoVV 

/cat a/coAou#etv, rj ptev e/cetVou KrjSepLovia to eVat- 

B pLKOV pidXXoV f) TO TTCLTpiKOV i^(€TUJ /Cat TO 7T€L0OV Tj 
TO €7TLTdTTOV /Cat TO XLUpOV €77t TOt? KaTOpdcopLOLGL 

/cat KaT€V(f)ripLovv tov ipiyovTog dv dudpTT] /cat 

/CoAoUOl'TOS*, pLTj pLOVOV 7Tpo6vpLOT€pOV OV* dXXd KLXl 

<f)iXav9 ptouoTepov , tco Se tov vecoTepov fyjXco to 

jiUpLOVpL€VOV €V€GTOJ p,Yj TO dpiXXojpL€VOV davpLOL- 

^ovtos yap 7] pLipL-qais, rj S' dpuXXa i>6ovovvTos e'crrt. 
Sto tovs pzv i^opLoiovadai fiovXopievovs dyarrcoGL 
tovs S' e£iGOvodai ttlcIovgl /cat xa\€7TTOvaw.* eV 
TroAAats" Se TipLOLS ds Trpeirei irapd tcov vicov diro- 
olSogOcli toIs TTpeG^VTepots, to 7T<=idapx€i>v euSo/ct/tet 
C pidXiGTa /cat /carepya^erat ft€T* aloovs evvotav 
iGxvpdv /cat X^P LV dvdvTreiKovGav . fj /cat Y\.aTCov } 
tov Kat77tan ; a 4 n peG^VTepov ovtlx depanevcov ev9vs 
£k ttollScov evrreiOela /cat TTpaoTrjTL /cat gllotttj, TeXos 
ovtcos eV dvopaGtv e'^etpojaaro /cat TOGavTrjs eV- 
errXrjGev alSovs rrpos iavTov, cos pLrjTe rrpd^ai tl pafjT 

1 i.Uyav Pohlenz : /xeya. 2 ov added by Capps. 

3 ^aAeVroucrtv] ^aAcTratvouatv in most MSS. 

4 Katrrtcova Reiske, here and below : Ka-rriajva. 

a Of, Life of Cato Minor, iii. (761 b-c). Q. Serviliu^ 
Caepio was Cato's half-brother. 

296 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 487 

augmentation as though it meant elimination for 
themselves. Just as, then, we think it right that 
those who receive a favour should look upon it as of 
greater, and those who bestow it as of lesser value, 
so, in regard to a difference in ages, if we advise the 
elder to regard it as no great matter and the younger 
to think it no slight thing, we should rid the one 
of arrogance and neglect, and the other of disdain 
and contempt. And since it is fitting that the older 
should be solicitous about the younger and should 
lead and admonish him, and that the younger should 
honour and emulate and follow the older, let the 
solicitude of the former be rather that of a com- 
rade than of a father, and of one who would per- 
suade rather than command, and would rejoice in 
a brother's successes and applaud them rather than 
criticize him if he errs and restrain him — a spirit 
showing not only a greater desire to help, but also 
more kindness of heart. And in the emulation of 
the younger let imitation, not rivalry, be present ; 
for imitation is the act of one who admires, but 
rivalry of one who envies. It is for this reason that 
men love those who wish to become like themselves, 
but repress and crush those who wish to become their 
equals. And among the many honours which it is 
fitting that the young render to their elders, obedience 
is most highly esteemed, and, together with respect- 
fulness, brings about a staunch goodwill and favour 
which will in turn lead to concessions. Thus it was 
with Cato a : he so won over his elder brother Caepio by 
obedience and gentleness and silence from his earliest 
childhood that finally, by the time they both were 
men, he had so subdued him and filled him with so 
great a respect for himself that Caepio would neither 

297 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(487) eiirelv dyvoovvTos eKeivov. fivrjfjboveveraL yovv, on 
juLapTvpcas ttot€ ypafx/jLarecov e7ricr(/>payicra/zeVoz; tov 
Kai7TLQ)vos 6 Karcov vorepos erreXQoov ovk rjOeXrjoev 
iiTLo^payLoaodai, /cat o Kai77ta>v aTTaiT-qaas to 
ypafifiaretov d</>etAe rrjv avrov ocfrpaylSa rrplv fj 
irvOeoOai tl 7TaQd)v 6 dSeXcfros ovk €ttiot€VG€V dXX 

D V7T€lO€TO TTjV {JLCtpTVplaV. (f)aLV€TCLL Se 7ToXXrj KOL 
TTpOS E7TLKOVpOV atScOS" 1 TOJV d8eX(f)djV St' €VVOLCLV 

avrov /cat KrjSejJLovlav ets re rdXXa /cat <f)iXooo(f)iav 
ttjv eKecvov ovvevdovoiojvTOJV' /cat yap el Sr^/xap- 
ravov 86£rjs evOvs e/c ttollScov TreTTeiopuzvoi /cat Ae- 
yovres cos ovSels yeyovev 'Em/coupou aocfxjjrepos , 
d£t6v iorri Oavfid^ecv /cat rod SiaOevros ovtojs /cat 
tojv SiCLTeOevTcov. ov jjltjv dXXd /cat tojv veojTepojv 
(f)iXoo6(f)a)v ' * AttoXXojvlos 6 YiepmaTr^TiKos yjXeytje 
tov elirovTOL &6£av dKOLvebvrjTOv etvac, HojTcojva 
vecoTepov d8eXcf)6v clvtov 7roiijoras iv8o£oT€pov. ejioi 
fiev yap otl ttoXXojv d^tojv "^dpiTOs irapa tt\s tvx?]S 
E yeyovoTOJv, rj Tipbcovos evvoia Ta8eX<f)ov rrpos 
arravTa raAAa /cat 2 yeyove /cat €otlv, ovSels dyvoel 

TOJV OTTOJOOVV ZvT€TVyy)KOTO)V rjjJUV, 7]KLOTa S' U/X€t? 

ol ovviqOeis. 

17. "Erepa tolvvv rat? Tra/jaAA^Aots' /cat ovveyyvs 
rjXiKiais d8eX(f)6jv <pvXaKTeov ecrrt Trddrj, puKpa puev 
avvexrj 8e /cat 7roAAa /cat 7rovrjpav iroiovvTa tov 
Xv7T€lv /cat Trapo^vveiv iavTOVs inl tt&oi fJLeXeTTjv, 

1 at'Sco?] rj albcbs in some mss. 
2 Kal] omitted in most mss. 



° Cf. Moralia, 1100 a; Epicurus, Frag. 178 (Usener, 
Epicurea, p. 155). 

6 Timon appears in the Quaest. Symp., i. 2 and ii. 5. 

298 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 487 

do nor say anything without Cato's knowledge. For 
example, it is said that on one occasion, when Caepio 
had affixed his seal to a deposition and Cato came up 
later and was unwilling to add his own seal, Caepio 
demanded that the document be returned and re- 
moved his seal before asking the reason why his 
brother had suspected the deposition instead of 
believing it to be true. In the case of Epicurus a also 
his brothers' respect for him was clearly great because 
of the goodwill and solicitude he had for them, 
inspired as they were with admiration both for his 
other attainments and especially for his philosophy. 
For even if they were mistaken in their opinion, yet 
since they were convinced and constantly declared 
from their earliest childhood that there was no one 
wiser than Epicurus, we may well admire both the 
man who inspired this devotion and also those who 
felt it. However, of the more recent philosophers, 
Apollonius the Peripatetic, by making Sotion, his 
younger brother, more famous than himself, refuted 
the man who asserted that fame could not be 
shared with another. And for myself, though I have 
received from Fortune many favours which call for 
gratitude, that my brother Timon's b affection for me 
has always transcended and still transcends all the 
rest, no one is unaware who has ever had any dealings 
whatever with me, and least of all you, c my familiar 
friends. 

17. Furthermore, there are other disturbances 
which brothers of nearly the same age must guard 
against ; they are but small, to be sure, yet con- 
tinuous and frequent, and create a vicious practice of 
offending and exasperating one another on all occa- 

c Nigrinus and Quietus ; cf. 478 b, supra, 

299 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

reAevrdjoav els dvrjKeora pilar) Kal KaKoOvpilas* 
apZd/Lievoi yap eVt TratStats* oia&epeoQai, irepl rpo- 
<f>as £,cpa)v koX dydjvas olov oprvyajv rj dAeKrpvovajv, 
etra rraiScov ev TraAalarpais Kal kvvcov ev Orjpais 

F Kol L7T7TC0V CV dpilAAatS, OVKCTL KpCLTeZv €V TOt? 
fJL€L^OGLV Ov8e KaTClTTCLVeLV TO (f)iA6v€LKOV SvvaVTOLl 
KCLL (^lAoTipLOV. CQOTTep 'EAA^VOW Ol Kdd* TjpL&S 

Swarwraroi nepl oirov'oas opyy]<3rG)v etra Ki9a- 
pcpochv oiaardvres , eK rovrov rdg ev AIStji/jco 1 
KoAvfifirfOpas Kal naardoas Kal dvoptovas dvri- 
TrapafidAAovres del Kal roTropLa^ovvres Kal diro- 
KOTTTOvres o^erois Kal a7roorpe(f)ovres 3 ovtojs 
488 e^TjypicjoOrjaav Kal Sie(f)8dprjcrav, coare Trdvrajv 
d^aipeOevres vrro rod rvpdvvov Kal (fivydoeg Kal 
Trevrjres Kal oAlyov Sea> Aeyecv erepoi rtov irpore- 
pov yevojxevoi piova) SiepLetvav ol avrol rep paaelv 
dAArfAovs. b'Oev oi))( rJKiara Set nepl 2 rd piiKpa 
Kal 7Tpa)Ta TrapaSvopievr) rfj irpos rovs d8eAcf)ovs 
(friAoveiKia Kal t^Aorvn la otapid^oOaiy pueAercov- 
ras dvdvuelKeiv Kal rfrraaOat Kal yalpeiv rep 
Xapl£eo9ai pt&AAov avrols rj ra> vlkolv. ov yap 
erepav ol TiaAatot JxaSpuelav vIktjv aAAa rrjv rrepl 
Orjftas rcov dSeA(f)a>v ws alayluTT^v Kal KaKlorrjv 
7rpoorjy6pevcrav . 

Tt ovv; ov)(l 7roAAas rd 7TpdypLara /cat 3 rots' 

1 AlSrjifja) Meziriacus : aiSiipu) or ihrjipcp. 

2 7T€pl] rrapa in most MSS. 

3 kol] omitted in most mss. 

a Medicinal hot baths in Euboea ; cf. Moralia, 667 c-d. 

b Probably Domitian, as Reiske conjectured. 

c Cf. Moralia, 10 a, and the note ; the expedition of the 

300 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 487-488 

sions, which at last ends in incurable hatred and 
malevolence. For having once begun to differ in 
childish matters, about the care of animals and their 
fights, as, for instance, those of quails or cocks, they 
then continue to differ about the contests of boys in 
the palaestra, of dogs on the hunt, and of horses at 
the races, until they are no longer able to control or 
subdue their contentious and ambitious spirit in more 
important matters. So the most powerful of the 
Greeks in my time, disagreeing first about rival 
dancers, then about harp-players, and afterwards by 
continually holding up to invidious comparison the 
swimming-baths and porticoes and banquet-halls at 
Aedepsus, a and then manoeuvring for places and posi- 
tions, and going on to cut off aqueducts and divert 
their waters, they became so savage and reckless that 
they were deprived of everything by the despot, b 
and, becoming exiles and paupers and — I had almost 
said — something other than their former selves, they 
remained the same only in their hatred for one 
another. It is therefore of no slight importance to 
resist the spirit of contentiousness and jealousy 
among brothers when it first creeps in over trivial 
matters, practising the art of making mutual con- 
cessions, of learning to take defeat, and of taking 
pleasure in indulging brothers rather than in winning 
victories over them. For the men of old gave the 
name of " Cadmean c victory "to no other than that 
of the brothers at Thebes, as being the most 
shameful and the worst of victories. 

What then ? Do not practical affairs bring many 

Seven against Thebes, in which the two sons of Oedipus, 
Eteocles and Polyneices, died fighting against each other in 
single combat. 

301 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B e7Tl€LKCx)S ^X €iV SoKOVGt KOLL TTpOLOJS (f)€p€L 7TpO(/)d(J€lS 

(488) avTiXoyitov /cat Stacfropcov ; /cat fidXa' dXXd /cd/cet 
(f)vXaKT€OV, omuls tol TTpdyfjLOLTa \xdyy\TaC' Kaff avrd, 
firjSev e/c (biXoveiKLas ju/^S' dpyfjs irdOos olov ay/ct- 
arpov TTpoaOevras, aAA' toorrep inl £vyov rod 
Slkcllov rrjv ponrjv kolvcos drroOeajpovvTas /cat 
rdyiora rals Kpiaeai /cat rals hiairais ttjv dficfri- 
Xoyiav TrapahioovTas aTTOKaOrjpai, irplv evhvoav 
wGTrep j3a(f)r)v rj KTjXlSa SevaoTTOLov yeveaOai /cat 
8va€K7rXvTOV etra jjajxeladaL tovs YlvOayopiKovs, 
ol yevet fjurjOev TrpocrrJKovTes 2 dXXd kolvov Xoyov 

C fJL€T€X°VT€S , €L 7TOT€ 7T poa)(Q eleV €tV XoiSoptOLV V7T* 

opyfjs, rrplv rj tov rjXtov Svvat ra? Se^ta? i^aXovres 
dXXtfXois /cat daTTaadfJievoL BieXvovro. KaOdnep yap 
€77t fiovfitbvi TTvperov yevofievov Seivov ovOiv eoriv, 
dv Se iravoa\x£vov Trapajxevr) , vocros etvai So/cet /cat 
fiadvrepav €)(€iv dpxrjv, ovtqjs dSeXcfx&v rj fierd to 
7Tpayfia iravo/JLevr] Scac^opd rov TTpdynaros icrn, 

TTjS O iTn/JL€VOVG7]S 7Tp6(f)aOlS TjV TO TTpaypLOL /XO^^- 

pdv Tiva? /cat vttovXov clItiolv e;\w. 4 

18. "A£lov Se 7Tv6eo9aL fiapfidpouv dSeXcfxjov Sta- 

SiKaalav, ov 7repl yrjSiov /xeptSos* ouS' err* dvSpa- 

D 7t6Sols rj TrpofiaTiois yevofJLevrjv dXXd irepl tt)s 

Uepotbv r)yeiiovLas. Aapetou yap dirodavovTOS ol 

[lev tj£lovv *ApiaiL€V7)v fiaGiXevecv, npeofivTaTOV 

1 /xaxetrat Bernardakis. 

2 Trpoar\KovT€s\ Stegmann would add aWrjAois. 

3 rcva Pohlenz : re. 4 eW^ov ? W.C.H. 

a No doubt the y kKpod^ara of the Master : see Iamblichus, 
Vita Pythagorica, 82 ff. (Notopoulos). 

b Cf. Ephesians, iv. 26-27 : Let not the sun go down upon 
j-our wrath ; neither give place to the devil. 
302 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 488 

occasions for controversy and dissension even to those 
who have the reputation of being of an equitable and 
gentle disposition ? Yes, certainly. But there also 
we must see to it that the affairs fight the battle 
quite by themselves, without our inserting into 
the contest, like a hook, as it were, any emotion 
arising from contentiousness or anger ; but, keeping 
our eyes fixed impartially upon the swaying of 
Justice, as though we were watching a pair of 
balances, we should with all speed turn over the 
matter in dispute to the decision of a jury or of 
arbitrators, and cleanse its filth away before, like a 
dye or stain, it sinks into the fabric and its colours 
become fast and hard to w T ash out. We should 
next pattern ourselves after the Pythagoreans, who, 
though related not at all by birth, yet sharing a 
common discipline, a if ever they were led by anger 
into recrimination, never let the sun go down b 
before they joined right hands, embraced each 
other, and were reconciled. For just as it is nothing 
alarming if a fever attends a swelling in the groin, 
but if the fever persists when the swelling is gone, 
it is thought to be a malady and to have a deeper 
origin : so when the dissension of brothers ceases 
after the matter in dispute is settled, the dissension 
was caused by the matter ; but if it remains, the 
matter was but a pretext and contained some 
malignant and festering reason. 

18. It is worth our while to inquire into a dispute of 
brothers who were not Greeks, which arose, not about 
a little patch of land, nor over slaves or flocks, but 
about the empire of Persia. For when Darius died, 
some thought it right that Ariamenes should be king, 
being the eldest of his children ; but others chose 

303 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(488) ovra rrjs yeveas, ol 8e E.€p£r]v, 'Ardor (777? re jx-qrpos 
ovra rfjs YLvpov Ovyarpos €K re Aapelov fiaoi- 
Aevovros rjSrj yeyevrjjjLevov. 'ApLapievrjs p<€v ovv 
Karefiacvev £k MtjScdv ov TroAefjuKtos dAA' chs 1 iitl 
8lkt)v r)av)(OA>os y 2 Sep^rjs 8e rrapcbv enparrev arrep 
rjv fiaoiAel TTpoorjKovra. iAOovros 8e rd,8eA(f)ov 
dels to SidSyjjjLa Kal KarafiaAtov rrjv ridpav, rjv 
(j>opovaiv opdrjv ol fiaoiAevovres , drrrjVT7]Gev avrtp 
Kal rjcnrdaaro, Kal 8a>pa TrepLTtcuv eKeAevoev €L7T€lv 

E TOVS KOfJLl^OVTOLS, " TOVTOLS €T€ VVV Tl\Xa Sep^TJS 6 

dScA^os" aV 8e /Sao-iAcus- KpLoei Kal iprj(f>tp Hepacov 
dvayopevOrj, StSaxrt aoc Sevrepco peed' eavrov elvai!' 
Kai o Apiajxevrjs , eyco o , ^cprj, ra fi€V otopa 
Seconal, fiaaiAeiav 8e ttjv Tlepcrcbv ifxavrcp vojjll^co 

7TpOGrjK€LV TLjJLTJV 8<E TTJV [JL€T €fX€ TOLS d&€A(f)OLS 

(f)vAd^a), Hep£r) 8e rrpdoroj ra>v dSeAcfxjov." iirel S' 
r) Kpiais evecrrrj, Ylepcrai /.lev 'Aprdftavov d8eA(f)6v 
ovra Aapelov 8iKaarrjv arre^iqvav , to Se 3 Sd£av 
avrols Septjrjs efievyev vtt u eKelvov Kpidrjvai ra> 
irArjOet nenoiOcos. "Aroaaa S' rj jJLrjrrjp eTrerrArj^ev 
F avrtp, * tl <f>evyeis ' Aprdfiavov , c5 rral, Oeiov ovra 
Kal Ueportov dpiarov; ri 8' ovtoos rov aytova Se- 
8oiKa$, iv (L KaAd Kal ra 8evrep€ia 3 Uepotov 
fiacriAeaJS d8eA(f>6v KpiOfjvai,; " Tretadevros ovv 
Zep^ov Kal yevoptevajv Aoycov 'Apra/Javo? [xkv ane- 
(j>rjvaro 'Rep^Tj ttjv fiaaiAeiav TrpoarjK€Lv, 'A/na/xeV^s' 
8' evdvg dva7T7]8r]cras 7TpoG€Kvvr]oe tov a8eA4>6v Kal 

1 <hs] omitted in most mss. 

2 T)ovxa.los\ rjavx^s in some mss. 

3 to 8e added by Capps, deleting Se after Eepgrjs, with two 

MSS. 

4 v-n Reiske: eV. 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 488 

Xerxes,® as being the child of Atossa, the daughter 
of Cyrus, and born to Darius after he had come to the 
throne. Now Ariamenes came down from the country 
of the Medes in no hostile manner, but quietly, as 
though to a court of justice ; and Xerxes was present 
and performing the functions of a king. But when 
his brother came, putting aside the diadem and press- 
ing down the crest of his tiara, which reigning kings 
wear erect, 6 he went to meet Ariamenes and em- 
braced him, and, sending gifts, he bade the bearers 
say, " With these your brother Xerxes honours you 
now ; but if he shall be proclaimed king by j udgement 
and vote of the Persians, he grants to you the right of 
being second after himself." And Ariamenes said, 
" I accept the gifts, yet I believe the kingdom of the 
Persians to be mine by right. But I shall guard for 
my brothers their honour after my own, and for 
Xerxes as the first of my brothers." And when the 
day of judgement came, the Persians appointed as 
judge Artabanus, the brother of Darius ; but Xerxes 
sought to evade their decision that the judgement 
should be made by Artabanus, since he put his faith in 
the people. But Atossa, his mother, chided him : 
" Why , my son, do you try to evade Artabanus, who is 
your uncle and the best of the Persians ? Why do you 
so fear this contest in which even the second place is 
honourable — to be adjudged brother to the king of 
Persia ? " Xerxes was therefore persuaded and 
when the pleas were made, Artabanus declared that 
the kingdom belonged by right to Xerxes ; and 
Ariamenes at once leapt up and did obeisance to his 

° Cf. Moralia, 173 b-c ; Justin, ii. 10 ; the account in 
Herodotus, vii. 2-3, has scarcely anything in common with 
this story. b Cf. Moralia, 340 c. 

305 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Aafiofxevos rrjs Se^ta? €ts tov Opovov €/ca#tcre tov 
fiaalAeLov. e/c tovtov fieyicrros rjv nap* avrco /cat 
Trapel^v evvovv iavTOV, ojot apiarevcov iv rfj Trepl 
HaXa/juva vau/xa^ta rreoeiv vrrep rrjs €K€tvov Sotjrjs. 
489 tovto jjl€V ovv ojGTrep apyeTvirov €KK€i<jda) Kadapov 

KCLI a\JL(JLi[Jjr]TOV €V[JL€V€iaS /Cat fl€yaAo(f)pOGVV7]S . 

* Avtio^ov Se T7]v [lev (friAapxcav i/je^ecev dv tls, 
otl S' ov TravTairaoiv avrrj to <j)iAdheA(f)ov evr]<f)a- 
vlorOrj, davfidoeiev. eVoAe'/zet yap vnep Tr)s fiaoiAetas 
2eAeu/ca> vetorepos cov aoeA(j)6s /cat rrjv (jLrjrepa 
ovAAafifidvovoav et^ev aKfid^ovTOs Se rod TroAe/xov, 
[idyr)V 6 HeAevKos TaAarat? ovvdipas /cat r^rnqdeisy 
ovSapiov (j)av€p6s rjv dAA' eSo^e reOvdvai, 7rdorjs 
ofjiov rt rrjs crrpcLTLas vtto tojv fiapfidpajv Kara- 

K07T€LOT)S. 7Tv96fX€VOS OVV 6 'AvTtO^O? TTjV TTOp- 

B <f)vpav eOrjKe /cat <f>aiov Cfiatlov eAa/3e, /cat ra 
/3acrtAeta /cAetaas* iirivdzi tov dSeA(/>oV oAiyco S' 
vorepov aKovoas on oxo^erat /cat Svvapuv avdis 
irepav d#pot'£et, rots re Oeois eOvoe TrpoeAOcbv 1 /cat 
rat? 7ToAeoiv &v rjp^e dveiv /cat are^avrj^opelv 
enrjyy etAev. 

3 'AOrjvaloL Se tov wept rr)s epiSog rcov Oecbv fivOov 
aTOTrojs TrAdoavres lnavopQa)\xa rrjs aroTrias ov 
<j>avAov ivejju^av auTar rr)v yap Sevrcpav e^atpovoiv 
del rod HorjSpojJutJovos, ws iv €K€Lvrj rep IIoCTetSdm 
7rp6s rrjv 'JUhjvdv yevo/JLevrjs ttjs Sta^opas 1 . tl ovv 
1 TTpoeXOcbv] npoaeXdajv in most mss. 

° Cf Life of Themistocles, xiv. (119 d-e). 

b Cf Moralia, 184 a. c Cf 508 d, infra. 

d Cf Moralia, 740 f — 741 b (Quaest. Symp., ix. 6, which is 
unfortunately fragmentary) ; Frazer's note on Apollodorus, 
iii. 14. 1 (L.C.L., vol. ii. pp. 78 f.). 
306 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 488-489 

brother and taking him by the hand set him upon the 
kingly throne. From that time forth Ariamenes was 
highest in honour with Xerxes and showed himself of 
such loyalty toward the king that he fell in the sea- 
fight at Salamis performing deeds of valour for his 
brother's glory. a Let this, then, be set forth as a 
pure and blameless model of goodwill and high- 
mindedness. 

But Antiochus & might be condemned because of 
his lust for dominion, yet admired because his love 
for his brother was not altogether extinguished 
thereby. For he went to war against Seleucus c for 
the kingdom, though he was the younger brother and 
had the aid of his mother. But when the war was at 
its height, Seleucus joined battle with the Galatians 
and was defeated ; he disappeared and was thought 
to be dead, since practically all his army had been 
cut to pieces by the barbarians. So when Antiochus 
learned this, he laid aside his purple and put on a 
dark robe, and, shutting the gates of the palace, went 
into mourning for his brother. But a little later, 
when he heard that his brother was safe and was again 
collecting another army, he came forth and sacrificed 
to the gods, and made proclamation to the cities over 
which he ruled that they should sacrifice and wear 
garlands of rejoicing. 

The Athenians , d though they absurdly invented 
the tale of the strife of the gods, yet inserted in it 
no slight correction of its absurdity, for they always 
omit e the second day of Boedromion, thinking that 
on that day occurred Poseidon's quarrel with Athena. 

• That is, in Meton's scheme the day regularly became 
an rjfxepa i^atpeoifjios to make the lunar year agree with the 
solar. 

307 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(489) KOjAvet KCLi rj/JL&s iv hiacfropq rrore rrpos olKeiovs Kal 
ovyyevels yevofievovs iv dpLvrjorla rrjv rjpiepav 

C €K€LV7]V TlOeoQai KCLL JAICLV TCDV dlTO(f)pdSojV VOpLL^eLV, 

dAAa pLTj ttoAAlov kclI dyadcov iv als avverpd(f)rjpLev 
Kal avve^twaapiev rjpLepojv Sta puiav imAavddveadai ; 
rj yap pbdrrjv Kal 7rpos ovdev r) <f>vais r)puv eSajKe 
rrpaorrjra Kal pier piorraO etas eKyovov dve^LKaKtav, 
r) pbdXcora xprjoreov rovrois rrpos ovyyevels Kal 
oiKeiovs. oi>x rjrrov Se rod oioovai avyyvojprf]v 
dptaprovcn ro alretoOat Kal Xapifidveiv avrovs a/xap- 
rovras exivoiav ipL^alvet Kal (jaXooropyiav. 08 ev 
opyc^opLevojv re Set pur) dpceXetv Kal rrapatrovpievoLS 
pLT) dvrireiveiv y dXXd Kal <f)6dveiv rroXXaKts dpiap- 
D rovras avrovs rfj Trapairrjoei rrjv 6pyr)v dStKifjOevras 
re irdXiv av rfj avyyvwpir] rr)v irapalrrjaiv . 

'0 piev ovv iLooKparLKos Eu/cAetS^? iv rals oyo- 
XaZs 7T€pL^6r]r6g ioriv on c/>a)vr)v aKovoas dyvcLpiova 
Kal OrjpicoSrj rdbeXcfrov rrpos avrov elrrovros, " diro- 
AoLpL7]v, el pur] ere ripLajprjaatfjirjv " • " iyeb S'," elrrev, 

el parj ae rretoaipit rravoaodai rrjs opyrjs Kal 
<j)iXeZv rjpias ojs rrporepov icfiiXeis." 

To S' Hvpbevovs rod fiaotXeaJs epyov ov Xoyos 

vrrepfioXrjv ovSevl 1 rrpaorrjros drroXeXoirrev . Ylep- 

aevs yap 6 ra>v MaKeSovojv fiaoiXevs ixOpos a>v 

avrco rrapeoKevaoe rovs drroKrevovvras' oi 8e rrepl 

E AeX(f>ovs evrjSpevov alcrOopievoi fiaSl^ovra rrpos rov 

1 ovbevi Pohlenz : ouSev or ov&ev ovhe. 



a Cf. 462 c, supra ; paraphrased by Stobaeus, vol. iv. p. 
659 ed. Hense ; Hierocles, apud Stob., vol. iv. p. 662. See 
also Sternbach on Gnomologicum Vaticanum, 278 (Wiener 
Stud., x. p. 237). 
308 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 489 

What, then, prevents us also from treating the day 
on which we have quarrelled with any of our family 
or relatives as one to be consigned to oblivion, and 
counting it one of the unlucky days, instead of for- 
getting because of one day the many good days in 
which we grew up and lived together ? For either it 
is in vain and to no avail that Nature has given us 
gentleness and forbearance, the child of restraint, or 
we should make the utmost use of these virtues in our 
relations with our family and relatives. And our 
asking and receiving forgiveness for our own errors 
reveals goodwill and affection quite as much as grant- 
ing it to others when they err. For this reason we 
should neither overlook the anger of others, nor be 
stubborn with them when they ask forgiveness, but, 
on the contrary, should try to forestall their anger, 
when we ourselves are time and again at fault, by 
begging forgiveness, and again, when we have been 
wronged, in our turn should forestall their request for 
forgiveness by granting it before being asked. 

Eucleides, a the Socratic, is famous in the schools 
because, when he heard an inconsiderate and brutal 
speech from his brother who said, " May I be damned 
if I don't get even with you," he replied, " And so will 
I, if I don't persuade you to stop your anger and love 
me as you used to do." 

But in the case of King Eumenes b it was not a 
mere word, but a deed, which revealed a gentleness 
that no one could surpass. For Perseus, the king of 
Macedonia, who was his enemy, procured men to kill 
him. These men set an ambush near Delphi, obser- 
ving that he was coming on foot from the sea to the 

6 Eumenes II of Pergamum ; and cf. Moralia, 184 b, 
480 c, supra, 

VOL. VI L 309 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

6eov arro 6aXdoo7)s. yev6[ievoi §' oiriodev avrov 
Xcdovs fieydXovs ififiaXXovcriv els re ttjv Ke<f>aXr)V 
/cat tov rpdx^Aov'y t></>' tov GKora)9els /cat ireotbv 
e8o£e reOvdvav /cat TrepirjXde (frrjfJLr] uavTaypoey /cat 
<j>LAoL Tives d(j>LKovTO /cat OepdirovTes els HepyajjLov 
avrdyyeAoi rod rrdOovs r\Keiv SoKovvres. "ArraAos 
ovv 6 Trpeafivraros avrov tcqv doeXc/xjov, dvrjp 
€meLK7]s /cat irepl tov Hvfievrj TrdvTOJV dpiOTOS, 
ov fjiovov fiacnXevs dvrjyopevdr] §La8r)ad/JL€vos, dXXd 
/cat ttjv yvvcLiKa rd8eX<f)ov ^LrparoviKiqv eyy\[ie /cat 
F avvfjXOev eirel 8' aTrrjyyeXrj ^cov 6 Eu/zeV^s /cat 
TTpoarjeL, dels to StaS^a /cat Xaficuv wcnrep elcoOei 
rd Sopdrta fxerd tojv oXXcdv amqvTi^oev avrto §opv- 
<f)6poov. 6 he KaKelvov evfievcos eSe^tcoaaro /cat ttjv 
fiaalXiaaav rjOTrdaaro fxerd TLfirjs /cat (frcXofipo- 
avvrjs, /cat ^povov ovk oXiyov enifiiuioas djjLejjLTTTWs 
/cat d.vvTTOTTTOOs aTreOave, rep 'ArrdXa) ttjv re 
fSaoiXelav /cat ttjv yvvauKa 1 Trapeyyvijoas . ri ovv 
eKelvos ; dirodavovros avrov TrauStov ov8e ev rj6e- 
Xrjcrev e/c rrjs yvvaiKos aveXeoOai reKOvarjs 7roXXd- 
490 kls, dXXd rov eKeivov TralSa Opeipas /cat dv8pa>oas 
en £,lov enedrjKe to StaS^/za /cat fiaoiXea Trpoo- 
i-jyopevaev. 

'AAAa KafJL^vorjs e£ evvnvlov cfrofirjOels d)S fiaat- 

1 Notopculos would add lyKvov (vel sim.) after yvvalKa. 

a The other brothers are mentioned by name in 480 c, 
supra. 

b By the ceremony in which the father raises the child in 
his arms to acknowledge its legitimacy. Probably Attalus 
did not actually disown his children, but merely made it 
clear that he did not regard them as heirs to the throne. 

c Stratonice had been childless for over sixteen years ; she 

310 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 489-490 

temple of the god. They came behind him and 
hurled great stones down upon his head and neck ; 
these made him dizzy and he fell down and was 
thought to be dead. A report of his death spread 
far and wide, and some of his friends and servants 
came back to Pergamum, and were thought to bring 
their report as actual eye-witnesses of the calamity. 
Attalus, therefore, the eldest of the king's brothers, 
an honourable man and more loyal to Eumenes than 
any of the others , a not only took the crown and was 
proclaimed king, but also married his brother's wife, 
Stratonice, and had intercourse with her. But when 
the news came that Eumenes was alive, and he him- 
self was approaching, Attalus laid aside the crown, 
took his spears, as had been his custom before, and 
went with the other guardsmen to meet the king. 
And Eumenes not only cordially clasped his hand, but 
also embraced the queen, showing her honour and 
friendliness ; and living a considerable time after his 
return, without giving a hint of blame or suspicion, he 
died, leaving to Attalus both his kingdom and his 
wife. And what did Attalus ? When Eumenes was 
dead, he was unwilling to acknowledge as his own b 
any of the children his wife had borne him, though 
they were many, but brought up and educated his 
brother's son c and in his own life-time placed the 
crown upon his head and saluted him as king. 

But Cambyses/ frightened by a dream into the 

now became pregnant and, in due course, bore a son, whom 
Eumenes, according to Polybius, xxx. 2, had not acknow- 
ledged at least five years later ; but subsequently he succeeded 
his legal uncle, Attalus II, as Attalus III. See W. S. 
Ferguson, Class. Phil., i. 233 ff. Cf. also Livy, xlii. 15 and 
Pauly-Wissowa, BE, xi., col. 1099. 
d Cf. Herodotus, iii. 30. 

311 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(490) Xevoovra rr)s 'Aocas rov dSeXcpov, ovSepiav 0/770- 
Sec^cv ouS' eXeyxov avafieivas a7T€KT€LV€V. odev 
i£e7T€G€ rrjg "Kvpov ScaSo^r)? rj dpx'rj reXevrrjaavros 
avrov koli to Aapetov yevos ifiaoLXevoev, dvhpos ov 
fiovov aSeXcfroLS dXXd Kal cJ)lXols 1-niOTap.ivov 
kolvcx)V€lv rrpaypbdrajv koll hvvdpieojs. 

19. "Etc. toivvv €K€lvo Sec pLvrjpoveveiv iv rals 

Trpos rovg aSeXcfrovs Scacfropais /cat (^vXarrecv, to 

B toZs c/)lXols avrcbv opuXeiv Kal irXrioia^eiv rore 

/JLaXlGTOL, (f)€Vy€LV §€ TOV£ ixOpOVS Kal fJLTj TTpOO- 

SexeaOaij papiovpLevov avro yovv rovro to Kprjrcov, 
ot ttoXXolkls araGid^ovres aAA?]Aocs' koI rroXepLovvres, 
e^todev iiriovTCov TroXeplojv oieXvovro Kal avv- 
ioravro' Kal tovt rp> 6 KaXovfievos vtt* avrcbv 
1 ovy Kprjr capos ." kvioi ydp odauep v8a>p rots 
^aAaJot Kal hiiarapevois vrroppeovres avarpeTTOvaiv 
olKeiOTTjras Kal cfyiXLas, paaovvres pcev apLcfrorepovs 
IniTidipuzvoi Se rep pdXXov vtt* dadeveias eVSiSoVrc. 
rep pcev yap epdovTi avvepcvcnv 61 veapol Kal aKaKOi 
C tojv cpiXojv, rap S' opyt^opievcp Kal Sca<^epo/xeVa> 
77/00? dSeXc[)6v ol KaKOTjdeoraTOL rwv i)(6pa)v gw- 
ayavaKreiv Kal ovvopyi^zoQai 8okovol. KaOdrrep 
ovv r) Aloojireios dXeKToplg irpos rrjv atXovpov, d>s 
St) /car' evvocav avrrjg vooovcrrjs ottojs e'x €6 irvvdavo- 
pbevrjv, " KaX&s," eiTrev, " av ov a7TOOTfjs," ovtoj 
irpos tolovtov dvGpojTTOVy epfidXXovra Xoyov vrrep 
rrjs oia<f>opas Kal TTwdavopievov Kal dvopvTrovra 1 
tcov a7Toppr)TOJv eVca xpr) Xeyeiv, " dXX epuotye 

1 avopvTTovra Hartman : vTropvTTovra. 
312 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 490 

belief that his brother would be king of Asia, killed 
him without waiting for any evidence or proof. For 
this reason, when Cambyses died, the throne passed 
from the line of Cyrus and the kingship was gained 
by the family of Darius, a man who knew how to give, 
not only to brothers, but also to friends, participation 
in affairs of state and in power. 

19. Then this further matter must be borne in 
mind and guarded against when differences arise 
among brothers : we must be careful especially at 
such times to associate familiarly with our brothers* 
friends, but avoid and shun all intimacy with their 
enemies, imitating in this point, at least, the practice 
of Cretans, who, though they often quarrelled with 
and warred against each other, made up their differ- 
ences and united when outside enemies attacked ; 
and this it was which they called " syncretism. " a For 
some there are, fluid as water, who, seeping through 
those who relax their hold and disagree, over- 
turn affinities and friendships, hating indeed both 
sides, but attacking the one which yields more readily 
because of its weakness. For while it is true that 
when a man is in love his young and guileless friends 
share his love, it is also true that the most ill-dis- 
posed of enemies make a show of sharing the indigna- 
tion and wrath of one who is angered and at variance 
with his brother. As, then, Aesop's b hen said to the 
cat who inquired, with pretended solicitude, of the 
sick bird "How are you?" "Very well, if you keep 
away " ; so one would say to the sort of person who 
brings up the subject of the quarrel and makes in- 
quiries and tries to dig up some secrets, " But I shall 



Cf. the Etymologicum Magnum, s.v. avyKp-qrlaau 
b Fabulae, 16 and 16 b ed. Halm. 



313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(490) npayfia 7rpos rov d8eX(f)6v ovOev k'orai, 1 av pJrr 
iycb tols SiafidAAovai npocrexaj yjfyv eKelvos." vvvl 
S' ovk otS' ottcos 6(f)9aXiJLLCL)VT€9 fiev oldfieda SetV 

(X7TOaTp€(f)€iV €776 TOL fJLTj 7TOLOVVTOL TrXrjyTjV jU/^S' 

D avTirvTTiav xpcbpLara /cat Gcofxara rrjv oi/jlv, iv 8e 
ULCfiifjecn koll opyais /cat vttovololls TTpos d8eX<f)ovs 
yevofjievoL xaipo/zev /cat TTpoaavaxpwvvvpLeOa tols 
eKrapdrrovGLV, ore /caAco? el^e rovs fiev i^Opovs 
/cat Swivels aVoStSpacr/cetv /cat XavOdveiv, owetVat 
8e /cat avvhtrjjjLepeveiv [xaXiara KrjSeuTCus €K€tva>v 
/cat oIkelols /cat c/)lXois /cat 77/009 yvvaiKas avrcov 
elaiovras alriaodai /cat rrapprjaid^eoOai. kolltol 
Xidov ov (f>aat xpfjvcu pueaov d8eX(f)ovs Aa/z/3dVety 
686v ftaSl^ovras, d^OovraL 8e /cat kwo? Ste/cSpa- 
jaovtos, /cat TroXXd tololvtol SeStaatv (Lv ov8ev 

E ojjiovoiav d8eXcf)a>v Siearrjaev, dvOpamovs Se /ct>- 
vlkovs /cat 8iaf$6Xovs iv piioco Xafifidvovres clvtwv 

/Cat 77€/)t77TatOVT€? OU OVVOp&GL. 

20. A to rou Aoyou to crvvexes VTrayopevovros , ev 
piev et77€ Qeofipaaros d)$ " el KOLvd rd (f>iX(x)v iart, 
/xaAtara Set kolvovs tcov cfyiXoov elvai rovg cbiXovs "• 
°^X T] Kl(JTa 8' civ rt? dSeXcfrols tovto TTapatveaecev. 
at yap tSta /cat ^oj/hs opuXiai /cat ovvqdeiai 7rpos 
dXXovs 2 d7TOorpi<f)ovGL /cat aVayouatv arr' dAAr^Aaw 
to) yap (friXeLV irepovs evdvs eVerat to ya' l ? eiv 
irepots /cat ^Aouv iripovs /cat dyeaOcu vcj)' eripcov. 

1 eorai W.C.H. : eoTiv. 
2 aAAou? Reiske, confirmed by mss. : aAA^Aous'. 

° Cf. 469 a, supra, and the note. & C/. 491 d, infra. 

c Frag. 75 ed. Wimmer ; cf. Moralia, 65 a. 

d Cf. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, viii. 9. 1 (1159 b 31) ; 
Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 6, Menander, Frag. 9, from 
the Adelphoe. 
314 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 490 

have no trouble with my brother if neither I nor 
he pay attention to slanderers." But as it is — I do 
not know the reason — although when we suffer from 
sore eyes, we think it proper to turn our gaze to 
colours and objects which do not beat against or 
offend the sight, a yet when we are in the midst of 
fault-finding and bursts of anger and suspicion toward 
our brothers, we enjoy the company of those who 
cause the disturbance and we take on from them a 
false colouring, when it would be wise to run away 
from our enemies and ill-wishers and avoid their 
notice, and to associate and spend our days almost 
entirely with relatives and intimates and friends of 
our brothers, visiting their wives also and frankly 
telling them our reasons for complaint. 6 And yet 
there is a saying that brothers walking together 
should not let a stone come between them, and some 
people are troubled if a dog runs between brothers, 
and are afraid of many such signs, not one of which 
ever ruptured the concord of brothers ; yet they do 
not perceive what they are doing when they allow 
snarling and slanderous men to come between them 
and cause them to stumble. 

20. And so the saying of Theophrastus, c — its 
relevance is suggested by our very subject — is ex- 
cellent: " If the possessions of friends are common/ 2 
then by all means the friends of friends should be 
common " ; and one should urge this advice upon 
brothers with special emphasis. For associations 
and intimacies which are maintained separately and 
apart lead brothers away from each other and turn 
them toward others, since an immediate consequence 
of affection for others is to take pleasure in others, to 
emulate others, and to follow the lead of others. 

315 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rjdoTTOLOvcri yap at </>tAtat, /cat fxel^ov ovOev eariv 
rjOcbv 8ia(f)opas arj/xeiov rj (f)iXoov alpeueis Sta<£eooV- 

F TOOV. 69 €V OVT€ TO OVV€o9UtV dheX^Cp Kdl GVpLTTLVeiV 

ovre to ovpLiraL^eiv /cat avvSirjfjLepevetv ovtoo ovv- 

eKTLKOV €OTLV OfJLOVOLOLS, COS TO OVfJL(f)l\elv KCLI 

crvvexOpaLveiv rjSeoOai re tols avrols avvovra /cat 
ttoXlv ftSeAvTTeaOcu /cat cftevyeiv. ov8e yap Sta- 
/3oAa,9 at KOLval </>tAtat (frepovatv ovSe avyKpovoeis' 
dXXd kolv yevr]Tai tls opyr) /cat fiepLipLS, e/cAuerat Std 
jjl€gov tojv (f)iXa>v €/c§€^o/xeVo)v /cat btaoKeSavvvvTOJV 
avrrep a/x(/>oT6pots > oIk€iojs h'yiooi /cat 77009 d/x</>o- 
491 Tepovs 6/jlov rfj evvola ovvvevtooiv. ojs yap 6 
KaooLTepos payevTa tov ^aA/cov avvapftoTTei /cat 
ovyKepdvvvoi tco ifjavetv eKarepov irtparos ot/cetcos 1 
opLOTradrjs yivofxevos , ovtoo Set tov cf)tXov evdp\xooTOV 
6Vra /cat /cotrov d/x^>orepot9 rot? dScA^ots" rrpocr- 
KaTaiTVKvovv tt)v evvouav ol S' aVtaot /cat djLtt/CTOt 
KaOdrrep iv Staypd/x^aart fJiovoiKtp <f)96yyoc Sid^ev^iv 
ov crvvafirjv iroiovoiv. eoTiv ovv StaTropfjorai rrorepov 
opdtbs rj TOVvavTiov 6 'Hat'oSo? etrre 

[jLrjSe KaaiyvrjTtp laov iroielo9ai iraXpov 

6 [lev yap evyvojfJLOJV /cat kolvos, coorrep ctp^rat, 
fjb&XXov eyKpadels St' dfX(j)OTepoov avvSeopLos carat 
B ttjs (j)iXa8eX(f)ta^' 6 S' 'Hat'oSo?, ojs" eoitcev, e<j)o~ 
j3rj6r) tovs ttoXXovs /cat cfravXovs Std to Svol^tjXov 
/cat <f>LXavTOV. 
*0 Srj KaXtos e^€t (j>vXaTTOjxevovs , Kav evvocav 

More exactly, " the disjunction, not conjunction " of 
tetrachords. 

316 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 490-491 

For friendships shape character and there is no 
more important indication of a difference in 
character than the selection of different friends. 
For this reason neither eating and drinking to- 
gether nor playing and spending the day together 
can so firmly cement concord between brothers 
as the sharing of friendships and enmities, taking 
pleasure in the company of the same persons, and 
loathing and avoiding the same. For friendships 
held in common do not tolerate either slanders or 
conflicts, but if any occasion for wrath or blame arises, 
it is dissipated by the mediation of friends, who 
take it upon themselves and disperse it, if they are 
but intimate with both parties and incline in their 
goodwill to both alike. For as tin joins together 
broken bronze and solders it by being applied to both 
ends, since it is of a material sympathetic to both, so 
should the friend, well-suited as he is to both and 
being theirs in common, join still closer their mutual 
goodwill ; but those who are uneven and will not 
blend, like false notes of a scale in music, create dis- 
cord, not harmony. a One may, then, be in doubt 
as to whether Hesiod b was right or not in saying, 

Nor should one make a friend a brother's peer. 
For that man who is a considerate and a common 
friend to both brothers, as we have described him, 
compounded as he is of the natures of both, will the 
more readily be a bond of brotherly love between 
them. But Hesiod, it is likely, was afraid of the 
common run of friends who are evil because of their 
jealous and selfish natures. 
, But even if we feel an equal affection for a friend, 

b Works and Days, 707 ; cf. the Commentarii in Hesiodum, 
65 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. pp. 83 f.). 

vol. vi l2 317 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(491) Zanrjv (f>iXcp vepbrj rig, 1 del tol npcoreZa rd8eX(j)cp 
(f)vXdrr€LV ev appals Kal TroXireiaig ev re KXrjoeat kcli 
yvoyploeoiv riyepbovtov Kal ooa roZg ttoXXols enLcfxivfj 
kcll 7rpos S6£av eart, to TrpoarJKov d^lcofia rfj c^vaec 
Kal yepag aVoStSoVra?. ov yap ovra>g tco (f)tXcp to 
irXeov ev tovtols aepivov, chs dSeX(j)cp rovXarrov 
alaxpov yLverai koX dSo^ov. 

AAAa irepl tclvttjs [lev erepcodi rrjs yvojpsqg ye- 
C ypairrai Ta SoKovvra Sia TrXeiovtov to he Mevdv- 
Speiov opdtog £X 0V > ***$ 

ovSels 2 dyomGyv avros djieXeW* rjSecos, 

vnopiipivrjOKeL kcll StSaa/cei rcov dSeXcfxjov eTTLjxeXel- 
odai koI fir) rfj cf)voei morevovras dXiytopelv. Kal 
yap Ittttos rfj cpvoei <j)iXdvd pomov Kal kvojv <f>iXo- 
heuTTorov , dXXd jjltj rvy^dvovra Oeparreias ^o° 
eTTifieXelas drrooropya yLverai Kal dXXorpca* Kal to 
Utopia rrjs i/jv x?js avyyeveorarov eariv, dpLeXovpievov 
Se Kal Trapopojpievov vrr* avrrjs ovk edeXei avvepyeZv 
aAAa XvpLaiverat Kal TrpoXeinei rag irpd^ets, 
D 21 . 'Em/ze'Acta Se KaXrj fiev avrcov rcov d8eX(f)tov, 
€T6 Se KaXXiajv TrevOepols Kal yapb/SpoZg rols eKelvtov 
evvovv del rrapex^v els anavra Kal TrpoOvfiov eav- 
roVy oucerag re (^iXoSeoTTorovg darrd^eoOai /cat 
(j)iXo(f)povelo9aiy Kal x^? lv ^X €LV l aT P°LS depairev- 
oaoiv avrovg Kal c/)IXols ttiotoZs Kal 7Tpo9vfjLO)s 

1 v€fir] tls D : v€fjL7]rai tls. 
2 ouSets"] ouSeis yap Mor., 95 D. 

° The reference is perhaps to chap. 5, supra ; Volkmann 
and Brokate are clearly wrong in assigning it to Uepl faXlas, 
which Patzig (Quaest. Plut., p. 34, c/. the note on 475 d, 
supra) has shown did not exist. 
318 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 491 

we should always be careful to reserve for a brother 
the first place in public offices and administration, and 
in invitations and introductions to distinguished men, 
and, in general, whenever we deal with occasions 
which in the eyes of the public give distinction and 
tend to confer honour, rendering thus to Nature the 
appropriate dignity and prerogative. For undue 
precedence in such matters is not so grand a thing 
for the friend, as the slight is shameful and degrad- 
ing for a brother. 

But concerning this subject my opinions have been 
expressed more fully elsewhere. a However, that 
verse of Menander, & which is quite true, 

No one that loves will gladly bear neglect, 

reminds and teaches us to be considerate of our 
brothers and not, through trust in Nature's influence, 
to slight them. It is true that a horse is by nature 
fond of man and a dog fond of his master, but if they do 
not meet with the proper tending or care, they grow 
estranged and alienated ; and though the body is 
very closely related to the soul, yet if it is neglected 
and overlooked by the soul, it becomes unwilling to 
co-operate and even harms and abandons the soul's 
activities, 

21. But while care for brothers themselves is an 
excellent thing, yet even more excellent is it to show 
oneself always well-disposed and obliging in all mat- 
ters to brothers' fathers-in-law and brothers-in-law, to 
salute and treat kindly such of their servants as are 
loyal to their masters, and to be grateful to physicians 
who have restored brothers to health and to such 

b Kock, Com.Att. Frag., in. p. 213, Frag. 757 ; cf. Moralia, 
95 d. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(491) GVvSieveyKovcnv aTTohr^iiav rj orpareiav yvvaiKO. 
S' d8eXc/)ov yafjLerrjv ojs dnavrajv leptov dytcorarov 
rrpouopcovra /cat aefio/jievov, rt/zoWa fiev rov avSpa 
Kar€V(f)TjiieZv y 1 dfieXovfievrj Se ovvayavaKTclv , ^aAe- 
TTalvovoav Se 7Tpavveiv dv S' d\idpTr\ ri rcbv /ze- 
rpLtov, owStaAAdrretv /cat ovpLirapaKaXeLv rov 
dvSpa' /caV avTto res 18 (a yevrjrat Sta^opd irpos rov 
E d8eXcf)6v, aLTL&oOou rrap* eKeivr) /cat SiaXveaOac rrjv 
fjLejjofjLv. dyafilav S' d8eX(j)ov /cat dVatStW pudXiora 
8vG)(€paiv€LV /cat rrapaKaXovvra /cat Xoi8opovvra 
ovveXavveiv rravraxdOev els ydfxov /cat avveipyvvvai 
vojjlljjLois K7]8evfJLaac KTrjcrafievov Se 7ratSa? e'^t- 
(fcaveorepov xp^crflat rfj re rrpos avrov evvoia /cat rfj 
irpos rrjv yvvcuKa rtfjifj' rot? Se iraioXv evvovv fiev 
(Zaire p ISlots, r\mov Se fiaXXov elvai /cat /xetAt^tov/ 
ottcds djxaprdvovres ota ve'ot /jltj 8pairereva)oi /xTySe 
/caraSuawrat 3 Sta <j>6fiov narpos rj fjirjrpos els o/zt- 
Xcas <$>avXas /cat SXtycopovs, dAA' drroarpoc^rjv /cat 
Karacf)vyrjv a/xa vovOerovaav evvoia /cat irapairov- 
JP /JLevrjv k'yuxjiv. ovrco /cat IlAaTWV dSeA(/>tSou*> 6Vra 
HirevaiTnTov e/c ttoXXtjs dvecreajs /cat aKoXaoias 

i7T€(JTp€lfj€V, OlfSeV OVT €L7TQJV dvtapOV OVT€ TTOirjGCLS 

irpos avrov, dXXd ^evyovri rovs yoveXs eXey^ovras 
del* /cat Xot8opovvras eVStSous eavrov ev/xevrj /cat 

1 Tifxtjjvra rov dvSpa Karev(f>r]fietv Madvig (fxev added by 
W.C.H.) : rifidv rov dvSpa kclI evrfarjfxeiv. 

2 /xetAt^ov many mss. 

3 Karabvcjovrat G and D : KaraXvojvrai. 

4 del] avrov del in most mss. 

° Contrast 479 d, supra. b Cf. 490 d, supra. 

320 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 491 

faithful friends as have rendered zealous and efficient 
service to them in sharing the hardships of some 
journey abroad or military expedition. But a 
brother's wife should be esteemed and reverenced as 
the most holy of all sacred things a ; if her husband 
honours her, we should applaud him ; if he neglects 
her, we should sympathize with her annoyance ; when 
she grows angry, soothe her ; if she commits some 
trifling fault, take part in urging her husband to a 
reconciliation ; and if some private difference arise 
between yourself and your brother, bring your com- 
plaints to her b and so do away with the reasons for 
complaint. But above all we should be troubled at a 
brother's unmarried and childless state, and by ex- 
hortation and raillery take part in pressing him on 
every side into marriage and in getting him well 
fastened in the bonds of lawful matrimony. And 
when he gets children, we should make even more 
manifest our affection for him and the honour w T e pay 
to his wife ; and to their children let us be as well- 
disposed as toward our own, but even more gentle 
and tender, so that when they err, as children will, 
they may not run away or, through fear of father 
or mother, enter into association with knaves or slug- 
gards, but may have recourse and refuge which at once 
admonishes in a kindly way and intercedes for their 
offence. It was in this way that Plato c reclaimed his 
nephew Speusippus from great self-indulgence and 
debauchery, not by either saying or doing to him 
anything that would cause him pain, but when the 
young man was avoiding his parents, who were always 
showing him to be in the wrong and upbraiding him, 

c This manner of education corresponds to that advocated 
in Ep., vii. (e.g. 343 e ff.). 

321 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

492 a\xt]virov y atSco re ttoXXtjv eveipydoaTO /cat l^rjXov 
eavTov /cat (f>iXooocf)Las . /catrot 77oAAot tlqv <f)iXcov 
evet<dXovv chs fJi/fj vov0€tovvtl to fieipaKcov 6 Se /cat 
77avu vov0€T€lv eXeye, rep fiicp /cat T77 Statrry tt}? 
77yoo^ ra at'er^pa, tcov /caAcov hiacf)opds Trape^cov 
Karav6r}(jiv. 

'AAeuay Se roV ©ccrcxaAoV o /xey 7Tarrjp dyepoiypv 
ovtol /cat vfipiarrjv eKoXove /cat ^aAeTros* r/v, o Se 
delos dveXdpufiave /cat rrpoorjyero' TTepLrrovTCov Se 
rdJv 0ecrcraAd)v (f)pVKTOVS rrepl fiaoiXeojs rrpos tov 
B Oeov els AeXcfrovs evefiaXe Kpvcfxi tov irarpos 6 Oelos 
vrrep tov 'AAeua* /cat rfjs YlvOlas tovtov dveXovorjs 
6 re 7Tarr]p dire^rjaev ejit/Je/SA^/ceVat tov (f>pvKTov 
vrrep avrov, /cat rrdoiv eSo/cet rrXdvi) tls ev rats* 
Karaypa<f)oXs twv ovopbdrcov yeyovevai. Sto /cat 
TTefjajjavres avOcs erravqpovTO rov Oeov r) Se YlvOia 
Kaddrrep eKfiefiaiovpLevr] rrjv rrporepav dvayopevoiv 
elrre 

rov rrvppov roi <f>rjfju, rov 'Ap^eSt/c^ re'/ce 7ratSa. 
/cat tovtov tov Tporrov 6 'AAeuas vrro tov Oeov 
fiaoiXevs Sta tov tov rraTpos dSeXcfrov drroSeixOels 
clvtos Te ttoXv tto.vtlov eTrpcoTevae TWV TTpO avTov 1 
/cat to eOvos els 86£av irpor\yaye jneydXrjv /cat 
Svvapuv. 
C 'AAAa firjv evrrpa^iais Te /cat Tipials /cat appals 
iraiSajv d8eXcf)ov yaipovTa /cat oe\ivvvo\xevov av^etv 
77poar]KeL /cat avve£opfjL&v rrpos tol /caAa /cat /caro/o- 
1 avrov Bernardakis : avrov. 

a Cf. Moralia, 71 e. 

b With (f)pvKrovs the noun Kvdfxovs is understood. The use 
of parched beans as lots seems to be known from this passage 
only. 

322 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 492 

Plato showed himself friendly and free from anger to 
Speusippus and so brought about in him great respect 
and admiration for Plato himself and for philosophy. 
Yet many of Plato's friends used to rebuke him for 
not admonishing the youth, but Plato a would say that 
he was indeed admonishing him : by his own, the 
philosopher's, manner of life, showing him a way to 
distinguish the difference between what is shameful 
and what is honourable. 

So Aleuas the Thessalian, who was an arrogant and 
insolent youth, was kept down and treated harshly 
by his father ; but his uncle received him and attached 
him to himself, and w T hen the Thessalians sent to the 
god at Delphi lots b to determine who should be king, 
the uncle, without the father's knowledge, slipped in 
a lot for Aleuas. When the Pythian priestess drew 
the lot of Aleuas, his father denied that he had put 
in one for him, and to everyone it appeared that 
there had been some error in the recording of names. 
So they sent again and questioned the god a second 
time ; and the prophetic priestess, as though to 
confirm fully her former declaration, answered : 

It is the red-haired c man I mean, 
The child whom Archedice bore. 

And in this manner Aleuas was proclaimed king by 
the god through the help of his father's brother, and 
himself surpassed by far his predecessors and advanced 
his race to great fame and power. 

And indeed it is an uncle's duty to rejoice and take 
pride in the fair deeds and honours and offices of a 
brother's sons and to help to give them an incentive 

c Cf. Aristotle, Frag. 497 ed. Rose ; that is, Pyrrhus, " the 
red-haired man." 

823 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(492) Oovvras d(f)€iSa)s irraLvelv avrov yap vlov eiraxOes 
mjo)s iyKCO/jud^ecv, d8eX<f)ov Se ue\xvov Kal ov 
(f)iXavrov dXXd cf)iXoKaXov Kal 6eZov ojs dXrjOcos' 
So/cct 1 yap jjlol Kal rovvofia KaXcos v<fyr)y€Zo6ai Trpos 
evvoiav doeXcbtSwv 2 Kal aydVrycrtv . Set Se /cat rd 
rd)V Kpetrrovajv t^rjXovv. 'Hpa/cA^s re yap Svelv 
Beovras 3 efiSofJLrjKovTa yevvrjvas iralhas, ovhevos 
tjttov avrajv tov aSeA</>tSouv rjydrnrjaev' dXXd /cat 
vvv rroXXaxov avix^topLos iariv 'loXaos avrw, /cat 
ovy hear evxovT ai irapaurdnqv ' Hpa/cA eovs ovofxd- 
D t>ovT€S' 'I^t/cAeous* Se rod dheX(f>ov rreaovros iv 
rfj 7T€pl Aa/ceSat/zova fiaxy, TrepiXviros yevofxevog 
iraaav e^iXiire YleXoTrovvrjoov . rj re 4 AevKodea rrjs 
dSeA^s- aTToOavovarjs edpei/je to fipe<j)os Kal ovv- 
e^eOelacrzv' 60 ev at 'Paj/zataw yvvatKes iv rat? rrjs 
AevKoOeas ioprals, TfV Marovrav ovopid^ovGLV, ov 
rous" iavrcbv TracSas dXXd rovs rcov doeXcfrcov 
Ivay koXL'Qovt ai Kal tl/jlcoglv . 

1 SoKel] eboK€L in most mss. 

2 aSeA^tScov an early anonymous correction, confirmed by 
G : dheX(f>cov. 

8 Sdovras] hiovra many mss. 
4 rj re Bernardakis : r) Se. 

a 0€ios = il an uncle " and " divine." 

b Heracles' nephew, who helped him in his encounter with 
the Nemean lion. 



324 



ON BROTHERLY LOVE, 492 

to honourable achievement, and, when they succeed, 
to praise them without stint ; for it is, perhaps, offensive 
to praise one's own son, yet to praise a brother's is a 
noble thing, not inspired by selfishness, but honour- 
able and truly divine ; for it seems to me that the 
very name a admirably points the way to goodwill 
and affection for nephews. And one must also strive 
to emulate the deeds of those beings who are superior 
to man. So Heracles, though he begat sixty-eight 
sons, loved his nephew no less than any of them, and 
even to this day in many places Iolaiis b has an altar 
in common with Heracles and men pray to them 
together, calling Iolaiis Heracles' assistant. And 
when his brother Iphicles c fell at the battle in Lace- 
daemon, Heracles was filled with great grief and 
retired from the entire Peloponnesus. And Leu- 
cothea/ also, when her sister died, brought up her 
child and helped to have him consecrated together 
with herself as a god ; whence it is that the women 
of Rome in the festival of Leucothea, whom they call 
Matuta, take in their arms and honour, not their own, 
but their sisters' children. 

c Twin-brother of Heracles, son of Alcmene and Am- 
phitryon ; cf. Moralia, 285 f. 

d Leucothea is the name of the deified Ino, wife of 
Athamas, who threw herself into the sea and was changed 
into a goddess; cf. Life of Camillus, v. (131 b-c) ; Moralia, 
267 d-e. On the Matralia, celebrated in honour of Mater 
Matuta, see most recently H. J. Rose, Class. Quart., xxviii. 
156 f. 



325 



ON AFFECTION FOR 
OFFSPRING 

(DE AMORE PROLIS) 



INTRODUCTION 

This essay, or declamation, is clearly in an unfinished 
state throughout and a good deal is doubtless lost at 
the end, for the author has done little more with his 
subject than to show that cfriXoo-Topyi'a a is more 
complete in man than in beasts. 6 The efforts of 
Dohner c and Weissenberger d to prove that the essay 
is not genuine have not been successful. Dohner is, 
further, quite wrong, as Patzig e and Weissenberger 
have shown, in assuming the work to be an epitome. 

° Volkmann reminds us that De Amove Prolis is a bad 
Latin translation for the title, but that there is no better : 
cf. Fronto, i. p. 280, ii. p. 154 ed. Haines (L.C.L.) for the 
statement that there is no such quality as to <j>i\6oTopyov at 
Rome and consequently no name for it. See also Marcus 
Aurelius, i. 11. 

6 Volkmann, Leben, Serif ten, u. Philos. Plutarchs, ii. pp. 
165-167, attempts to complete the thought of this treatise. 

c Quaest. Pint., iii. pp. 26 ff. 

d Die Sprache Plutarchs, ii. pp. 31-33. When Weissen- 
berger attempts to find discrepancies between Plutarch's 
thought here and elsewhere, he chooses examples in which he 
either misinterprets the meaning or else forgets that Plutarch 
is ironical and intends the opposite of what he says. 

e Quaest. Plut. 9 pp. 3-21 : by far the most complete dis- 
cussion of the vocabulary and syntax of this strange work. 
Patzig's conclusion is that we have here a finished essay of 
Plutarch ; this is untenable, but his arguments for genuine- 
ness are quite conclusive. None of his successors, not even 
Pohlenz, shows any knowledge of his valuable work." 

328 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING 

It is best regarded as an unfinished fragment, con- 
taining, so far as it goes, the rough and unrevised 
hand of Plutarch. 

Dyroff's ° attempt to show that this work was com- 
posed before De Esu Carnium, De Sollertia Animalium, 
and Gryllus is not to be taken seriously : the grounds 
are too slight. 

The text is very corrupt. The work is not listed in 
the Lamprias catalogue. 

a Program Wiirzburg, 1896/7. 



329 



493 nEPI 

THS EIS TA EITONA 1 OIAOSTOPriAS 

1 . "KkkXtjtol Kploeis Kal ^evLKtov SiKaGrrjpLOJV 
ay coy at to?s "EAAtjcti ro irptorov dinar La rfj npos 
B aAArjAovs i7T€Vor)9r)crav, dAAorpuas SiKacoavvrjs tbo- 
irep erepov rivos rtov dvayKaitov jjltj cfrvopLevov Trap 
avTols SerjOeZcnv. ap' ovv Kal ol tf>iA6ootj)oi rtov 
TTpofiAyjiJLaTOov evta hid ras irpos dAArjAovs 8iacf)Opas 

€7TL T7]V TCOV ClAoytOV <f)VOlV ^CpCOV C007T€p dAAoSaTTTjV 

rroAiv eKKoAovvraiy Kal tois €K€lvlov irddeoi /cat 
rjOecnv tbs dvevrevKTOis Kal doeKaorois icfiLacn rrjv 
Kpiaiv; rj Kal rovro rrjs dvOpajTTLvyjs KaKtag ky- 
KArjfia koivov eon, ro Trepl rtov dvayKaiordrtov /ecu 
C pLeyuarajv dpL<f)ioot;ovvras rjpias ^rjrelv eV lttttols /ecu 
kvoI Kal opvioi, 7Tt7)s ya^tojiev avrol Kal yevvw/xev 
Kal r€KVOTpocf)cdjJL€V 2 (cos [JLrjSev iv iavTols S^Aco/xa 
rrjs cf)vcr€a>s ov)' Kal ra 3 rtov Qr\pia)v rj9rj Kal 7rddr) 
rrpooayopevaai Kal Karapbaprvprjoat rod filov rjpLtov 
ttoAAtjv rod Kara cf>vatv e/cSicu'r^cw Kal irapafiatTiv , 

1 cyyova] probably the form preferred by Plutarch. But 
some mss. here and elsewhere read eKyova. 

2 yafjLa>jj,€v . . . T€KvoTpo<f>a>iJLev Hatzidakis : yafiovfjiev , . • 

T€KVOTpO<j>OVfjL€V. 

3 Kal ra Reiske and two mss. : ra. 

a Plutarch is probably referring to the common practice of 
330 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING 

1. Trials of cases on appeal a before special arbi- 
trators and the carrying of cases before foreign courts 
were first devised by the Greeks by reason of their 
mutual distrust, since they had need of the justice 
supplied by others than themselves, like any other 
non-indigenous necessity. Is it thus, then, that 
philosophers also, because of their disagreements 
with each other, refer some of their questions to the 
nature of irrational animals, as though to a foreign 
city, and submit the decision to the emotions and 
character and habits of these creatures as to a court 
that cannot be influenced or bribed ? Or is this also 
a common charge against human depravity — that, 
being in doubt about the most necessary and im- 
portant things, we seek among horses and dogs and 
birds how we ourselves should marry and beget and 
bring up children (as though we had no plain indica- 
tion of Nature in ourselves) ; and that we term the 
traits which brute beasts have " characters " and 
" emotions," and accuse our life of a great deviation 

small states appealing to the greater, Athens or Rhodes, to 
arbitrate in disputes ; the distrust was thus not of all 
other Greeks but of fellow-citizens. Cf. Schwyzer, Dial. Gr. 
Exempla, 83 for an inscription in which Argos regulates the 
relations between Cnossus and Tylissus circa 450 b.c. ; see 
also M. N. Tod, International Arbitration among the Greeks 
(Oxford, 1913). 

331 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(493) evOvg iv apxfj KaL ^epl ra TTptora ovyyeo\±eva)v Kal 
TapaTTOjJLevajv ; aKparov yap iv eKeivois rj (fivois 
Kal dpuyes Kal dirXovv <f>vXaTTei to lSlov, iv 8' 
avdpajTTois vno tov Xoyov Kal ttjs ovvrjOecas, o 
rovXatov vrro rcov (xvpeipcov rreTrovOe, irpos ttoXXA 
/XLyvvfievr] Soy/iara Kal Kpioeis iTTiOerovs 7toikiXt] 
yeyove Kal rjSela 1 to S' oiKetov ov TeTTjprjKe. Kal jjltj 

D OavpLa^ajfJieVy el tol dXoya £<£>a tcuv XoytKcov t uaXXov 
eneTai ttj (frvoec /cat yap Ta (f)VTa tojv l^oxjov, ols 
ovt€ (fravTacrlav ov9* 6ppL7]v e8a>Kev rj 2 eTepajv ope^iv 
tov Kajd (f)vocv aTTooaXevovoav , aAA' coonep iv 
Seo/JLtp ovveipypLeva fievei Kal KeKpaTrjTai, jiiav del 
nopeiav rjv rj tfivois dyet rropevopieva. tol? oe 
drjpLocs to fiev TroXvTpoTTOV 3 tov Xoyov Kal TfeptTTOV 
Kal cf)iXeXev9epov dyav ovk eoTtv, dXoyovs S' opfias 
Kal ope^eis eypvTa koX ^paypieva irXdvais Kal rrepi- 
Spo/JLaTs 7ToXXaKLS y ov pcaKpav aAA' d>$ in dyKVpas 
ttjs <f)voeojs aaXevei ?} 4 KaOdnep ovco 686v u</>' rjvia 
Kal ^aA^eo fiaSl^ovTL 5 SeiKvvoc ttjv 6 evOelav. 6 S' 
doeairoTOS 1 iv dvdpcoiroj Kal avTOKpaTrjs Xoyos 8 

E aAAa? aAAore rrapeKfidcreLS 9 Kal KaivoTopuias dv- 
evpioKCDv ovSev ixvos ijxcpaves ouS' ivapyeg dno- 
XeXonre tt\s <j>voeajs. 

2. "Opa irepl tov? yd/Jiovs ooov ioTlv ev tol? 

1 rjSela Patzig (cf. Plato, Rep., 558 c) : Ihia. 

2 rj added by Bernardakis. 

3 TroXvTpoTrov Pohlenz, cf. Life of Alcibiades, xxiv. (204* b); 
TraparpoTTOv H. Richards: Trpavrpoirov. 

■ rj added by Capps. 

5 ovco . . . fia&L^ovTi Capps : ovv . . . /3aSif ovtcu 

6 rr)v added by Capps. 

7 6 fr aheoTToros Kronenberg, after Pohlenz : 6 SeanoTTjs. 

8 Xoyos] Xoyco most MSS. 

9 7Tap€KpdG€Ls] Trapeixfiaotis most MSS. 
332 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 493 

and departure from Nature, confused and disordered 
as we are at the very beginning concerning even 
the first principles ? For in dumb animals Nature 
preserves their special characteristics pure and un- 
mixed and simple, but in men, through reason and 
habit, they have been modified by many opinions 
and adventitious judgements so that they have lost 
their proper form and have acquired a pleasing 
variety comparable to the variety of perfumes made 
by the pharmacist on the basis of a single oil. And 
let us not wonder if irrational animals follow Nature 
more closely than rational ones ; for animals are, in 
fact, outdone in this by plants, to which Nature has 
given neither imagination nor impulse, nor desire for 
something different, which causes men to shake them- 
selves free from what Nature desires ; but plants, as 
though they were fastened in chains, remain in the 
power of Nature, always traversing the one path along 
which Nature leads them. Yet in wild beasts versa- 
tility of reasoning and uncommon cleverness and ex- 
cessive love of freedom are not too highly developed ; 
and though they have irrational impulses and desires 
and often wander about on circuitous paths, they do 
not go far afield, but ride, as it were, at the anchor 
provided by Nature, who points out to them the 
straight way, as to an ass which proceeds under bit 
and bridle. But in man ungoverned reason is ab- 
solute master, and, discovering now one way of 
deviation and innovation and now another, has left 
no clear or certain vestige of Nature visible. a 

2. Observe to what extent there exists in animals 

a The text of this chapter is exceedingly corrupt : the 
restorations and suggestions adopted here claim only an 
approximation to the required thought. 

333 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

E,opoi$ to /caret cfcvoiv. rrpebrov ovk aVa/zeWt vofiovs 
ayajJLLOV kclI oifjiya^dov / Kaddirep ol AvKovpyov 
noXlrai /cat HoXcovos* ouS' art/xta? drreKvoov Se- 
8oLK€V, OlfSe Tt/xd? 8iOJK€L TparaiSlas, 2 cos 'Poofiatcov 
ttoXXol yapLovaL Kal yevvcooiv, ovx tva KXrjpovopiovs 
eyojoiv dAA' Iva KXrjpovopbelv hvvcovrai. eireira 
jJLiyvvrai too drjXei to dppev ovx diravra xP° vov * 
rjSovrjv yap ovk e^et reXos dXXd yivvr\oiv koX 

JP T€KVOOOIV. 8ld TOVT €TOVS 00 pa, T) TTVOOLS T€ yOVL- 
jJLOVS €^€t /Cat 7Tp6o(/)OpOV 6x€VO{JL€VOLS* Kp&ocv, rjXOev* 

els ravro too appevi to OrjXv x €L P^0es /cat TroOei- 
vov y rjSeta 5 fiev oopifj xpcoTos t'Sta) Se Koafioo aoofia- 
tos dyaXXofievov, Spooov /cat fioTavrjs avd-n-Xecov 
KaOapas* aloQ6\xevov 8' otl Kvet /cat 7reirX r qpooTaL, 
494 KoofJLLCos a77£tcrt /cat irpovoeZ Trepl ttjv kvyjolv /cat 
aooTrjpiav tov a7TOT€x0evTOS» d^ioos 8' ovk k'oTiv 
elrreZv Ta Spoofieva, TrXrjv otl ytVerat e/caoTov avTtiov 
ev* too (j^iXooTopyoo, rat? Trpovotats, rat? KapTepiais , 

1 ayafiiov Kal dt/nya/xiou Dohner : dydfiou Kal oipiydfjiov. 

2 Tpnraihias Dohner : rptVatSas". 

3 oxevofjuevoLS Kronenberg : Ao^euo/xeVot?. 

4 rjXdev] GwfjXdev Dohner. 

5 ^Sei'a] lola Jacobs. 

6 ev Emperius : iv. 

a Cf. Life of Ly sander, xxx. (451 a-b) ; Life of Lycurgus, 
xv. 1 (48 c) ; Moralia, 227 f ; Ariston in Stobaeus, vol. iv. 
p. 497 ed. Hense (or von Arnim. Stoic. Vet. Frag., i. p. 89) ; 
Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, ii. 141 (vol. ii. p. 191 ed. 
Stahlin). 
334 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 493-494 

conformity to nature in regard to their marriages. 
In the first place, they do not wait for laws against 
celibacy or late wedlock, as did the citizens of 
Lycurgus a and Solon, b nor fear loss of civil rights be- 
cause of childlessness, nor pursue the honours of the 
ius trium liberorum, as many Romans do when they 
marry and beget children, not that they may have 
heirs, but that they may inherit. In the next place, 
the male does not consort with the female during all 
seasons, for the end and aim is not pleasure, but 
procreation and the begetting of offspring ; therefore 
it is in the season of spring, which has procreative 
breezes d and a temperature suitable to intercourse, 6 
that the female, rendered submissive and desirable, 
comes to consort with the male, exulting, as she 
does, in the pleasing odour of her flesh and the 
peculiar adornment f of her body, and filled with 
dew and clean grass g ; but when she perceives that 
she is pregnant and sated, she modestly retires and 
takes thought for the birth and safety of her offspring. 
But it is impossible to recount the procedure in a 
manner worthy of the subject, except to say that 
each of the pair is as one in their affection for their 
offspring, in their forethought, their endurance, and 

b This is not true of Solon: cf. Stobaeus, vol. iv. p. 521 
ed. Hense. 

c See, for example, Hardy's notes on Pliny, Epistulae, 
x. 2. Plutarch refers to a law of Augustus limiting the 
right of inheritance and the privileges of those who had less 
than three children. 

d Cf. Lucretius, i. 10-20 : reserata viget genitabilis aura 
favoni, and the whole passage. 

e Cf. Aristotle, Historia Animalium, vi. 18 (573 a 27). 

f Cf. Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus. iii. 11. 1 (vol. i. 
p. 242 ed. Stahlin). 

Cf. Moralia, 990 c ff. 

335 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(494) tolls iyKpareiais. dXXd rrjv fikv 1 jjl€Xlttclv rjpL€LS 
ao(f)T]v KaXodjiev /cat vofAt^ofjiev 

£av96v fieAi parjSo pidvav 

koXolk€Vovt€s to rjSv /cat yapyaXt^ov rjfjL&s rrjs yXv- 

KVTTjTOS, T7]V §6 TCOV cLXXojV 7T€pl TCt? Ao^Cta? KOL 

ra? avarpcxfids oo(j)iav /cat Tiyyrp; Trapopcofxev. olov 
evdvs, rj olXkvwv kvovocl rrjv veoTTidv ovvtiOtjol, 
avXXafi^dvovora ras df<dv6as rrjs daXarrias fieXovrjs 
/cat tolvtcls St' dAA^Aajv eyKararrXeKovaa /cat ovv- 
B eipovoa, to pcev cr^/xa irepiayes cos aXtevriKov 
Kvprov /cat TrpojJLrjKes aTrepyd^erai, rfj 8' appLovta 
/cat ttvkvottjtl cru/x^oa^aaa rds aKavOas 2 a/cotjSoj? 

VW€07jK€ TO) kXvGjJLCLTI TOV KVpLCLTOS, COS TV7Tr6fJi€VOV 

rjavx^j kcll 7T7jyvvf.t€vov to 7rlXrj(jLa rrjs e7Ti(j)aveias 
oreyavov yevqrai' yiverai Se oihrjpco /cat Xidoo 
hvohiaiperov . o §' earl Oav/jLaotcorepov, outgo to 
crrd/xa ttjs veoTTias uvpLjJLerpoos ^eVAac/rat 3 rrpos to 
fjueyedog /cat to fxeTpov ttjs olXkvovos, coot€ jJbrjre 
/Jbel^ov dXXo [iryre puKpoTepov ivSveoOcu l^coov, cos oe 
(fraoi, /x^Se OaXaTTTjs^ Trapahi-^eoOai pLrjSe rd 
eAa^tcrra . 
C MaAtcrra S' ol yaXeol ^cooyovovoi jmev eV 6 eavToXs, 
eKpaiveiv 8e Trape^ovoiv ektos /cat vepieoOaL rols 
OKVfJLvloLS, 6 etra rrdXiv aVaAa/x/3dVouat /cat rrepi- 
7TTVOGOVGLV €yKOLpLcb/JL€Va rots crrrAay^ots". 

1 fiev added by Wilamowitz. 

2 ras OLKavOas Reiske : rrjs aKavOrjs. 

3 7T€7rAaCTTat Xy lander : 7T€7r\do0ai. 
4 OaXdrr-qs Pohlenz : OdXarrav. 

5 eV] omitted in most mss. 6 gkv^ivlols] GKVfjivois most mss. 

a Simonides : Frag. 47 ed. Bergk ; 43 ed. Diehl ; 57 ed. 
Edmonds. C/. Moral ia> 41 f, 79 c. 

S36 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 494 

their self-control. Further, though we call the bee 
wise and believe that it 

Makes the yellow honey its care," 
flattering the saccharine quality of its sweetness 
which tickles our palates, yet we overlook the wisdom 
and artifice of the other creatures which is manifested 
in the bearing and the nurture of offspring. As, for 
example, the king-fisher b after conception makes her 
nest by gathering the thorns of the sea-needle and 
interweaving and joining them together, and makes it 
round and oblong in form, like a fisherman's creel; 
and, packing the thorns closely together with the 
most exact jointure and density, submits it to the 
dashing of the waves so that, being gradually beaten 
upon and riveted together, the hard-packed surface 
may become water-proof ; and it does become hard 
to divide with iron or stone. And what is more 
wonderful, the mouth of the nest is so exactly fitted 
to the size and measure of the king-fisher that no 
other creature, either larger or smaller, may enter, 
and, so they say, that it will not admit even the most 
minute drops of sea-water. c 

And sea-dogs d are a very good example, for they 
bring forth their young alive within their bodies, 6 but 
permit their offspring to emerge and forage, and then 
take them back again and enfold them in their vitals 
and let them sleep there. 

6 Cf. Moralia, 983 c-d ; Aelian, De Natura Animalium, 
ix. 17. 

c In Moralia, 983 c (De sollertia animalium), Plutarch 
adds a few details to this description. 

d Aelian, op. cit., ii. 55 ; Moralia, 982 a ; for the kinds of 
yaXeot (a species of shark), see Mair's note on Oppian, 
Halieutica, i. 379 (L.C.L.). 

• That is, they are viviparous. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(491) 'H 8' apKTOSy ayptcorarov Kal aKvOpojirorarov 
Orjpiov, a/JLOpcfxi Kal avapOpa tlkt€l, rfj Se yXwrrrj 
KaOdjTep epyaXelco hiarvTrovoa rovs VLievas 1 ov 8oKel 
yevvav liovov dXXa Kal Srjpuovpyetv to t€KVov. 
'0 S' 'OpLTjpiKos Xecov, 

to pd re vr\ni dyovrt avvavrrjacovrai 2 eV vXrj 
avSpes €7TaKTrjpes, 6 Se' re odeve'C /3Ae/zeatVet, 
ttcLv Se r emoKvvLOV Karoo eA/cerat oaore kclXvtttov, 3 

D dp' 4 olloios ion hiavoovpLevcp rrpos rovs Kvvrjyovs 
GTrevheoOai rrepl rG)v tIkvcov; kciOoXov yap rj Trpos 
rd eyyova <j>iXoaropyia Kal roXjjirjpa rd SetAd 5 rrotei, 
Kal (fyiXoTTova rd padvpta Kal <^etSa>Ad to, yaorpl- 
piapya' toorrep* rj 'O/x^/hkt/ opvis rrpoo<f)epovoa rols 
veoTTols 

LiOLGTaK , €7T€L K€ Xd^TjOL, KaKQJS 0€ T€ Ot 77e'Aei aVTjj' 

rep ydp avrrjs Tpe(j)€L XipLtp rd eyyova, Kal ttjv 
rpo(f>rjv tt)s yaorpos drrropievrjv drroKparel Kal 
rne^et rco or 6 Liar i, litj XdOrj Karairiovoa. 

d>s Se kvojv dp.aXfjcTL rrepl GKvXaKeaoi /3e/3a>c/a 
aVSyo' dyvoLrjaaar' vXdec \x£\.iovev re pLa^eoOai, 

E TOV TTCpl TLOV T6KVCOV (frofiov CO? SeVT€pOV TtpOO- 

Xafiovaa Ov/jlov. 

At Se TrepSiKes drav SiooKoovrai [xerd rcbv tekvojv, 

1 vjjLevas] GKVfivovs Dohner, cf. Theocritus, xi. 41. 

2 to pd re v^tti dyovrt ovvavr-qacovrau Homer : ov pd re vq-ma 
reKva dyovra ovvavrr\aovrai. 

3 KaXvirrov] KaXvTrrojv in some MSS. 

4 ovx after dp y deleted by van Herwerden. 

5 roXfirjpd rd SeiAa Emperius : rd roAfjLrjpd SetAa, 
G Kal before djonep deleted by Stegmann. 

S38 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 494 

And the she-bear , a the most savage and sullen of 
beasts, brings forth her young formless and without 
visible joints, and with her tongue, as with a tool, 
she moulds into shape their skin b ; and thus she is 
thought, not only to bear, but to fashion her cub. 

And in Homer c the lion — 

Whom hunters meet leading his young within 
A wood ; he glares with valour and draws down 
His eye-lids till they hide his eyes — 

does he look like a beast that has any notion of 
making terms with the hunters for his children's 
lives ? For, in general, the love of animals for their 
children makes the timid bold, the lazy energetic, 
the voracious sparing ; like the bird in Homer d which 
brings to her nestlings 

Whatever morsels she can catch, though she 
Fares ill herself, 

for she feeds her young at the cost of her own hunger, 
and, though she has laid hold of food for her belly, she 
withholds it and presses it tightly with her beak, lest 
she gulp it down unawares ; or 

As a bitch bestrides her tender pups, and barks 
At one she does not know, and longs to fight,* 

acquiring, as it were, a second courage in her fear for 
her young. 

And partridges/ when, accompanied by their 

fl Cf. Aelian, op. cit., ii. 19; Aristotle, op. cit., 579 a 24: 
dhidpOpaiTa rd GKeXrj ko.1 tgl 7rAetara rcov [AopltDV. 

b Cf. Aulus Gellius, xvii. 10. 3. c II., xvii. 134-136. 

d II., ix. 324 ; cf. Moralia, 80 a. 

6 Homer, Od., xx. 14-15 ; cf. De Vita et Poesi Homeri, 86 
(Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 375). 

1 Cf. Moralia, 971 c-d ; Aelian, op. cit., iii. 16; Aristotle, 
Historia Animalium, ix. 8 (613 b 17) ; scholia on Aristo- 
phanes, Birds, 768. 

339 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

iitelva jjiev icooi 7Tpo7rerea9at kcli cfrevyeiv, avrals Se 
firj^avwfjievaL irpoaeyeiv tovs drjpevovras iyyvs 
KvAcvSovfJuevai kcll KaraXapLpavofievac [JUKpov 1 vtt€K- 
QiovoiVy elra irdXcv laravrai kclL Trapi^ovoiv iv 
i(f)LKra) rrjs iXniSos iavrds, &XP 1 ®- v °vtco npoKiv- 
ovvevovoat rcbv veorrcov rrjs docfyaXeias 7Tpoaydyu)v- 
rai TToppcx) tovs SiooKovras. 

Ta9 S* aAeKToploas iv tols opL^iaat Ka&* rjpLepav 

€XOpL€V, OV TpOTTOV TCL V€OTTia TT€pl€TTOVGl , TOls fJL€V 

F ivovvai -)(aX(jL)Gai rds irripvyas , rd 8' iirifiaivovra 
roov vqjtcdv Kol TTpooTpeypvTO? TravraxoOev avaoexo- 
fievai jjbera rod yeyrjdos rt 3 kol rrpoa^tXeg €ttl- 
<j>6iyyeo6ai' Kvvas oe koX SpaKovras, 4, av 7Tepl 
avroov (frofirjOcdcri, cfrevyovcuv , av Se rrepl tcov re- 
kvoov, apLvvovTCiL Kol hiapuaxovrai rrapa ovvafxiv. 

EtVa Tdvr olofjieda ra 5 rrddrj tovtols iveipyd- 
adai rr]v (f)V(jtv dXeKTopiocov eTTiyovrjs Kai kvvoov 
kcli dpKTtov Trpovoovaav, aXX oi>x rjjjL&s Svgcottov- 
oav kclI rirpoooKovoav imXoyi^ofjLevovs ore ravra 
495 TrapaSetyfiara rots iiropLevois, rols 8' avaXyrjrois 
oveiSrj TrepUori rrjs aTraOeias, hi <hv KarrjyopovaL 
rrjs avdpco7TLvr)s cfivoeoos {jlovtjs firj rrpoiKa to arep- 
yeiv ixovorjs jU/ryS' iiTiOTa[Livy]s (fiiXelv dvev xP^ag; 
davfjid^erai yap iv rols Oedrpois 6 enrcov, 

jjLtoOov yap dvOpco7TO)v ris avOpamov (fiiXel; 

1 fJLLKpOV CappS t fJUKpOV. 

2 TTpooTpixovTa Dohner ; TTpooiprrovra Wyttenbach : irpoa- 
ipxovrai. 3 rt Reiske: rj, 

4 Kvvas 8e kol hpaKovras Xylander : Kvveas Se kol hpaKovrias. 

5 ra added by Dohner. 

a Cf. Aristotle, op, cit., ix. 8 (613 b 15) ; Anthologia Pala- 
tina, ix. 95. 
340 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 494-195 

young, they are being pursued, allow the fledglings to 
fly ahead and attempt to escape, and contrive to fix 
the hunter's attention on themselves by wheeling 
close and, when they are almost captured, fly off and 
away, then again remain at rest and place themselves 
within the reach of the hunter's hope, until, by so 
exposing themselves to danger for their nestlings' 
safety, they have led on the hunters to a considerable 
distance. 

And we have before our eyes every day the manner 
in which hens a care for their brood, drooping their 
wings for some to creep under, and receiving with 
joyous and affectionate clucks others that mount 
upon their backs or run up to them from every di- 
rection ; and though they flee from dogs and snakes 
if they are frightened only for themselves, if their 
fright is for their children, they stand their ground 
and fight it out beyond their strength. 

Are we, then, to believe that Nature has implanted 
these emotions in these creatures because she is 
solicitous for the offspring of hens and dogs and bears, 
and not, rather, because she is striving to make us 
ashamed and to wound us, when we reflect that these 
instances are examples to those of us who would follow 
the lead of Nature, but to those who are callous, as 
rebukes for their insensibility, by citing which they 6 
disparage human nature as being the only kind that 
has no disinterested affection and that does not know 
how to love without prospect of gain ? In our theatres, 
indeed, people applaud the verse of the poet who 
said, c 

What man will love his fellow-man for pay ? 

b i.e. the philosophers whose views Plutarch is criticizing. 
c Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 450, ades. 218. 
vol. vi M 341 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(495) KOLITOI 1 KCLT* ' E77 LKOVpOV 6 TTCLTrjp TOV vlov y rf 
firjT7]p TO TZKVOVy ol TTOLlSeS TOV$ T€k6vTCLS' dAA' €6 

Xoyov yivoiro rots diqpiois advents, /cat tovto tls 

els kolvov dearpov ovvayaytbv Ittttovs /cat /3oa? /cat 

kvvcls /cat opviOas dvacfrOeygcuTo pLeraypoapag, a*? 

ovre Kvves inl fjuaOco a/cuAa/ca? <f>i\ov<nv ov9* 

B timoi irdiXovs ovt opviOes veorrovs aAAa TrpoiKa /cat 
(frvGiKOJs" iTrLyva>cr9r)G€TaL tols airdvTCxJV irddeoiv 
a>? €V /cat dArjdcos Aeyofievov. ala^pov yap, a> Zeu, 
ret? Orjplwv yevioeis /cat Aortas' /cat doolvas /cat 
T€Kvarpo(f)iag (fivcnv elvai /cat ^apiv, ra? 8' dvOpa)- 
ttcov Sdveia /cat puoOovs /cat appafioovas irrl ^petat? 
StSojU,eVous\ 

3. 'AAA' our' dXrjOrjs 6 Aoyos ovt d^to? 3 aKovecv. 
rj ydp envois, djorrep ev c/)Vtols dypiois, olov oivdv- 
Oais eptveols kotlvois, ap^a? drreiTTOVs /cat aTeAe?? 
rjfiepajv KaprrcDV htepvaiv* ovrco toTs puev aAdyots* 
to TTpos ra eyyova (j^iXooTopyov dreAes 1 /cat ou 

C Stap/ce? 77^0? StKcuoovvrjv ovSe ttjs ^pcta? Troppco- 
Tepto TTpoepxo^evov eScykev dvdpooirov Se, Aoyt/coi> 

/Cat 77oAtTt/COV ^CpOV, €7TL SiKTjV /Cat VOJJLOV elodyOVOCL 

/cat #edn> rt/xa? /cat 7roAea>v ISpvoeis /cat (f>cAo(f)po- 
ovvrjv, yevvala /cat /caAd /cat (fyepeKapira tovtcov 
G7T€pfJLaTa 7rap€ox € T V V irpos Ta tyyova x^P lv KCLi 
dydirr^oiv, aKoAovdovoav 5 rat? irpcoTais ap^afe* 
aurat S' T^crav ev Tat? ra>i> aa>/xdra>v /caracr/cevats'. 
77-avra^ou /xev ydp 77 envois d/cpt/3r)9 /cat ^tAdre^i/os' 6 

1 kcutoi added by Pohlenz. 2 17 added by Reiske. 

3 af to? Reiske : af tov. 4 iv€(f>voev Reiske : ctvat <j>vcnv. 

5 d/coAoufloucrav Wilamowitz: aKoXovOovoa. 
6 </>iA6t€xvos Xylander : <j>i\6t€kvos» 

342 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 495 

And yet, according to Epicurus, a it is for pay that 
a father loves his son, a mother her child, children 
their parents ; but if beasts could come to understand 
speech and someone should bring together to a 
common theatre horses and cows and dogs and birds 
and should revise this speech and say, " Dogs do not 
love their pups, nor horses their colts, nor birds their 
nestlings, for pay, but gratuitously and naturally," it 
would be recognized by the emotions of them all that 
this was well and truly spoken. For it is shameful — 
great Heaven ! — that the begetting and the pains of 
travail and the nurture of beasts should be " Nature " 
and " a free gift," but that those of men should be 
loans and wages and caution-money, all given on 
condition of a return ! & 

3. But such a statement is neither true nor worth 
the hearing. For just as in uncultivated plants, 
such as wild vines and figs and olives, Nature has 
implanted the principles, though crude and imperfect, 
of cultivated fruits, so on irrational animals she has 
bestowed a love of offspring, though imperfect and 
insufficient as regards the sense of justice and one 
which does not advance beyond utility ; but in the 
case of man, a rational and social animal, Nature, by 
introducing him to a conception of justice and law and 
to the worship of the gods and to the founding of cities 
and to human kindness, has furnished noble and beauti- 
ful and fruitful seeds of all these in the joy we have 
in our children and our love of them, emotions which 
accompany their first beginnings ; and these qualities 
are found in the very constitution of their bodies. For 
although Nature is everywhere exact and workman- 

a Usener, Epicurea, p. 320, Frag. 527. 
b Cf. 496 c, infra. 

343 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(495) /cat dveXALTrrjs /cat airepiTros / " ovhiv,* ojs ecfrrjoev 

'EipaOlCTTpaTOS, " eXOVGOL pCDTTLKOv"' TCt §6 TTC/H T^V 

yeWatv a^icos ovk ecrriv elrrelv ovo* evTrperres lows 
D Xtav aKpifichs rwv dnopprjrwv ifx^veadat 2 roZs 

OVOpLOLGL KOLL ToZs prjpLOLOLV, dAA' drTOK€LpL€VWV KCLL 

KCKpvpLpevwv iirLvoeZv rrjv irpos to yevvdv kcll 

AoX€V€g9cLL TWV JJLOpLOJV €K€LVOJV €V<f)VLaV. dpK€L S' 

7] rod yaXcLKTOs ipyaoia /cat OLKovopbla rrjv rrpovoLav 
avrrjs ipLcfrrjvaL ko1 irrLpLeXeLav . rod yap at/xaros' 
ogov 7T€pLTra>fia rfjs xpeias iv tolls yvvaL^l St' 
djjL^Xvrrjra koll pLLKporrjra rod rrvevpLaros em- 
noXd^ov ipLirXavdraL koll fiapvveL, rov ptev dXXov 
Xpdvov eWlgtoll koI pL€pL€XerrjK€V epLpitfvoLS rjpiepwv 
TrepLoSoLS ox^rovg /cat iropovs avrw rfjs (frvaews 
dvoLUTopLovor]$ drrox^ofievov to [xev dXXo owpLa 
E kov(/)l%€lv /cat KaOaipeLV, rrjv S' vorepav olov dporw 3 
/cat oiroptp yfjv* opywoav iv KdLpw rrapix^LV. orav 
8e rrjv yovrjv dvaXdflrj TrpooTreaovaav 5 rj varepa /cat 
7T€pLGT€L r Xri i pLC^woews yevopbivrjs (" 6 yap 6fA(f)OLXds 

TTptOTOV iv pLTjTprjOLV," W9 (f)7]GL At] flOKpLTOS, " dy- 

KvprjfioXLOV odXou /cat rrXdvrjs ipL^veraL, rreZapLa /cat 
kXtjplol " raj yevvcopievoj 6 Kaprrw /cat fieXXovrt) tovs 
pcev 7 ipLpLTjvovs /cat Kadapoiovs e/cAetcrev ox^rovs rj 

1 aTripirros Paton : aTTCpLTpLrjTOs. 

2 €fjL(/>v€a6aL Pohlenz : i(f>' a <f>v€G0aL or e<£a7rrecr#ai. 

3 dporo) Reiske : apoTpco. 

4 eV <j>vTols after yrjv deleted by Pohlenz (ipu^vTcos van 
Herwerden). 

6 7TpoG7T€aovoav Wyttenbach : irpooTreoovoa. 

6 y€vvojix4vco Xylander : yevopieva). 

7 tovs fjiev Basel ed., confirmed by mss. : /cat tovs ju-ev. 

344 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 495 

like with no deficiency or superfluity, " and has," as 
Erasistratus a said, " no trumpery about her " ; yet 
when it comes to the processes of procreation, it is 
impossible to describe them in a fitting manner, and 
perhaps it would not be decent to fix our attention 
too precisely upon the names and designations of 
these forbidden topics, but it is proper that we should 
apprehend the admirable adaptation of those hidden 
and concealed parts to the functions of procreation 
and bringing to birth. However, the production b and 
administering of milk is sufficient proof of Nature's 
foresight and care. For in women the amount of 
blood exceeds the use for it because of the sluggish- 
ness and paucity of their breath and, coming to the 
surface, wanders at large and burdens them ; at other 
times it is Nature's custom and care to discharge the 
blood at monthly periods by opening canals and 
channels for it, to lighten and cleanse the rest of 
the body and in season to render the womb fertile 
ground for ploughing, as it were, and sowing. But 
when the womb receives the seed as it encounters it 
and enfolds it and it has taken root c there (" for the 
umbilical cord grows at first in the womb," as 
Democritus d says, " as an anchorage against the 
swell and drift, a cable and vine " for the fruit now 
conceived that is to be), Nature shuts the monthly 

a A famous physician at the court of Scleucus I and later 
at Alexandria ; cf. Life of Demetrius, xxxviii. (907 a ff.). 

6 Cf. Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus, i. 39 (vol. i. 
p. 113 ed. Stahlin) ; Galen, vol. iv. p. 176 ed. Kiihn. 

c Cf. Aristotle, 745 b 25 : ol^ltjolv evdvs olov pi^av tou 
6fi<f)aX6v els rrjv vorepav, and 493 a 18: {rrjs yaorpos) pit,a 
6fi(f)aX6s. 

d Frag. B 148, Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker'% ii. p. 171 ; cf. 
Moralia, 317 a. 

345 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(jyvGLSy rod S' alfiaros avTiAafi^avofievrj (f)epoixevov 
rpocf)fj xpfjrai /cat KardpSei to fipecjyos rjSrj gvvigtol- 
fjievov /cat StaTrAaTTOfJievov , d\pi ov tovs Trpoo- 
TjKovras dpcO/JLOvs rfj evTos av^rjcrei KvrjOev 1 eTepas 
F avarpocjifjs /cat ^copa? Serjrai. tot ovv to at/za 
iravTos epLfxeAeoTepov (f)VTOvpyov /cat o^eTiqyov npos 
iripav a</>' eTepas eKTpeirovcTa koI (JLeTaAapiftdvovoa 
Xpelav, e\ei rrapeaKevaopLevas olov eyyeiovs 2 tivcls 3 
Kprjvas vdpLCLTOS emppeovTOS, ovk dpycos ouS' aVa- 
496 Ou>s v7TOO€)(oiJL€vas aAAa /cat TTvev\xaTOs rjiricp 9ep- 
[jiOTrjTL /cat fjbaXaKjj OtjAvttjti €K7T€i/jcu /cat Ae&Vat /cat 
fieTafjaAeiv hwapuevas' TOiavTrjv yap 6 pLaoTos €^et 
evro9 4 SiddeGtv /cat Kpacrcv. e/cpoat Se tov ydAaKTOs 
ovk elorlv ovSe Kpovvol [ledievTes ddpooos, els $e 
aap/ca 7Ti8aKcb8r] /cat iropois aTpepua AeTTTols SltjOov- 
gclv dTToAr]ya)v 3 evpceves tco tov vtjttlov gto/jlolti /cat 
7TpoG(f)iAes ifjavoai /cat rrepiAafielv evoiocooi Tapbelov. 
'AAAa tovtcov ye toov tooovtcxjv eirl ttjv yeveaiv 
epyaAeiojv /cat tolovtojv oLKovofjucov /cat <f>iAoTLfi(as 
/cat irpovoLas ovhev r\v ocf>eAos, el (jltj to <f)iA6oTopyov 
rj envois /cat KrjSejJLOvLKov eveipydoaTO rat? re- 
Kovaais. 

B ov {lev ydp ri ttov Iotiv ot^vpcoTepov dvSpos 
irdvTOJV oooa Te yalav em Trvetei 5 re /cat epirer 

tovt ov iftevSeTOU Aeycov errl vtjttlov /cat 6 dpTiyevovs. 

1 Kvrjdev Xylander : Kiv-qOkv. 

2 eyyetovs] evveas in some mss. ; devdovs Pohlenz. 

rivds Reiske : rj rivas. * evros e^ci Benseler. 

5 €771 TTV€L€L Homd' '. €7n7TV€L€L. 

6 Kai] Dohner would delete. 
346 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 495-496 

canals of purification and, taking the drifting blood, 
uses it for nourishment and irrigates a the embryo, 6 
which already is beginning to be formed and shaped, 
until, having been carried the number of months 
proper to its growth within the womb, it needs other 
nourishment and abiding-place. At that time, then, 
Nature, more carefully than any gardener or irrigator, 
turns and changes the blood from one use to another 
and has in readiness subterranean springs, as it were, 
of a fresh-flowing stream ; and the springs receive 
the blood in no perfunctory or unemotional manner, 
but are even able, by the gentle heat and soft 
womanliness of respiration, to digest, mollify, and 
change it ; for such a disposition and temper does the 
breast have within it. Yet there are no outflowing 
streams of milk nor spouts which discharge it all 
at once, c but the breast terminates in flesh that 
is full of springs and can filter the milk gently 
through minute passage-ways ; and it thus gives a 
store of food that is comfortable for the infant's 
mouth and pleasant for it to touch and to grasp. 

But there would be no benefit in these many kinds 
of equipment for procreation, or in such ways and 
means, such zeal and forethought, if Nature had not 
implanted in mothers affection and care for their 
offspring. 

There is nothing more wretched than a man, d 
Of all that breathes and creeps upon the earth — 

the poet tells no falsehood if it is about a new-born 

° Cf. Celsus, vii. 7. 17. 

b See Aristotle, 745 b 28 : Bia tovtov (rov 6fji(j>aXoO) Xafx^dvei 
Tpo<f>r)v aljiar wqv. 

c Cf. Life of Aemilius Paulus, xiv. (262 b-d). 
d Homer, II. , xvii. 446-447 ; cf. 500 b, infra. 

347 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(496) ovSev yap iariv ovrcog areXes ouS' drropov ov$e 
yvfxvov ouS' dfJiop(f)ov ovSe paapov cog dvOpcorrog 
iv y ovals 6pd)jJL€vos' cp fjLovqj (T^eSov ovSe Kadapav 
eSojKev elg cpcog 686v rj cf>vcng, aAA* a?/xan 7T€(f)vp- 
fievog Kal XvOpov TTepiirXecog Kal cfcovevofievcp 
jxaXXov rj yevvcopievcp eoiKcog ov8evog itmv difjaodai 
Kal dveXeoOai Kal dorrdoaoOai Kal irepiXajieZv fj 
rod tbvaei cpiXovvrog . 8lo tcov [lev dXXcov ^cocov vtto 
C ttjv yaorepa ra ovOara ^aAa, 1 rat? 8e yvvai^lv dva> 
yeyovaoiv rrepl to arepvov ev £cf>iKTCp rod cf>iXrjoai 
Kal 7TepmTi)t;ai Kal KaTacrndoaoQai to vtjttlov, cos 
tov T€K€iv Kal dpeifjat TeXog ov xpeiav aAAa c\>iXlav 
€xovtos. 

4. 'Errl Tovg rraXaiovg dvdyaye tov Xoyov, tov 
TaZg jiev T€K€iv TipcoTaig, roZg 8' ISelv avveBrj 

TLKTOfJLeVOV fSpefioS' OVT€ VOjJLOg TjV €K€LVOtg T€KVO~ 
TpO(j)€lV TTpOOTaTTLOV OVT€ 7TpOo8oKia ^a/HT09 Tj 

Tpocheicov ' irrl veoig havei^opLevaiv." x a ^ €7T ^ Se 
jjbdXXov €i7TOi[A av elvai Kal [ivrjoLKaKovg Tag 
T€Kovoa$ toIs fipecbecTL, klvSvvcov t€ pueydXcov Kal 
ttovcov avraZg yuvofjievcov 

D cbg §' OTav co8ivovoav exT] fteXog 6£v yvvacKa, 
SpifAV, to T€ TTpo'CacTL 2 jnoyooroKOi JLlXelOvtaL, 
"Wprjs OvyaTepes, TTiKpag co8Zvag e^ouo-at* 

TavT ovx "OfJbrjpov at yvvaZKeg aAA' ' fjtrjp [8a 
ypdi/jac XeyovGL T€KOvaav rj TiKTOvaav in Kal to 

1 tovs /JLOLcrrovs after x a ^£ deleted by van Herwerden. 
2 TTpo'Caai] Trpoi^LGi Homer. 

a But it is with reference to the dead Patroclus that Zeus 
speaks these lines. 

b Cf. Moralia, 758 a. 

c Plato, Laws, 717 c ; c/. 479 f, supra. 
348 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 496 

babe that he speaks. a For there is nothing so imper- 
fect, so helpless, so naked, so shapeless, so foul, as 
man observed at birth, to whom alone, one might 
almost say, Nature has given not even a clean passage 
to the light b ; but, defiled with blood and covered 
with filth and resembling more one just slain than one 
just born, he is an object for none to touch or lift up 
or kiss or embrace except for someone who loves with 
a natural affection. Therefore, while the other animals 
have their dugs hanging loose beneath the belly, in 
women they grow above on the breast where mothers 
can kiss and embrace and fondle the infant, the 
inference being that the end and aim of bearing and 
rearing a child is not utility, but affection. 

4. Carry the discussion back to primitive mankind, 
to those whose women were the first to bear, and 
whose men were the first to see a child born ; they had 
neither any law which bade them rear their children, 
nor any expectation of gratitude or of receiving 
the wages of maintenance " lent to their children 
when they were young." c Nay, I should rather be 
inclined to affirm that these mothers were hostile and 
malicious toward their children, since great dangers 
and travail had come to them from child-birth : 

As when a sharp pang pierces a woman in labour, 
A pang which the Eileithyiae of child-bed send, 
The daughters of Hera, who bring the bitter pangs— 

these lines, women tell us, were written, not by 
Homer/ but by an Homerid* after child-birth or 

(1 II. , xi. 269-271. 

* The ancients used the term, not of women, but of a class 
of male bards. But Plutarch choses to treat the word as a 
feminine noun, anticipating Samuel Butler's Authoress of the 
Odyssey. 

vol. vi m 2 349 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(436) vvyfia 1 rrjs dXyr]§6vos 6/jlov inKpdv /cat 6£v yivo- 
fievov iv toZs GirXdyxyois k'xovoav. dAAd to (f)vacL 

(f)l\6GTOpyOV €KajJL7TT€ 2 KCLl T)y€V*' €TL OepjJLTJ KCLL 

8iaAyr]s /cat KpaSacvofievq rols ttovois ouv vnepefir] 

TO VTjTTLOV Ol)S' €(f)Vy€V, dAA' €7T€OTpd(j)rj KCli 7TpOO~ 

€fi€LOLaoe /cat dVet'Aero /cat rjarrdoaTO, pLrjSev rjSv 
E Kap7TovjJL€vr) fjLt]8e xP 7 l ai l JL0V a ^ Ittittovoos /cat 
Ta\ai7T(jjpcx)s*' dvaSexofjievr], rtov orrapydvajv 

ipeiTTLOLS 

ddXirovoa /cat ifrrjxpvoa* /cat ttovcq ttovov 
e/c vvktos dXXdooovoa rov fieO' 6 rjpLepav. 

tivcov tclvtcl puoOcov rj xpeitov e/cetvot?; dAA' ovSe 
rots vvv at yap eXirLoes dSrjXot /cat fxaKpaL dp,- 
ttcAcuv' 7 lorjpL€pLa$ iapivrjs aKaipag pL€T07TO)pLvf)s 
irpvyrjae, irvpov eorreipe Svopievrjs UXetdSog etr' 
dvareXXovorjs Oepi^ei, fides koI Ittttol /cat dpvcOe? 
erotjita tlktovglv iirl rds ^petas" dvdpdjrrov 8' rj piev 
€KTpocf)rj ttoXvttovos rj 8' av^rjois fipaSela, ttjs 8' 
dperfjs /xa/cpdv 8 ovarjg 7T po air o 9 vtjokovolv ol 7rAet- 
F gtol narepes. ovk eVetSe ttjv HaXapuva Neo/cA?]? 
ttjv OepuoTOKXeovs ouSe rov Eupu/zeSovra MtA- 
TidSrjs rov Kt/xa)vo9, ouS' rJKovae HepLKiXeovs EdV- 
Oittttos SrjparjyopovvTos ovS* 'ApcoTCOv nAdTa^os" 

(f)iXoOO(j)OVVT09, OuS' E?5pt77tSoU /Cat 2o(/>0/cA60L>S' 

vikcls ol Traripes eyvcoaav ipeXXc^ovrcov /cat crt>A- 

1 vvyfj,a Reiske : \iiy\xa. 

2 €Ka[i7TT€ koll rjyev] eXafiifte Kal rj fikv Patzig. 

3 VY €V ] VYX €V Bernardakis. 

4 €7tl7t6vo)S Kal raXaiTTOjpcos] ert ttovovs Kal TaXanraiplas 
Dohner. 

5 iprjxovoa Wilamowitz : tpvxovaa. 6 /Lie0' Cobet : kol9\ 
7 d/x7reAa>/ Kronenberg, c/. 524 a, Diodorus, iv. 31. 7: 

dfXTrcXov. 8 fjLCLKpav Reiske : jxaKpas. 

350 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 496 

while she was still in the throes of it and had the 
pain of travail, alike bitter and sharp, actually present 
in her entrails. But even then the affection for off- 
spring implanted by Nature would bend and lead the 
mother : still hot and suffering and shaken with her 
pangs, she did not neglect or avoid her child, but 
turned to it and smiled at it and took it up and kissed 
it, though she reaped nothing sweet or profitable 
therefrom, but received it with pain and suffering, 
and " with tatters " of sw r addling-clothes 

Thus warming and caressing it, both night 
And day she passes in alternate toil. 

For what pay or advantage were these services per- 
formed by those ancient parents ? Nor is there 
any for those of our day, since their expectations 
are uncertain and far off. He that plants a vineyard 
in the vernal equinox gathers the grapes in the au- 
tumnal ; he that sows wheat when the Pleiades set 
reaps it when they rise ; cattle and horses and 
birds bring forth young at once ready for use ; 
but as for man, his rearing is full of trouble, his 
growth is slow, his attainment of excellence is far 
distant and most fathers die before it comes. Neocles 
did not live to see the Salamis of Themistocles 
nor Miltiades the Eurymedon of Cimon ; nor did 
Xanthippus ever hear Pericles harangue the people, 
nor did Ariston hear Plato expound philosophy ; 
nor did the fathers of Euripides and Sophocles come 
to know their sons' victories ; they but heard them 

° From the Niobe of an unknown poet {cf. Moralia, 691 d), 
attributed by Valckenaer to Sophocles, and recently by A. 
Lesky (Wien. Stud., Hi. 7 ; cf. also Pearson, Fragments of 
Sophocles, vol. ii. p. 98), to Aeschylus. 

351 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Aafi lI^ovtcdv rjKpocovTO Kal kcjojjlovs Kal ttotovs Kal 

epcoras avrcov ota veoi 1 TrX^fifjieXovvTCDV eTrelSov 

497 coot eiraiveloQai Kal fjLvrjfjLoveveoOai rod JLvtjvov 

TOVTO fJLOVOV Sv 2 €ypOLlfj€V* 

TJ SeOST T) Xv7T7] 7TOLS TTaTol TxdvTa ^pOVOV '. 

aAA' ofjLcos ov rravovrai 7rcu§as rpe^ovreSy pLaXiora 
S' ol ttgllSouv rJKiora Seofievoi. yeXolov yap, ei rts* 
olerai tov$ TrXovaiovs dveiv Kal yaipeiv yevofievojv 
avrois tIkvojv, otl tovs Opei/jovrag e^ovoi Kal tovs 
ddifjovras- el [jltj vrj Ala KXrjpovofiojv airopia iraloas 
rpecfrovaiv ov ydp eariv evpelv ouS' eniTvyeiv rod 
raXXorpta jSouAo/xeVou Xapifidveiv. 

ov* ifrdfjifAOs ?} Kovis rj nrepd iroiKiXoOpooov olajvcbv 
roooov av ^evaiT 5 apiOpiov 

0009 eorlv 6 tow kXtjpovojjlovvtojv. 

Aavaos 6 7T€vrr]Kovra Ovyarepojv TTariqp, 

B el S' areKVOs rjv, TrXelovas av et^e KXrjpovopLovvras, 
Kal oi>x ofiOLovs* ol fjiev yap 7rai8es x^P iV ovSepblav 
eypvoiv ouS' eveKa rovrov Oeparrevovoiv ov8e tljjlcjo- 
oiv, d>s 6(f>eiXr] fia 7 top K.Xrjpov e/cSe^Ojiteyor tojv S' 

1 ota vioi Bernardakis : ol dvOpconou 2 (Lv Patzig : cbs. 

3 eypaipev Reiske : irrdypai/jev, 

4 ov added by Patzig from Mor., 1067 d. 

5 av xeuatr' Patzig from Mor. % 1067 d : d^Aeurat. 

6 ofjioiovs H. Richards and Hartman : ojaolcos. 

7 6<f>€iAr)iia] 6<t>Xr)fj,a Patzig after Dohner. 

352 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 496-497 

lisping and learning to speak and witnessed their 
re veilings and drinking-bouts and love-affairs, as they 
indulged in such follies as young men commit ; so 
that of all Evenus a wrote the only line that is 
praised or remembered is 

For fathers a child is always fear or pain. 

Yet none the less fathers do not cease rearing children 
and, most of all, those who least need them. For it is 
ridiculous if anyone thinks that the rich sacrifice and 
rejoice when sons are born to them because they will 
have someone to support them and bury them — unless, 
by Heaven, it is for lack of heirs that they bring 
up children, since it is impossible to find or happen 
upon anyone willing to accept another's property ! 

Not sand or dust or feathers of birds of varied note 
Could heap up so great a number b 

as is the number of those seeking inheritances. 

The sire of fifty daughters,** Danaiis ; 

but if he had been childless, he would have had more 
heirs, and heirs unlike his own. For sons feel no 
gratitude, nor, for the sake of inheriting, do they pay 
court or show honour, knowing that they receive the 
inheritance as their due. But you hear the words of 

° Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec, ii. p. 270 ; Edmonds, Elegy and 
Iambus* i. p. 472. 

b An anonymous fragment ; cf. Moralia, 1067 d ; Diehl, 
Anthologia Lyrica, ii. p. 162 ; Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, iii. 
p. 452. 

c For the plague of inheritance-seekers at Rome, see 
Roman Satire passim, especially Horace, Satires, ii. 5. 

d From the Archelaus of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. Grace. 
Frag. 2 , p. 427, Frag. 228. 1 ; cf. Moralia, 837 e. 

S53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(497) dXXorpicov irepl rov dreKvov (frojvds a/covet? rats 

KaijllKCLlS €K€LVai9 OfJLOlOLS, 

w Afjfjie, Xovoai 1 irpcorov eKSiKaoag fiiav, 
ivdov, p6(f>7]Gov, evrpay\ e^e 1 rpicofioXov. 

to 8' V7to rov JZvpLTrlSov Xeyopievov, 

TOL ^p^pLar* dvOpCOTTOLGLV evpioKeiv (j)L\ovs 
Svvol/jllv re rrXeiorr]v rcov iv dvdpdnrois £X €LV > 
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ol ttXovolol SeiTTVL^ovacv, ol rjye/Jioves depairzvovaiv, 

OL p7)TOp€S fJLOVOLS TOVTOLS 7TpOLKa OVV7]yopOVOlV, 

laxvpov ion ttXovolos ayvoovpevov 
e^ojv KXrjpovofAOV. 

rroXXovs yovv 7roXv(f)iXovs /cat TroXvTLfJirjTOvg ovras 
ev Traihiov yevofievov d(f)iXovs /cat dhvvdrovs i7rolrj~ 
aev. 66 €V ovSe rrpos Svvafjuv ovSev ionv oo^iXijiov 
diro rcov T€Kvojv, dXXd rrjs <j)voeojs to 7t6lv Kpdros 
ovx rjrrov iv dvOpojiTOis Tj 6rj plots* 

5. Ei^afMavpovrai yo\p 2 koI ravra /cat ttoXXcl rcov 
dXXojv vtto rrjs /ca/cta?, tbcrnep Xox^S rj/Jbepoig 
07T€ppLaoi Trapaf$XaoTavovor]s . rj fJirjS' iavrov cfyvaei 
D crrepyeiv rov dvQpamov XeycofAev* on 7roXXol 
o^drrovoiv iavrovs /cat KaraKprjfjLVL^ovaiv ; 6 8' 
Oloforovs 

rjpacrae Trepovats* fiXicjiapa' (/>otVtat 8' 6/jlov 

yXrjvou yivei ereyyov 

1 w A^/ie, Xovoai and c^e Iunius from Aristophanes : w$r) 
fieXovaat and e^et. 2 Y&pi $* Amyot. 

3 Xeycofiev Meziriacus : XtyojjLev. 

4 TJpaaore irepovais Housman : rjpaoo' eTraipoov with the MSS. 
of Sophocles (all mss. of Plutarch but one omit some part of 
these lines). 

S54< 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 497 

strangers clustering around the childless man, like 
those famous verses of the comic poet, a 

O Demos, judge one case, then to your bath ; 
Gorge, guzzle, stuff, and take three obols' pay. 

And the remark of Euripides, 6 

Money it is that finds out friends for men 
And holds the greatest power among mankind, 

is not a simple and general truth, but applies to the 
childless : it is these whom rich men feast, whom 
great men court, for these alone do advocates plead 
gratis. 

A rich man with an unknown heir's a power. 

Many, at any rate, who had many friends and much 
honour, the birth of one child has made friendless 
and powerless. Therefore not even toward the 
acquisition of power is there any aid to be derived 
from children, but the whole force of Nature exists 
no less in man than in beasts. d 

5. Now both this and many other excellences are 
obscured by vice, as a thicket springs up beside seeds 
planted in a garden. Or are we to say that man has 
no natural love for himself just because many men 
cut their throats or hurl themselves from precipices ? 
And Oedipus e 

Smote his eyes with a brooch and at each blow 
The bloody eye-balls wet his beard ; 

Aristophanes, Knights, 50-51. 

b Phoenissae, 439-440 ; but the first line is borrowed from 
Sophocles, Frag. 85. 1 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag, 2 , p. 148). 

c Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 484, ades. 404. 

d This closes Plutarch's argument that man does not derive 
his love of offspring from any other source than do the brute 
beasts. 

e Sophocles, Oedipus Rex, 1276-1277. 

355 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(497) 'Hy^crta? Se 1 ScaXeyopievog ttoXXovs eneiGev arro- 
Kapreprjaai tlqv aKpocopievoov. 

TToXXal [JLOpcfxil TCOV SoUjJLOVLCOV 

ravra 8' iarlv axjnep c/cetya voa^/xara /cat ttolOt] 
fax^s tov Kara <f)Voiv e^iardvra 2 tov avOpcorrov, cos 
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SeXcfyaKiov tj kvcov SiaaTTapd^r) GKvXaKiov, dOvpiovai 
/cat rapdrrovrat /cat deois diroTpOTraia 9vovgl /cat 
repas vojjll^ovglv, cos iraoi Kara </>uatv 3 orepyew rd 
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E [JLrjv aAA' oouTTep iv tols jLteraAAots" ttoWtj GvpnTe^vp- 
fievov yfj /cat KaraKexooafievov ojjloos oiaorLXfiei to 

XpVGlOVy OVTOOS Tj (f)VGLS iv avTols tols TjfJiapTrjfJie- 

vols tjOcgl /cat rrddeGiv e/c^atVet to irpos ra eyyova 
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SovXo7Tp€7T7J /Cat aVatScUTa /Cat TCOV KaXoOV TTOVTCOV 

ivSea yevrjTac ttjv yap irevlav ea^arov rjyovfJLevoi 

KaKOV OVX V7TO/JL€VOVGL [JL€TaSoVVaL T6KVOLS COGTT€p 

tlvos ^aAe770L» /cat pueyaXov voGrjjJLaTOS* . . . 

1 8e added by Diibner. 

2 i^ioravra] i^iordvros most MSS. 
3 Kara <f>vGLv Reiske : kolI Kara (/ecu irapd in most mss.) (f>vaiv. 

a Philosopher of Cyrene, early third century b.c. Cf. 
Cicero, Tusc. Disp., i. 34. 83 ; Valerius Maximus, viii. 9, 
Ext. 3. 



356 



ON AFFECTION FOR OFFSPRING, 497 

and Hegesias a by the eloquence of his reasoning 
persuaded many of his hearers to starve themselves 
to death. 

In many a guise the gods appear. 6 
But these are like those diseases and morbid 
states of the soul which drive men from their natural 
condition, as they themselves testify against them- 
selves. For if a sow tears to pieces her suckling pig, 
or a bitch her puppy, men grow despondent and 
disturbed and offer to the gods sacrifices to avert the 
evil, and consider it a portent on the ground that 
Nature prescribes to all creatures that they should 
love and rear their offspring, not destroy them. 
Moreover, as in mines the gold, though mingled and 
covered with much earth, yet gleams through, so 
Nature, even in characters and passions which are 
themselves perverted, reveals their love for their off- 
spring. For when poor men do not rear their children 
it is because they fear that if they are educated less 
well than is befitting c they will become servile 
and boorish and destitute of all the virtues ; since 
they consider poverty the worst of evils, they 
cannot endure to let their children share it with 
them, as though it were a kind of disease, serious 
and grievous. . . . 

b From the stock lines at the end of the Alcestis, Andro- 

mache, Helen, and Bacchae of Euripides ; cf. Moralia, 58 a. 

c Contrast Moralia, 8 e on the education of poor children. 



351 



WHETHER VICE BE SUFFICIENT 

TO CAUSE UNHAPPINESS 

(AN VITIOSITAS AD INFELICITATEM 
SUFFICIAT) 



INTRODUCTION 

Again we have a fragment, mutilated at the beginning 
and the end. a The attribution to Plutarch has been 
questioned by Dubner, Hense, & Naber, and Hart- 
man, but on insufficient grounds, which have, in the 
main, been explained away by Siefert, d who has also 
analysed the structure of the work and the Plu- 
tarchean parallels. Wilamowitz, e on the other hand, 
believed this and the following fragment to be scraps 
of the same dialogue : I follow Pohlenz in rejecting 
this view/ 

The text is not good, and the work is not mentioned 
in the Lamprias catalogue. 

° There may, in addition, be a lacuna between chapters 
1 and 2. 

b Teletea, p. lxxxix., note. 

c De Plutarcho, pp. 249-253. 

d Comment at iones Ienenses, 1896, pp. 110-119. 

e Hermes, xl. 161-165. 

f Similarly Usener, Fleckeisens Jahrb., cxxxix. 381, be- 
lieved this treatise to be a fragment of the work mentioned in 
the Lamprias catalogue as No. 84 : Wfjificovios rj nepl rod /xt) 
rjSecjs rfj KaKia ovveivai. 



361 



498 EI AYTAPKH2 

H KAKIA nPOS KAKOAAIMONIAN 

1 OVX 1 V7TOlX€V€L 2 

7T€7TpajJL€VOV TO CXCO/XO, 3 TTJS (f)€pV7]S ^COV, 

ws ^vpiTTiSrjs (furjauv, fipaxecL S' €^€6 ra ^ryAcora 4 /cat 
B a/Je/Jata. tojS' 5 ov " 7roAArjs Sta recfrpas," aAAa 
" TrvpKaLas twos " PaonAiKfjs Tropevofieva) /cat irepi- 
(frAeyofjLevq), cloO/jlcltos /cat <j>6fiov jxeora) /cat ISptoros 
SloAAvgOcll* ttAovtov Tiva 7Tpoo9eLor]s 7 TavrdAeiov 
arroAavoai St' acr^oAtav ov Svvafjievcp. 6 fxev yap 

TiLKVCQVlOS €K€LVOS L7T7TOTp6(f)Og €V (f>pOVCOV €Sa>/C€ 

1 ovx added by Capps. 

2 V7TOfJL€V€L CappS : V7TOfl€V€L. 

3 7reTrpafjL€vov to oa>p,a Nauck : to oxo/za 7reTrpafjL€vov, 

4 8' e^et Ta f^Acora Pohlenz ; 8e ra J^Aojto, Paton : SeS^Acorai. 

5 raJS' Capps : rco 8\ 

6 SioXXvoOai Capps : hiairovTiov or Slolkovtiov. 

7 7rpoo0€Lor)s Capps : Trpoodeiaa. 

This passage is tantalizing, not only because so much is 
lost of the text, and because the text is so corrupt, but chiefly 
because since the discovery of the Claremont fragments of 
Euripides' Phaethon we may perceive that this play, of whose 
ingenious plot we now know a good deal, colours the whole 
of the opening passage. In the play Phaethon, declining to 

362 



WHETHER VICE BE SUFFICIENT TO 
CAUSE UNHAPPINESS 

1 a He will not submit to (such a marriage) b 

His body bartered for the dower's sake, 

as Euripides c says ; but he has only a slight and 
precarious reason for being envied. For this man (it 
were better) b to make his journey, not " through 
heaps of hot cinders,' ' but " through a royal con- 
flagration," as it were, and surrounded by flames, 
panting and full of terror and drenched with sweat, 
and so to perish, though (his mother) b had offered to 
him such a wealth as Tantalus had, which he was 
too busy to enjoy. For while that Sicyonian horse- 
breeder was a wise man, who gave to the king 

accept marriage with the goddess to whom his mother 
Clymene wished to marry him, speaks the first verse quoted ; 
and there are probably further quotations from the play in 
the second sentence (ttoAA^s Sea rc</>pas-, dXXa TrvpKa'Cas twos). 
It is quite possible that Phaethon himself swears that he will 
go through " heaps of cinders " rather than marry the 
goddess ; and in the play there is in fact a " royal conflagra- 
tion " when the Sun's treasure-house burns (see Nauck, p. 
601). But it cannot be too strongly insisted that the text is 
very corrupt and that the restorations here adopted can claim 
only an approximation to the truth. 

6 Conjecturally supplied. 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 606, Frag. 775, from the 
Phaethon ; cf. Moralia, 13 f ; Plautus, Asinaria, 87. 

363 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(498) to) fiaoiXel rtov 'A^atcDv OijXeiav lttttov SpopcdSa 
Swpov, 



LVCL LIT] OL €7TOLU V7TO IAlov fjV€LLO€OGaV 

dAAa 1 reprrotro llzvow, 



els paOelav evnoplav kcll oxoXt]v dXvirov dra/cAiVa? 
eavrov ol 8e vvv clvXlkol, 2 ttpclktlkol SoKovvres 

C 6LVCLL, fjLTjSeVOS KaXoVVTOS OjQoVVTCLL Ol aVTOJV €7TL 

rpdx^Xov els avXds kcll irpoTTOLLTrds /cat OvpavXias 

e7TL7TOVOVS > lv L7T7TOV TLVOS Tj TTOpTTTjS TJ TOLCLVTTjS 
TLVOS €V7]LL€plCLS TV^CDOL. 

rod he kcll dLKpiSpv^rjs aAo^o? QvAd«r) eXeXeirrro, 
kolI Solios r^LLLreXrjS' 

avperai he kcll irXavdrai rpifioLLevos zXttlolv i£ 
eXTTihcov* kol TTpoTTTjXaKL^oLievos' dv he KCLL rvxj] 
tlvos &v TTodely rrepievexOelg kcll o kot oh lv ideas 

TTpOS TOV T7JS TVX 7 ]? TTeTCLVpLOflOV aTTofiaOLV ^rjT€L 

kcll LLaKapi^eL rovs dho^cos* kcll docfxiXdjs t^covras' 
ol S' eKeivov irdXiv dvco fiXeirovres virep avrovs 
(f>ep6iievov. 

2. UayKaKtas 6 r) kclklcl hiariOrjoi rravras 

D dvOpwrrovs, CLVToreXrjs tls ovgcl rrjs kclkoScllliovlcls 

hrjiLiovpyos' ovre yap opydvojv ovff vTTrjpercov k'ytL 

Xpetav. dAA' ol fiev 6 rvpavvoi urrovha^ovres ovs dv 

KoXd^OJULV dOXioVS TTOL€LV hr]LLLOVS Tp€(f)OVOL KCLL 

^aaaviords, rj Kavrrjpia kcll G(/)fjva$ cm/x^a- 

1 dAAa] dAA' avrov Homer. 

2 avXiKol Pohlenz, after Amyot : cLXvttoi kol. 

3 iXTTLoiv i£ iAnlSajv Kronenberg: ev tlolv iXiri^cov (evrev^LV 
iXTriloiv Wyttenbach ; ev tmtiv ZXttLoiv Reiske). 

4 <iS6£a)s] a$6£ovs in all mss. but two. 
364< 



CAN VICE CAUSE UNHAPPINESS ? 498 

of the Achaeans, Agamemnon, a swift mare as a 
gift, 

That he might not follow him to wind-swept Troy, 
But stay at home and take his pleasure, 

surrendering himself to the enjoyment of deep riches 
and to unmolested ease ; yet modern courtiers who 
are looked upon as men of affairs, though no one 
summons them, of their own accord push their way 
headlong into courts and official escorts and toilsome 
bivouacs that they may get a horse or a brooch or 
some such piece of good fortune. 

His wife, rending both cheeks, was left behind 
In Phylace, and his half-finished home, b 

while he himself is swept about and wanders afar, 
worn out by one hope after another and constantly 
insulted ; and even if he obtains any of his desires, 
yet, whirled about and made giddy by Fortune's rope- 
dance, he seeks to make his descent and considers 
happy those who live in obscurity and safety, whereas 
they so regard him as they look up at him soaring 
above their heads. 

2. Vice makes all men completely miserable, since 
as a creator of unhappiness it is clothed with absolute 
power, for it has no need of either instruments or 
ministers. But whereas despots, when they desire 
to make miserable those whom they punish, maintain 
executioners and torturers, or devise branding-irons 

11 Adapted from Homer, 27., xxiii. 297-298 ; Echepolus 
is the Sicyonian referred to. Cf. Moralia, 32 f. 
b Homer, //., ii. 700-701. 

5 irayKaKixiS Capps : rravrcos. 
6 aAA' oi fikv Reiske ; dAA' ol ye Wyttenbach : aAAot Se. 

365 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(498) vojvtcu, rj 1 Se kolklcl St'^a Trdcrqs 7rapaoK€vfjs rrj 
faxfj avveXOovaa avverpape /cat Kare^aXe, Av7ttjs ev- 
eTrXrjae dprjvcov fiapvdvpiLas pLerapLeXeias tov avOpoo- 

7TOV. T€KfJLrjpLOV Si' T€pLVOpL€VOl TToXXol OLOJTTCOGL KCll 

fiauTLyovfjLevoi Kaprepovai, /cat acfyrjvovpievoL vtto 
8eo7TOTO)v rj rvpdvvcov (f>oovr)v ovk d(f>rJKav, orav r) 

E i/jvx^J fJivcraaa rep Xoyco tov ttovov 2, cooirep x eL P L 
7Tiearj /cat KardaxX}' dvpico 8' ovk av e^tra^eta? 
rjavx^CLV ovSe nevOei olcotttjv, ovre (froftovpievov 
orrjvai ireiueias, ovre hvu^opovvra pLeravoia pir) 
fiofjadi pbTjhe rcov rpix&v Xa/3eo9at rj tov purjpov 
aXofjcrai 3 * ovroo /cat irvpos ioriv r) /ca/cta /cat glStj- 
pov jStatoreyoa. 

3. At TToXeis hrjnovOeVy orav e/cSoatv vacbv r) 
koXogocov TTpoypdc^cooiVy aKpocovrat rcov Texyircov 
dpaXXcopiivcov irepl rrj? epyoXafiiag /cat Xoyovs* /cat 
TrapaheiypLara Kopu^ovrcov et#' alpovvrat tov a7r' 
ZXdrrovos SaTrdvrjs ravro noiovvra /cat fieXriov 
/cat rdx^ov. <f>^P € ^V KaL VH** 5 e/cSoatV riva /3tot> 5 

F KdKohaLpLOVOS TrpOKTipvaoeiVy etra irpooUvai rfj 
ipyoXa^ia rrjv TvxW KCLi T V V Ka/ctav hia<f>€po- 
puzvas' rrjv jLtev opydvcov re TTavroSarrcov KardnXeco 
/cat 7rapaoK€vrjs TroXvreXovs els direpyaoiav /ca/co- 
haipiovos ^torfs /cat ot/crpa?, Xrjorf]pia Setra /cat 
TToXepiovs /cat rvpdvvcov puaujiovLas /cat ^ctjucovas 1 e/c 

1 dXoyov i/^vxys before rj is corrupt, though probably not a 
gloss ; it was deleted by Bernardakis. 

2 ttovov Reiske : rovov. 

3 aXorjocu] Kpovacu in all mss. but three. 
* \6yovs] Xoyio/xovs van Herwerden. 

5 Pohlenz deletes ko! avOpcorrov after fiiov, 

366 



CAN VICE CAUSE UNHAPPINESS ? 498 

and wedges a ; vice, without any apparatus, when it 
has joined itself to the soul, crushes and overthrows it, 
and fills the man with grief and lamentation, dejec- 
tion and remorse. And this is the proof : many are 
silent under mutilation and endure scourging and 
being tortured by the wedge at the hands of masters 
or tyrants without uttering a cry, whenever by the 
application of reason the soul abates the pain and by 
main force, as it were, checks and represses it b ; but 
you cannot order anger to be quiet nor grief to be 
silent, nor can you persuade a man possessed by fear 
to stand his ground, nor one suffering from remorse 
not to cry out or tear his hair or smite his thigh. So 
much more violent is vice than either fire or sword. 

3. Cities, as we know, when they give public notice 
of intent to let contracts for the building of temples 
or colossal statues, listen to the proposals of artists 
competing for the commission and bringing in their 
estimates and models, and then choose the man who 
will do the same work with the least expense and 
better than the others and more quickly. Come, 
then, let us suppose that we also give public pro- 
clamation of intent to contract for making a life 
wretched, and that Fortune and Vice come to get 
the commission in a rival spirit. Fortune is provided 
with all manner of instruments and costly apparatus 
to render a life miserable and wretched ; she brings in 
her train frightful robberies and wars, the foul blood- 

a Cf. Aeschylus, Prometheus, 64-65 : 

dhafiavTivov vvv o(f)7]v6s avOdhrj yvdOov 
oripvoiv Sia/Z7rd£ iraooaXtv' ippcD/xdva)?. 
b Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disp., ii. 22. 53 IF. 
e Cf, for example, Richter, Greek Sculptors, p. 230: "A 
model of the pediment figures must have preceded the begin- 
ning of their execution." 

367 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

daXdrrrjs /cat Kepavvov i£ depos i^eXKOfxevrjv /cat 
499 Kcxjveia rplfiovoav /cat £l(f>r) cfrepovoav /cat ovKO(f)dv- 
ra? £evoXoyovoav /cat TTVperovs 1 i^oLTrrovaav /cat 
rreSag TrepiKpovovoav /cat rrepiOLKoSopLOVcrav etp/cras" 
/catrot tovtcov rd TrXelora rrjs Ka/cta? fioXXov rj rrjs 
11^779 eorw aAAa 77avr eara> rrjs lt^S". rj be 
Ka/cta Trapearcoaa yvfivrj /cat pirjSevos Seopbevrj rcov 
e£a>9ev errl rov dvOpajirov ipcordrco ttjv 2 Tu^)]v ttcds 
TTOirjaet, /ca/coSat^aova /cat dOvpuov rov dvOpojirov. 

ireviav dTrecXels; KarayeXa crou Mr]Tpof<Xrjs, 

0? xet/x^T/os" €v rot? Trpofidrois* KaOevScov /cat 
depovs iv TOt9 TTpOTTvAaiois rcov lepcbv rov ev 
B Ba^SvAam xeijid^ovra /cat 77€/ot M^StW Oepi^ovra 
Hepacov jSacrtAea 7T€/)t euSat/xovta? €tV aycwa irpov- 
KaAetTO* SovXecav /cat Sca/xa /cat Trpdoiv eVayet?; 
Karac^povel gov Aioyevrjs, 09 U7r6 rcov Xrjortbv 
rrooXovjAevos eKTjpvTTe, * ris cbvrjoaoOaL fiovXercLL 
Sec^770T^v 4 ; , /ctJAt/ca (frappidKOV rapdrreis ; 5 otr^t 
/cat HcoKpdret ravrrfv irpovines; 6 8' tAea)? feat 
TrpdoSy ov rpiaas ouSe hiacfrdeipas ovre ^poj/xaros* 
ouSey ovre 6 a^jLtaro? /xaA' eu/coAa;? i^einev, oVo- 
dvrjOKovra 8' aurov e/xa/capt£ov ot £ojvt£s-, o!>9 ouS' 
eV "AtSou deias dvev fiocpas iaopievov. /cat ^77 v to 
77up crou Ae/cto? o 'Pa^at'an' 7 arpar'qyos npoeXa^ev 

1 TTupero?)?] rrvpar Pohlenz. 

2 r^v] /cat r^y in most mss. 

3 cV rots TTpifiaroLS Usener, " baths." 

* SeoTroTrjv added by some inferior mss. ; Kvptov Bernardakis. 

5 rapdrreLs] rapdrrovaa most MSS. 

6 ovre . . . ovre] ovBe . . . ovhk in all the better mss. 

7 'PcofjLditov] pcofialos cov most MSS. 

368 



CAN VICE CAUSE UNHAPPINESS ? 498-499 

thirstiness of tyrants, and storms at sea and thunder 
from the sky ; she compounds hemlock, she carries 
swords, she levies informers, she kindles fevers, she 
claps on fetters, and builds prison-enclosures (and yet 
the greater part of these belong to Vice rather than 
to Fortune, but let us suppose them all Fortune's). 
And let Vice stand by quite unarmed, needing no 
external aid against the man, and let her ask Fortune 
how she intends to make man wretched and dejected : 

" Fortune, 
Do you threaten poverty ? Metrocles laughs at you, a 

Metrocles, who in w r inter slept among the sheep and 
in summer in the gateways of sacred precincts, yet 
challenged to vie with him in happiness the king of 
the Persians who winters in Babylon and summers in 
Media. 5 Do you bring on slavery and chains and the 
auction block ? Diogenes c despises you, for when 
he was being sold by pirates, he cried out with the 
voice of an auctioneer, ' Who wants to buy a master ? ' 
Do you mix a cup of poison ? Did you not present 
this to Socrates d also ? And cheerfully and calmly, 
without trembling or changing either colour or pos- 
ture, he drained it with great cheerfulness ; and as 
he died the living esteemed him happy, e believing 
that ' not even in Hades would he be without some 
god-given portion.' f And as for your fire, Decius 9 
the Roman general anticipated it, when he built a 

° H. Richards has seen that this is probably a verse from 
comedy. 

b Cf. Moralia, 604 c ; Xenophon, Cyropaedia, viii. 6. 22. 

c Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vi. 29. 74 ; Epictetus, iv. 1. 116. 

d Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 117 b-c. 

• Cf. Moralia, 607 f. 

f Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 58 e ; Xenophon, Apology, 32. 

Cf. Moralia, 310 a-b. 

369 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

C ore tcov arparoTreScov iv fxeocp irvpdv vrjoas 1 tlo 
(499) \\p6vco /car' evxrjv clvtos eavrov eKa\Xiepr]Gev vrrep 
rrjs rjyefjLovias. Tv8an> 8e (f>iXav8poL /cat atocfrpoves 
yvvcuKes VTrep rod rrvpos ipt^ovGL /cat \iayovrai 
irpos aXXrjXas, rrjv 8e vlktjoclctclv reOvrjKori tlo av- 
8pl avyKaTa^Xeyrjvai [laKapiav aSovaiv at Aonrai. 
tcov S' €K€l G(xj)a)v ovSels ^tjXcotos ov8e fiCLKapioTOS 

€OTLV, aV jJLTj L^LOV €TL KCLL (j>pOVCOV KCU, VyLCLLVLOV TOV 

crcbfJLaTOs ttjv i/jvxW TTVpl SiacTTrjorj, /cat KaOapos 
€K^fj rrjs oapKos iKvufjdfjLevos to Ovtjtov. aAA' i£ 
ovoias Xapurpds /cat olkov /cat Tpanetpqs /cat ttoXv- 
TcActa? els Tpifitova /cat 7rrjpav /cat 7TpooaLrr]CTLV 
D i^rjjjLepov rpo(f)fjs Kard^eLs; tclvt ev8aLpLOvias 
apxal AtoyeWt, tclvt iXevOepias Kpar^rt /cat 
86£r)s. aAA' els GTCLvpov KaOrjXcooeLS fj okoXottl 
tttj^ls; /cat tl QeoScopco fieXeL, iroTepov virep yrjs rj 
vtto yrjs arj7T€TaL; IlkvOcov evScLLfJioves ra^at aurat 2, 
'YpKavcov 8e Kvves TicLKTpLavcov S' opvLdes veKpovs 
€o9lovgl /cara vopbovs, otclv fiaKaplov TeXovs 
TvyxdveovLV." 

4. TtVa? ovv ravTa /ca/coSat/xovas" ttol€l; tovs 
dvdv8povs /cat dXoyioTovs, tovs aTpLTTTOvs* /cat 
dyvpvdoTOVs, tovs €/c vtjttlcov as ex oVGl 86£as 

(f)vXdTTOVTCLS . OVKOVV OVK €OTLV 7] TvX 7 ] Ka/CoSat- 

1 TTVpav vrjaas Xylander : rvpavvrjoas. 
1 Ta<f)ai aurai] avrai ra<j>ai Pohlenz. 
3 aTpLTTTovs Wyttenbach : aOpiirrovs. 

a This reference to Suttee is of great interest. It is prob- 
ably derived ultimately from Megasthenes' account of the 
Maurya Empire of the 3rd century b.c. See, for example, 
Rawlinson, India and the Western World (Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press, 1916), p. 59. 

370 



CAN VICE CAUSE UNHAPPINESS ? 499 

funeral pyre between the camps and, to fulfil a vow, 
sacrificed himself to Saturn on behalf of Rome's 
supremacy. And among the Indians, loving and 
chaste wives strive and contend with one another for 
the fire, and the wife who wins the honour of being 
consumed together with her dead husband is hymned 
as happy by the others. a And of the wise men in that 
part of the world, not one is considered enviable or 
happy, if, while he yet lives and is sane and healthy, 
he does not separate by fire his soul from his body 
and emerge pure from the flesh, with the mortal part 
washed away. Or will you reduce a man from 
splendid wealth and house and table and lavish living 
to a threadbare cloak and wallet and begging of his 
daily bread ? These things were the beginning of 
happiness for Diogenes, of freedom and repute for 
Crates. But will you nail him to a cross or impale 
him on a stake ? And what does Theodorus b care 
whether he rots above ground or beneath ? Among 
the Scythians c such is the manner of happy burial ; 
and among the Hyrcanians d dogs, among the Bac- 
trians birds, devour, in accordance with the laws, 
the bodies of men, when these have met a happy end." 
4. Whom, then, do these things make wretched ? 
The unmanly and irrational, the unpracticed and un- 
trained, those who retain from childhood their notions 
unchanged. Therefore Fortune is not a producer of 

6 The Cyrenaic, called " The Atheist," philosopher of the 
late 4th century b.c. ; cf. Moralia, 606 b ; Teles ed. Hense, 
p. 31 ; Cicero, Tusc. i)isp. 9 i. 43. 102; Valerius Maximus, 
vi. 2, Ext. 3 ; Seneca, De Tranquillitate, xiv. 3 ; Wien. Stud., 
ix. 204. 

c Cf. Herodotus, iv. 71-72. 

d Cf. Porphyry, De Abstinentia, iv. 21 ; Sextus Empiricus, 
Ilypotyposes, iii. 227 ; Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 9 i. 45. 108. 

371 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fiovLOLS reXeocovpyos, av jjctj Ka/ctW exfj crvvep- 
E yovoav. cog yap rj KpoKJ] to ocrreov npUi recfrpq 
/cat 6^€L Sidfipoxov yevof^evov, /cat rov iXdc/xxvra rap 
{,v6ei fiaXaKov yevojjievov /cat ^aAaWa KapLirrovoi 
/cat Staa^/xart^ouatv, oXKXcos S' ov Svvavrac, ovtcos 
rj Tvx 7 ] to nenovdos ££ avrov /cat jiaXaKov e/c 
/ca/ctas 1 7Tpocr7T€GOVGa /cotAatWt /cat TtrpaW/cet. /cat 
KddoLTrep 6 YlapOiKos 2 los z rcov dXXoov ovoevl /3Aa- 
fiepos cov ovSe Xvttcov dirropLevovs /cat Trepicjiipov- 
ras* eav rerpcopLevoLs 5 eTreiaevexOfj jjlovov, evOvs 

aiToXXvOl TOO Trp07T€7TOv9oTL TTjV OL7TOppOrjV Se^O- 

fxevovs, 6 ovtco rov vtto rfjs TVXVS ovvt p ifirjaeo S 'at 
F fieXXovra ttjv ifjvxrjv loiov e'A/cos eV iavrco /cat /ca/cov 

£^€tV Set, 7 OTTCOS TCL TrpOGTTlTTTOVTa €^CO0€V OLKTpOL 

/cat oovpra, 7TOLrjarj. 

5. T Ap' ovv rj /ca/cta tolovtov coore rfjs tvx^s 
Setcr#at Trpos* KaKooatpiovias aTrepyaatav; irodev; 
ov 8 rpaxv /cat Sua^ct/zepov 67ratpet 9 iriXayos, ov 
Xtjotgov evohiois Sta£aWuati> ive8pai$ eprjpuovs 
vrrcopeuag, ov ve(f>r] ^aAa^o/3oAa TreScois Trepipprj- 
yvvoi Kap7TO(f)6poiSy ov MeXrjrov ouS' "Avurov ouSe 
KaAAt^e^ov eirdyet 10 ovKO^dvrrp? , ovk a^atpetrat 
500 77A0UTOV, ou/c a7T€Lpy€L arparrjylag, Iva TTOirjarj 
KaKohaijiovas' dXXd Trroel 11 ttXovtovvtcls , evpoovv- 

1 eV KdKLas Reiske : /ca/a'a (Kaidas in three mss). 

2 UapdiKos du Soul : irapoiKos. 

3 tos added by Pohlenz ; ottos du Soul. 

4 7T€pi<f>£povTas] TrepLXPLovTOLS Bliimner. 
rerpajfjiivoLS Reiske : Terpcu/ieVos. 

6 TTpoTreTTovdoTL rr)v airopporfv hexopievovs Wilamowitz : ixpoa- 
TTe7TOvS6ri koI rrjv aTropporjv Se^o/xeVo). 

7 After Set Bernardakis deletes ivros aapKos, 

8 ov] owmost mss. 

9 irralpct Pohlenz : eVaiperai. 
372 



CAN VICE CAUSE UNHAPPINESS ? 499-500 

perfect unhappiness if she does not have Vice to 
co-operate with her. For as a thread saws through 
the bone that has been soaked in ashes and vinegar, 
and as men bend and fashion ivory when it has been 
made soft and pliable by beer, but cannot do so 
otherwise, so Fortune, falling upon that which is of 
itself ill-affected and soft as the result of Vice, gouges 
it out and inj ures it. And j ust as the Parthian poison, a 
though harmful to no one else nor injurious to those 
who touch it and carry it about, if it is merely brought 
into the presence of wounded men, it straightway 
destroys them, since they receive its effluence because 
of their previous susceptibility ; so he who is liable to 
have his soul crushed by Fortune must have within 
himself some festering wound of his own in order that 
it may make whatever befalls him from without 
pitiful and lamentable. 

5. Is, then, Vice such a thing that it needs Fortune's 
help to produce unhappiness ? How can that be ? 
Vice does not raise up a rough and stormy sea, she 
does not gird the skirts of lonely mountains with 
ambushes of robbers along the way, she does not 
make clouds of hail to burst on fruitful plains, she 
does not bring in a Meletus or an Anytus b or a 
Callixenus c as accusers, she does not take away 
wealth, she does not debar from the praetorship, in 
order to make men unhappy. Yet she dismays men 

a Nothing is known about either a Parthian juice (6n6s), 
or a Parthian poison (ids). 
6 Cf. 475 e, supra. 
c Cf Xenophon, Hellenica, i. 7. 8 ff. 



10 eVayet Reiske : eVci ti or eVet rt. 
11 7tto€l Xylander: ttol^i. 
vol. vi n 373 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(500) ras*, 1 KArjpovofMovvTas* iv yfj Sta OaXdrr^g eVSe- 

Svk€, Trpoorre^vKev, iKTTjKovoa rals eTTidvpilais , 

SiaKCLLOvaa tol£ dvjjiois, ovvrpifiovoa reus SeiorSai- 

ixoviais, Staovpovoa rots 6<j)9a\[iOLS 2 . . . 

1 evpoovvras Reiske : €v<f>opovvTas or cvcfrpovovvras. 
2 6(f>9a\fiols] <j>66vois Meziriacus. 



374 



CAN VICE CAUSE UNHAPPINESS ? 500 

who are rich, prosperous, and heirs to fortunes ; on 
land and on sea she insinuates herself into them and 
clings to them, sinking deep into them through evil 
lusts, firing them with anger, crushing them with 
superstitious fears, shattering them with the eyes . . . a 

° The interpretation of this last phrase is quite uncertain : 
perhaps " tearing them to pieces with envy," or " making 
them ridiculous with envy." 



375 



WHETHER THE AFFECTIONS 
OF THE SOUL ARE WORSE 
THAN THOSE OF THE BODY 

(ANIMINE AN CORPORIS AFFEC- 
TIONES SINT PEIORES) 



INTRODUCTION 

This popular oration, or diatribe, a was read by 
Plutarch b in some city of Asia Minor : Volkmann c 
thought Sardis, the capital of the province ; Haupt d 
thought Halicarnassus ; Wilamowitz e Ephesus. The 
occasion is clearly the consul's yearly hearing of law- 
suits from the whole province. 

The proof that afflictions of the soul are worse than 
diseases of the body is treated in a popular and, in 
chapter 4, dramatic manner. The conclusion is lost. 

The same subject was treated in his commonplace 
fashion by Maximus Tyrius/ who shows no know- 
ledge of Plutarch's oration, nor any relation to his 
sources ; Cicero, however, at the beginning of the 
third book of the Tusculan Disputations, exhibits some 
kinship with Plutarch's argument. Siefert g has twice 
elaborated his opinion that some of this work of 

a So Pohlenz, as I think, correctly : I therefore do not 
accept Wilamowitz's combination of this and the preceding 
work as fragments of the same dialogue. 

b Xylander, practically alone, denies the genuineness — on 
what grounds he does not say. 

c Plutarch, vol. i. 62 f. 

d Opuscula, iii. 554 (Hermes, vi. 258), 

e Hermes, xl. 161 if. 

f Orat. 7 ed. Hobein, 13 ed. Diibner. 

9 Comm. Ienenses, 1896, pp. 106-110; Plutarchs Schrift 
Ucpl evdvfjLLas, pp. 26-28. 
378 



WHETHER THE AFFECTIONS . . . 

Plutarch's was drawn from the utto/x^/xo, (I should 
prefer to say iVo/xi/^/xaTa a ) which Plutarch used in 
writing De Tranquillitate. 

The text is not good. The work is listed as No. 
208 in the Lamprias catalogue. 

a See the introduction to the De Tranquillitate. 



379 



(500) 

B IIOTEPON TA TH2 TTXHS 

H TA TOY 2QMAT02 IIA0H XEIPONA 1 

1 . "OjJirjpos jxkv impXeifjas ra Ovrjrd roov £cpcov yevrj 
/cat rrpos dXXrjXa avyKpcvas /caret rovs fiiovs /cat tols 
Statrtycret?, i^ecfxjbvrjaev cos ovSev iariv 

oi^vpoorepov dvSpos, 
rravroov oaaa re yaiav k'lri 7TV€L€L re /cat epirzi* 

TTpcxjrelov ovk evrv")(es zls kclkcov vrrepo^v drrohi- 
C Sovs rep dvOpcoTTCp' tj{jl€ls S' coorrep rjSrj vlkcovtcl 
/ca/coSatucwta rov dvdpooTrov /cat roov dXXoov ddXioo- 
rarov ^oooov dvrjyopevpievov avrov avrtp avyKpLvoo- 
puev, 2 els ISlcov /ca/caJv dyoova acofia /cat i/svxrjv 
hiaipovvres , ovk dxprjorcos dXXd /cat irdvv Seovrcos, 
Iva (JLaOcofjiev Trorepov Sta rrjv rvyrp? rj St' eavrovs 
ddXcoorepov £a>/xev. vooos fxev yap iv ooopbari <f>ve- 
toll Sta <f)VGLV, /ca/cta 8e /cat pLO)(9r)pia 7rept ipv^rjV 
epyov earl rrpaorov elra irddos avrrjs. 4, ov puKpov 
Se Trpog evOvpLLav ScfreXos, dv Idoipiov fj to ^elpov, 
/cat Kov(f)6r€pov /cat dac/)VKTOv 5 ov. 6 

1 7TC/H TOV 7TOT€pOV TO. fax^S % T<Z <J<X)fJLaTOS TTO-Ql] X^P ova W 

some mss., perhaps rightly. 

2 ovyKpLvcofjLCv Reiske : avyKplvofiev. 

3 rvx^jv] ^XV V m ost mss. 

4 avTrjs Reiske, confirmed by G : avrr}. 

5 ao(f>vKTov Salmasius, confirmed by one mss. : a<j>vKTov. 

380 



WHETHER THE AFFECTIONS OF THE 
SOUL ARE WORSE THAN THOSE 
OF THE BODY 

1. Homer, having contemplated the mortal varieties 
of animals and having compared them with each 
other in respect to their lives and habits, cried out 
that nothing is 

More wretched than man, 
Of all that breathes and creeps upon the earth, 

awarding to man an unfortunate primacy in excess of 
evils. But as for us, as though acknowledging that 
man has won the victory in wretchedness and has 
been proclaimed the most miserable of animals, let 
us compare him with himself, dividing body and soul 
for competition of their individual miseries, a task 
not unprofitable but even quite necessary, to the 
end that we may learn whether it is through Fortune 
or through ourselves that we live more wretchedly. 
For while disease grows in the body through Nature, 
vice and depravity in the soul are first the soul's 
own doing, and then its affliction. It will be no 
slight aid toward tranquillity of mind, if the worse 
condition be curable, being both lighter to bear 
and lacking intensity. 

° //., xvii. 446-447 ; cf. 496 b, supra. 

6 6v added by Capps. 
vol. vi n2 381 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(500) 2. C H jxev ovv AlocoTTecos dXcbirrjt; nepl TroiKiXias 
SiKa^ofxevrj 77009 rrjv TrdpSaXiv, cos eKeivr) to crco/xa 

D /cat rrjv emcfiaveiav evavdrj /cat KaraoriKTov ezreSet- 
£aro, ttjs S' rjv to ^avdov avx^pov /cat ovx ^Su 
TrpooiSelv, " dXX ifjiov tol to evTos," e<f>rj, " a/co- 
rrcov, cu St/caard, TroiKiXcoTepav pie t^ctS' o^ei," 
SrjXovoa tt\v irepl to rjdos evTpoiriav eirl 77oAAd rat? 
Xpetous apL€L/3opLevr)v. Xeycopuev 1 ovv ev rjpuv otl 
7roAAa ueV, to dvOpcoire, aol 2 /cat to craJ/xa voarjpiaTa 
/cat ttolOt] </>uaet t olvltjolv iij eavTOV /cat npoo- 
TTLTTTovTa Se;£€Tat dvpadev dv 8e oclvtov evSoOev dv- 
ol^rjs, ttolklXov tl /cat iroXvirades kclkcov Tapaelov 
evp-qaeis /cat OrjaavpLafia, cog (f>r]cri ArjpLOKpiTOS, ovk 

E e^codev emppeovTCov, dAA' coairep eyyeiovs /cat 
avTO)(dovas Triqyds e^ovTCov, a? dvcrjoiv rj /ca/cta 
7roXvx VT °S KaL 8aifjiXrjg ovaa toIs irdOeoiv; el Se 
ra pcev ev aap/ct vocnjpLCLTa o<f>vypbols /cat expats 3 
<f)CopaTai /cat OeppLOTrjTes aurd /cat 7rdvot irpoTreTels 
iXeyxovGL, rd S' eV iftvxfj Xavddvei tovs ttoXXovs 
/ca/cd, 4 Std tout' eort /ca/cta>, Trpooa<j)aipovpLeva ttjv 
clvtcov 5 tov irdoxpVTOs atoOrjoiv. tcov pAv yap 
irepl to acopLCL voaiqpidTCov eppcopuevos 6 Xoyiapios 

1 Xeyajfiev] Ae'yo/zev all MSS. but two. 

2 coi] gov all mss. but two. 

3 €pv9aLv6fjL€va after a>xpoas (xpouus in some mss.) deleted 
by Wilamowitz. 

4 ovra after xra/ca deleted by Pohlenz. 

5 avrcov Capps : eV avrols (omitted in a few mss.). 



° Fable 42 ed. Halm ; cf. Moralia. 155 b ; Babrius, Fable 
180 ed. Crusius ; Siefert, Plutarchs Schrift Ucpi evdv/jilas, 
pp. 27-28. 

b ttoiklXLcl when applied to an animal's skin refers to colour 

382 



WHETHER THE AFFECTIONS . . ., 500 

2. The fox in Aesop, a disputing at law with the 
leopard concerning their claims to variety, 5 when the 
leopard had shown her body with its glossy surface 
bright and spotted, and the fox's tawny skin was 
rough and unpleasant to the eye, 

But look at me within, sir judge," said she, 
" And you will find me fuller far than she 
Of fair variety," ° 

making manifest the versatility of her character 
which changes to many forms as necessity arises. 
Shall we, then, say in our own case, " Many of your 
diseases and affections, O man, your body naturally 
produces of itself, and it receives also many that 
befall it from without ; but if you lay yourself open 
on the inside, you will find a storehouse and treasury, 
as Democritus d says, of all manner of evils and many 
abnormal states, which do not flow in from outside, 
but have, as it were, subterranean and earth-born 
springs, which Vice, being widely diffused and abun- 
dantly supplied with those abnormal states, causes to 
gush forth " ? And if the diseases in the flesh are 
detected by the pulse and biliousness, and tempera- 
tures and sudden pains confirm their presence, but the 
evils in the soul escape the notice of most men, they 
are for this reason worse evils, since they also deprive 
the sufferer of any awareness of themselves. For 
although the reason,* if sound, perceives the diseases 

and markings, but when it is applied to the mind it means 
" subtlety " or " cunning." 

c Cf, Wilamowitz, Hermes, xl. p. 164 ; Diehl, Anthologia 
Lyrica, i. p. 304 : Plutarch's words are apparently adapted 
from an unknown choliambic poet. See also Knox, Choi- 
iambica (L.C.L.), p. 350. 

d Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , vol. ii. p. 172, Frag. 149. 

* Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disp., iii. 1. 

S8S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

alaOdverai, rots Se rfjs ^vxi s ovvvoocjv avros ovk 
e^et Kplow eV of? 7racr^et, 77aa^et yap to /cptVer /cat 

Set TtOV l/jVXLKCOV TTptOTOV /Cat fJL€yiGTOV dpl6fJL€LV T7JV 

F ayvoiav, 1 St' fjs avrjKearos rj /ca/cta rot? 7roAAot? aw- 
ot/cet /cat cruy/carajStot /cat ovvaTroQvqoKei. dpxfj 
yap a7ra\Aayrjs vooov fiev atoOrjais ets* yp^'iav 
ayovaa rod fiorjdovvros to iraoypv 6 8' amor iq 
rod voaetv ovk etScos* c5v SetTat, kolv Trapfj to 
Oepanevov, apvetrat. /cat yap rcov 7rept to crco/xa 
501 voorjfjtaTOJV ra /xer' dvaLodrjocag ^etpora, Xrjdapyot 
/ce</>aAaAytat emA^t/rtai dTTOTrXq^iai 2 ai)Toi T€ ttv- 
peTol ot 3 avvT€LvavT€s* et? TTapaKOTTTjv to <£Aey- 
fiaivov /cat tt)]> aiodiqoiv djoirep ev opydvco Sta- 
Tapa^a^TCS' 

klvovgi x°P°ds ra? a/a^TOUs </>pevtov. 

S. Ato ^atSe? laTpcov ftovXovTat fiev per) voaeXv 
tov avdpumov, vooovvTa ok pur) ayvoeiv otl vocrel' 
o toZs xfjvx^Kols TrdOeoi TT&oi crvpLfteprjKev. ovt€ ydp 
dcf>paivovT€s ovt dae\yaivovT€s ovt aoiKOTrpayovv- 
Tes dpLapTavew Sokovow, dAA' eVtot /cat KaTopOovv. 
TTvptTov piev yap ouSets* vyieiav wvopLacrev ouSe (f>di- 
B oiv ez5e£tav 6 ovSe noSdypav 7ro8a>/cetav ouS' a>xpt'a- 
atv epvOrjpLa, dvp,6v Se 7roAAot /caAouatv dvopetav /cat 

1 ayvoiav Wyttenbach : aVotav. 

2 olttottXti^ tat] 7Tvp€Tol most MSS. 

3 ot added by Pohlenz. 

4 CTWT€tVaVT€?] GVVT€LVOVT€S ITlOSt MSS. 

5 €i5c|tav] €V€(lt]v three good mss., as though Plutarch were 
quoting an Ionic author (Democritus ?). 

384 



WHETHER THE AFFECTIONS . . ., 500-501 

which affect the body, yet, being itself afflicted with 
those of the soul, it can form no judgement of its 
own afflictions, for it is affected in the very part by 
which it judges ; and, of the soul's diseases, one 
must account as first and greatest ignorance, which 
causes Vice beyond hope of cure to abide with most 
men, to cling to them through life, and to die with 
them. For the beginning of the riddance of disease 
is awareness which leads the ailing part to the use 
of what will relieve it ; but the man who through 
disbelief in his ailment does not know what he needs, 
refuses the remedy, even if it be at hand. For it is 
true of the diseases of the body also that those are 
worse which are attended by inability to perceive the 
body's condition : lethargies, migraine, epilepsies, 
apoplexies, and those very fevers which, raising in- 
flammation to the pitch of delirium and confounding 
consciousness, as on a musical instrument, 

Will touch the heart-strings never touched before. 
3. Therefore professional physicians desire, in the 
first place that a man should not be ill ; and next, 
if he is ill, that he should not be unaware that he is 
ill b — which is the case with all the maladies which 
affect the soul. For when men act foolishly c or 
licentiously or unjustly, they do not think that they 
are doing wrong, but some even think that they are 
doing right. For although no one has ever called a 
fever " health," nor consumption " excellent con- 
dition," nor gout " swiftness of foot," nor sallowness 
a "fresh complexion," yet many call hot temper d 

a Cf. 456 c, supra. 

* Cf. Moralia, 102 d ; Cicero, Tusc. Disp., iii. 6. 12. 

c Cf. Moralia, 81 f. 

d Cf. 462 f, supra. 

385 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(501) epajTd <f)i\iav /cat (f)66vov dpaXXav /cat SetAtav da</>a- 
Xeiav. eW ol ptev KaXovai tovs larpovs, aloOdvovrai 
yap wv oeovrai 777369 a voaovaiv ol he (f>evyovoi 
tovs <j)i\ooo<f)ovs j olovrai yap eiriTvyyaveiv ev ols 
SiafiaprdvovoLV . eirel 1 tovtcq ye rep Xoyco ^ooj/xevot 
Xeyofiev on Kov(f)6repov eoTiv 6<f)QaXpLia puavias /cat 
7To8dypa (f>p€VLTL§os, 6 [lev ydp 2 aladdverai /cat 
/caAet top larpov Ker<payd)s, /cat irapovTi rrjv oipiv 
dXeiipat,, rrjv </>Ae/3a refielv, 3 TrapahLhojaiv rfjs he 
C puaiv opievrjs 'Ay at/779 aKovets vtto rod rrdOovs to\ 
(j)iXraT rjyvorjKV tag, 

* 4 >£ » 5 

ayofiev eg opeos 
e'At/ca veorofxov eiri jxeXadpa, 
[laKapiov OrjpapLa* 

Kat yap 6 fiev ra> aajpLan vootov evdvs evhovs /cat 
KaOels eavrov els to kXlvlSlov y)ov)(Lav ayei 6epa~ 
Trevopievos, av he ttov puKpov et;di;rf /cat Staovcto- 
rrjorj to craj/xa (frXeypLOvrjs TrpoaTreoovarjs , elirwv tls 
tcov 7TapaKa9r]pLeva)v irpdcos, 

/xeV, to raAatVa)/)', droe/za Grots' ev hepuviois, 

e7TeoT7)oe /cat KaTeoyev. ol 8' ev toZs xfjv^LKols 
Trddeaiv ovTes TOTe pudXiOTa irpaTTOVoi, toW tJklgO* 

1 eVct Xylander, confirmed by two mss. ; Irt Wyttenbach : 
em. 

2 yap] omitted in all mss. but one. 

3 After T€fi€Lv Pohlenz deleted r-qv K€<j>a\rjv (a gloss on the 
verses of Euripides). 

4 ayofiev] <f>€pofjL€v Euripides. 

5 e| 6p€a)v Euripides. 

6 ixaKapiav Orjpav Life of Crassus, xxxiii. 

7 cf af xi Wyttenbach ; ef d£ 77. 



WHETHER THE AFFECTIONS . . . , 501 

"manliness," and love " friendship," a and envy 
" emulation," and cowardice " caution." Again, 
while men sick in body send for a doctor, since they 
perceive whom they need to counteract their ail- 
ments, yet those that are sick in soul avoid philoso- 
phers, for they think that they are doing well in those 
very matters where they are at fault. The fact is that, 
if we follow on this line of reasoning, we maintain 
that defective eyesight is easier to bear than madness, 
and gout than inflammation of the brain ! For a 
man that is sick in body perceives it and calls loudly 
for a physician, and when he comes, allows him to 
anoint the eyes or open the veins ; but you hear the 
maddened Agave say, & not recognizing her dearest 
by reason of her affliction : 

From the mountain we bring 
To the palace a fresh-cut tendril, 
A fortunate capture. 

It is true that one who is sick in body gives in at 
once and goes to bed and remains quiet while he is 
being cured, and if, perchance, when the fever comes 
upon him, he tosses a bit and tumbles his body about, 
one of those who sit by him will say to him gently, 

Lie still, poor wretch, and move not from your bed, c 

and so checks and restrains him ; but those who suffer 
from diseases of the soul are then most active, then 

a " Si on juge de l'amour par la plupart de ses effets, il 
ressemble plus a la haine qu'a l'amitie." — De la Roche- 
foucauld. 

b Euripides, Bacchae, 1 169-1 171 ; cf. Life of Crassus, xxxiii. 
(564 f) : Agave, bearing the head of her son Pentheus, was 
a commonplace of philosophical rhetoric ; see, for example, 
Horace, Sermones, ii. 3. 303. 

c Euripides, Orestes, 258 ; cf. 475 d, supra. 

387 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(501) rjavxd£,ovaiv at yap opfxal tojv rrpd^eojv dp^r}, 1 TC * 
D Se rrddr] acfyoSporrjre^ opfitov. Sto rrjv ipvx'rjv 
rjpefJLeLV ovk etbcnv, dAA' ore /zdAtora Setrat p,ovrjs 
Kou Gia)7Trjs /cat vttogtoXtjs 6 avOpcoTTOSy tot avTov 
els vrraidpov eA/couat, tot clttokoXvittovoiv ol 6v- 
fMOL, at cf)iAov€LKLai, ol epa>T€s, at Xvrrai, 77oAAa /cat 
SpaV avofjia /cat AaAetv drap/zoara rot? /catpot? 
dvay /ca £op,e vov. 

4. "Claire p ovv eVta^aAe'oTepo? ^et/zcov rou 77Aetv 
ou/c €covtos 6 kojXvojv KaOoppbioaoOai, OVTCOS OL 
/caTa ifjvxrjv ^et/xcoves' fiapVTepoL crretAacrflat roV 
avdpa>7TOv ovk itbvTes ot)S' €7TLOTrjOai T€TapayfJL€VOV 
tov Aoyta/zoV dAA' aKvftepvrjTos /cat avepfiaTioTos 
ev Tapaxfj kcll rrXavrj Spd/xot9 Ae^t'ot^ 2 /cat rrapa- 
E <f)6pois 8iaTpax r ]XiE ) 6[JL€vos et? Tt vaudytov c/>o/3epo> 
i^€7T€G€ /cat ovveTpafje tov iavTov /3t'ov. cLare /cat 
TavT-rf x € W ov vooelv rat? iffVyats; rj rot? oxo/zacrtv 
tols {jl€V ydp irdoyew jjlovov toZs Se /cat Traox €LV K0LL 

7TOL€LV KCLKCOS aV/JL^€^r)K€, 

Kat Tt Set ra 7roAAd Ae'yetv raw rraOwv; clvtos 
6 KCLLpos VTTO[xvr\ois Iotiv. opaYe roi^ rroXvv /cat 
TTapbpayrj tovtov tov* ivTavda avvrjpayjjLevov 6 Kat 
kvkcx)jX€vov oyXov rrepl to PfjjJLa /cat ttjv dyopdv ; ov 
6voovt€s ovtol ovveXrjXvOaai iraTpLois deots ouS' 
SfioyvLOJV fieOe^ovTes iepcov dAA^Aots', ovk 'Acr/cpata> 

1 dpxrj] dpxaL in two mss. 

2 Ac^ptot? Paton : oXeOpiois. 

3 ravrft Wyttenbach : tov'tois. 

4 tov in a few mss. only. 

5 avv€ipyn€vov, " close-packed," Capps. 

388 



' WHETHER THE AFFECTIONS . . ., 501 

least at rest. For impulses are the beginning of 
action, and the soul's abnormal states are violent 
impulses. That is the reason why they do not allow 
the soul to be at rest, but just at the time when 
man most needs repose and silence and relaxation, 
then his fits of temper, of contentiousness, of love, 
of grief, drag him into the open air and strip him 
bare, and he is forced both to do many lawless 
things and to give tongue to many things unsuited 
to the occasion. 

4. As, therefore, the storm that prevents a sailor 
from putting into port is more dangerous than that 
which does not allow him to sail, so those storms of 
the soul are more serious which do not allow a man 
to compose or to calm his disturbed reason ; but 
pilotless and without ballast, in confusion and aimless 
wandering, rushing headlong in oblique and reeling 
courses, he suffers a terrible shipwreck, as it were, 
and ruins his life. Consequently for this reason also 
it is worse to be sick in soul than in body ; for men 
afflicted in body only suffer, but those afflicted in soul 
both suffer and do ill.° 

But why need I recount the multitude of the soul's 
maladies ? The present occasion of itself brings 
them to mind. Do you see this vast and promiscuous 
crowd which jostles and surges in confusion here 
about the tribunal and the market-place ? These 
persons have come together, not to sacrifice to their 
country's gods, not to share in each other's family 
rites, not bringing " to Ascraean Zeus b the first- 

a Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disp., iii. 5. 10. 

b For the cult of Ascraean Zeus at Halicarnassus cf 
Apollonius, Historia Mirabilium, 13 (Keller, Return Natura- 
lium Scriptores Graeci Minores, i. p. 47). 

389 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F Ad AvSlojv Kaprrcov dnapxas (frepovres ovSe Aco- 
vvaco fiefiaKxevpLevov dvadXov Upcus vv£l kcli koivoZs 

6pyiOLGOVT€S 1 KWpLOlS' dXX <Jj(J7T€p irrjGLOLS 7T€pi68oLS 

OLKpirj voarjparos iKTpayyvovcjo} rrjv 'AcriW 3 errl 
8 was Kal dytovas epurpoQeapovs rJKovcrav* ivravOa 
502 GvpLpaXXec Kal 5 ttXtjOos cboirep pevpLarcov ddpoojv 
els p^iav ipLTTeTTTOJKev dyopdv Kal (/>Aey/zaiWi /cat 
avveppajyev '■ oXXvvtojv re Kal oXXvpLevatv." ttolojv 
ravra Trvpercov epya, ttolojv rjTndXajv; rives ev- 
Grdaeis r\ TrapepLTTrcoaeLS rj 8voKpa<jLa deppLCJV r) 
vnepxyais vypwv; av €Kaar7]v Slktjv tboirep av- 
dpamov dvaKpivrjs irodev 7T€(f)VK€ irodev 7]K€L, ttjv 
piev dvpids avddSrjs yeyevvrjKe, rrjv 8e p,aviaj8r)s 
(friXoveiKia, rrjv S' clSlkos eiriOvpiLa . . . 

1 opyiaoovTts Bernardakis and one ms. : opyia^ovres* 

2 €KrpaxvvovGa] €KTpaxvvaaa in three mss. 

3 'Acrtav] ovaiav most mss. 

4 TjKovoav] tjkovoiv most MSS. 

5 /cat] omitted in all mss. but two. 



390 



WHETHER THE AFFECTIONS . . ., 501-502 

fruits of Lydian harvests/ ' a nor, in honour of 
Dionysus, to celebrate his mystic festival on sacred 
nights with common re veilings, but, as it were, a 
mighty pestilence drives them together here with 
yearly visitations stirring up Asia, which must come 
for law-suits and litigation at certain stated times ; 
and the overwhelming multitude, like streams flow- 
ing together, has inundated this one market-place 
and boils with fury and dashes together in a tumult 
" of destroyers and destroy ed." b What fevers, what 
agues, have brought this about ? What stoppages, 
or irruptions of blood, or distemperature of heat, 
or overflow of humours, have caused this ? If you 
examine every law-suit, as though it were a person, 
to discover what gave rise to it and whence it came, 
you will find that obstinate anger begat one, frantic 
ambition another, unjust desire a third . . . 

Probably a quotation from a poet : Reiske thought 
Pindar ; Haupt (Opuscula, iii. 554), an anonymous tragic 
poet (and cf. Wilamowitz, Hermes \ xl. 163, 164, note 1). 

b Homer, II. , iv. 451. 

e Cf. Moralia, 129 d. 



391 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS 

(DE GARRULITATE) 



INTRODUCTION 

This charming essay, by far the best in the volume, 
suffers from only one defect, its length. Though 
Plutarch again and again, by his narrative skill and 
naive or unconscious humour, will delight even those 
who have hardened their hearts against him (I mean 
his editors), he cannot at last resist the temptation to 
indulge in what he considered scientific analysis and 
enlightened exhortation. He is then merely dull. 
But, taken as a whole, the essay is surely a success, 
and as organic and skilful a performance as any in 
the Moralia. 

The work was written after De Curiositate and 
before De Tranquillitate, De Capienda ex Inimicis 
Utilitate, and De Laude Ipsius. a It stands in the 
Lamprias catalogue as No. 92. & 

a I have thus combined the conclusions of Pohlenz, 
Brokate, and Hein. 

b Mr C. B. Robinson's translation, or paraphrase, of this 
and several other essays in this volume, arrived too late to 
be of service (see Plutarch, Selected Essays, Putnam, New 
York, 1937). 



395 



(502) 

B IIEPI AA0AE2XIAS 

1. AvokoXov jjuev dvaXapifidvei depdirevfia /cat 
XaXeirov rj <f>iXo(jo(j>ia rrjv dSoAecr^iW. to yap 
(fxip/jiaKov avrrjs, 6 Xoyog, olkovovtcdv iarlv, ol 8' 
C dSoXecrxoi ovSevos aKovovoiv del yap XaXovot. Kal 
tovt eyzi irptoTOV KaKov rj doiyqoia, rrjv dvrjKotav. 
Ka)(f)6rr]£ yap avdalperog ianv, dvdpojTTOJV, otpLac, 
jji€iJL(f)Ofji€va)v rrjv <f)voLV , on \xiav {lev yXtoTTav 8vo 8' 
a>T k'xovaiv. eiirep 1 ovv 6 Eupnn'S^s' koXojs elire 
77/00? tov davverov aKpoarrjV, 

ovk dv SvvaifjLrjv pL7] areyovra TTipLTrXdvai, 
oo<f>ovs inavrXcov dvSpl fir] oo(f)cp Xoyovs' 

StKatorepov dv rtg elrroL Trpos tov dSoXeoxov, fx&XXov 
Se 7Tepl tov d8oXeoxov, 2 

ovk dv SvvaLjjLrjv fir] SexojjLevov TTipsnXdvai, 
aocf)ovs €7ravTXa>v dvSpl firj oo(f>a) Xoyovs? 

D fxaXXov Se TrepiavTXcov Xoyovs dv6pa)7TOJ XoXovvtl 

1 €t7T€p] 07T€p Sieveking. 

2 Stegmann followed by Pohlenz deleted fidXXov 8e 7repi rod 
dSoXcaxov. 

3 Most mss. repeat avSpl pjj ao(j>a> Xoyovs, Pohlenz omits. 

a It suits Plutarch's humour in this passage, in which he 
speaks of garrulity as a disease, to invent one, and possibly 
two, pseudo-medical terms, dcrty^o-ia, " inability to keep 

396 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS 

1. It is a troublesome and difficult task that philo- 
sophy has in hand when it undertakes to cure gar- 
rulousness. For the remedy, words of reason, re- 
quires listeners ; but the garrulous listen to nobody, 
for they are always talking. And this is the first 
symptom of their ailment : looseness of the tongue 
becomes impotence of the ears. a For it is a deliberate 
deafness, that of men who, I take it, blame Nature 
because they have only one tongue, but two ears. b 
If, then, Euripides c was right when he said with 
reference to the unintelligent hearer, 

I could not fill a man who will not hold 
My wise words flooding into unwise ears, 

it would be more just to say to the garrulous man, 
or rather about the garrulous man, 

I could not fill a man who will not take 
My wise words flooding into unwise ears, 

or rather submerging, a man who talks to those 

silent," and avrjKota, " inability to listen." The figure is 
maintained in hiappeovoi at the end of section d. Rouse 
suggests : " And here is the first bad symptom in diarrhoea 
of the tongue — constipation of the ears." 

b Cf. Moralia, 39 b; von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., i. p. 68, 
Zeno, Frag. 310. 

' Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 649, Frag. 899. 

397 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(502) ^ v Trpos tovs ovk aKovovTas , firj clkovovtl Se tlov 
XaXovvrojv. kcll yap av olkovgt] tl fipaxv, ttjs 
ahoXeaxias toonep dfJL7TO)TLV Xafiovarjs, tovto irapa- 
XpfjfjLa TToXXaTrXaoiov avraTTooL&ojoi. 

Trjv fiev yap iv 'OXv/JLTrta aroav and puds cpajvrjs 
7ToXXas avravaKXaaets iroiovaav €7Trd(f)a)vov Ka- 
Xovgl- ttjs 8' dooXeax^CLS av iXdx^crTOs aiprjrai 
Xoyos, evdvs dvTLTrepLrjx^L 

Kivovaa xopoas ras aKLvrjTOVs cfipevtov. 

firjrrore yap avTols ovk els rrjv i/jvxrjv dAA' els rrjv 

yXcorrav rj olkotj avvrerprjraL' 816 rots /xev aXXois 

€p,fJL€Vovaiv oi Xoyoi, tlov 8' dSoAeo^cov Stappeovaw 

g effi axjTTep ayyeia Kevol tfrpevtbv rjx ov ^ /scotch 

7T€pitaGLV, 

2. Et 8' ovv 8ok€l ireipas p,r]oev iXXeXetydai, 

€L7TO>fJL€V TTpOS TOV dSoAeO^OV, 

to iral, aiuma- 770AA' ex €L acyrj KaXd, 

Svo Se rd TTpcora Kal pbtyiora, to aKovoai Kal 
aKovoOrjvai' tov ovSerepov tvx^lv iyy ever at tols 
dooXeaxois, dXXa Kal 7T€pl avrrjv T r qv Imdvp^iav 
aTroSvoTTerovai . tols pLev yap aXXoLs voorjpLaoL rrjs 
i/jvxfjSy olov cfuXapyvpla (fiiXoSo^la tpLXrjbovla, to 
yovv Tvyxdveiv tov icpcevTau rrepUoTi, tols 8' dSo- 

XeGXOLS TOVTO VVpLfialveL X a ^ €7Tc ^ TaTOV ' €7TL0VpLOVV- 

Tes yap aKpoaTtov ov TvyxdvovoLV , dXXa iras 

a A portico on the east side of the Altis ; cf. Pausanias, v. 
21. 17, Pliny, Natural History, xxxvi. 15. 100. 

b Cf. 456 c, 501 a, supra. 

c Cf. Aristophanes, Thesrn., 18: bUrjv Se x°^ vr ]^ <*> Ta Stcrc- 
Tp-qvaTO. 

398 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 502 

who will not listen, and will not listen when others 
talk. For even if he does listen for a moment, when 
his loquacity is, as it were, at ebb, the rising tide 
immediately makes up for it many times over. 

They give the name of Seven-voiced a to the 
portico at Olympia which reverberates many times 
from a single utterance ; and if but the least word 
sets garrulousness in motion, straightway it echoes 
round about on all sides, 

Touching the heart-strings never touched before. b 
Indeed one might think that babbler's ears have no 
passage bored through c to the soul, but only to the 
tongue. d Consequently, while others retain what is 
said, in talkative persons it goes right through in a 
flux ; then they go about like empty vessels, 6 void 
of sense, but full of noise. 

2. But if, however, we are resolved to leave no 
means untried, let us say to the babbler, 

Hush, child : in silence many virtues lie/ 
and among them the two first and greatest, the 
merits of hearing and being heard ; neither of these 
can happen to talkative persons, but even in that 
which they desire especially they fail miserably. For 
in other diseases of the soul, 9 ' such as love of money, 
love of glory, love of pleasure, there is at least the 
possibility of attaining their desires, but for babblers 
this is very difficult : they desire listeners and cannot 

d Cf. Philoxenus in Gnomologium Vaticanum, 547 ( Wiener 
Stud., xi. 234). 

* Cf. the proverb : " Empty vessels make the loudest 
noise." 

f Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 147, Sophocles, Frag. 78 
(Frag. 81 ed. Pearson, vol. i. p. 50), from the Aleadae. 

* Cf. 519 d, infra. 

399 



PLUTARCIFS MORALIA 

F <f)€Vy€L 7TpOTp07T(i8r)V K&V €V rjpUKVKXitp TLVi /ca#e£o- 
fJL€VOL KOLV TT€pnT<lTOVVT€S €V ^VGTCp 1 OtdoojVTai Trpoa- 

<f>oiTU)VTa* Ta^ews 1 avd£ev£iv avrols Trapeyyvcoot, 
/cat Kaddnep orav iv ovXXoycp rivl oiojttt) yevrjrac, 
rov 'JLppLrjv €TT€i<je\r)\vd£vai Xeyovow, ovrojs orav 

€LS OVpLTTOOLOV Tj OVVehplOV yVLOpLfJLQJV XdXo$ eloeXOrj, 

503 irdvTts dirooicjOTT&oi firj jSouAo/zevot Xafirjv rrapa- 
a^ety av S' avros dptjrjr at oiaipziv ro oropca, 

irpo xeipLaros war dvd ttovtiolv a/cpav 
fioppa 3 £,a€VTOs* 

v(f>opa)pL€VOi adXov /cat vavrlav i^aveorrjoav. odev 
avrols cru/x/3atVet pLrjre rrapa helrrvov ovyKXircov 5 

pLTjT€ GVGK7]VaJV TVyydvtlV TTpodvflCOV, OTCXV OOOL7TO- 

pGiaiv tj nXecoGLV, aAA' dvayKaGTwv it pooKtir ai yap 
omavraypv , rcov ipuariajv avrcXapL^avopbevos, dirro- 
pievos* rod yeveiov, rrjv rrXevpdv OvpoKOTrcov rrj 
X€tpi. 

TTooes 8rj Keldi TLpLtcoraroi, 

Kara rov 'Ap^tAo^ov, /cat vrj At'a Kara rov Go<f>6v 
5 ApiGToreXyv . /cat yap avros evoxXovpuevos vix 
B dooXeoxov /cat Konropuevos arorrois rial oLrjyrjpiaoi, 
7roXXaKLS avrov Xeyovros, '* ov davpbaorov, 'Aptcr- 
roreAes; ov rovro, (prjoc, uavpiaorov, aAA 

et res 7To8as €xa>v ae viropievzi." irepcp 8e Ttvt 
roiovrco jLtera noXXovs Xoyovs €itt6vtl, " /car^So- 
Xeox^JKa gov, <J)lX6go<J>€ " • " pid At'," elnev, " ov 

1 £votco Pohlenz : ravrco. 2 7rpoG<f>oLTcovras Reiske. 

3 poppa] fiopiov all mss. but G. 

4 £cl4vtos Crusius (cf. 129 a): irviovros or t,4ovTos* 

5 avyicXiT&v Hutten : ovyKXircuv or avyKXrjTcov. 

6 cl7tt6ii€vos added by Stegmann. 

400 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 502-503 

get them, since every one runs away headlong. If 
men are sitting in a public lounge or strolling about 
in a portico, and see a talker coming up, they 
quickly give each other the counter-sign to break 
camp. And just as when silence occurs in an assem- 
blage they say that Hermes has joined the company, 
so when a chatterbox comes into a dinner-party or 
social gathering, every one grows silent, not wishing 
to furnish him a hold ; and if he begins of his own 
accord to open his mouth, 

As when the North-wind blows along 
A sea-beaten headland before the storm, 

suspecting that they will be tossed about and sea-sick, 
they rise up and go out. And so it is a talker's lot 
when travelling by land or sea, to find volunteer 
listeners neither as table-companions nor as tent- 
mates, but only conscripts ; for the talker is at 
you everywhere, catching your cloak, plucking your 
beard, digging you in the ribs. 

Then are your feet of the greatest value, 

as Archilochus b says, and on my word the wise Aris- 
totle will agree. For when Aristotle himself was 
annoyed by a chatterer and bored with some silly 
stories, and the fellow kept repeating, " Isn't it 
wonderful, Aristotle ? " " There's nothing wonder- 
ful about that," said Aristotle, " but that anyone with 
feet endures you." To another man of the same 
sort, who said after a long rigmarole, " Poor philo- 
sopher, I've wearied you with my talk," " Heavens, 
no ! " said Aristotle, " I wasn't listening." In fact, 

a Cf. 455 a, supra. 
* Edmonds, Elegy and Iambus, ii. p. 182, Frag. 132. 

401 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(503) yap 7TpoaeL)(ov." /cat yap av ^LaoojvTaL XaXelv 1 ol 
aSdAecr^oi, TrapeSojKev avrols rj ^XV T( * ^ )Ta 
TrepiavrXeZv c^coOev, avrrj 8' ivros ire pas rtvas 
ava7TTVG(j€L Kal 8l€^€Lgl 7Tpos avTrjv tfrpovTLoas' odev 

OVT€ TTpOOeyOVTLOV OVT€ 7TLGT€v6vTOJV OLKpoaTtOV 
€V7TOpOVGl. TtOV jJL€V yap TTpOS TCX? OVVOVOiaS €V- 

Karac/)6pa)v dyovov elvai to OTripjxa XeyovoL, tcov 
C 8' aooXeo^aiv 6 Xoyos areXrjs Kal aKapiros ioTL. 
3. Katrot y* ovSev ovtojs r) <j>vois evepKtos /ce^a- 
paKOJKe tcov iv 2 r)pZv cos TTjv yXcoTTav, fiaXopL€vrj 
tfipovpav npo avTrjs tovs ooovTas, IV, lav €Vtos 
KaTaTeivovTOs ' ' rjvia oiyaXoevTa ' ' tov Xoy tcr/xou 
pjY] vrraKovrj fjLrjo' aveiXrJTai, SrjyjJiaaLV avTrjs /car- 
excojxev ttjv aKpaaiav at^arrovres'. " a^dAi'vow " 
yap ov Tapuetajv ouS' OLKrjfjLaTCOv dXXa " GTO\iaTCov 

TO TeXoS SvGTVXLCLV " 6 JLvpLTTiSrjS tftTJGLV. ol 8' 

OLKrjjjLaTajv fxev dOvpcov Kal fiaXXavTiajv doeajJLWv 
firjoev ocpeXos olojjl€Vol toIs k€kt7]/jl€Vols elvai, oto- 
jiaai 8' aKXeioTOis Kal dOvpoLS coorrep 3 to tov 
D Hovtov Sia rravTos e£to peovoL ^pc6/xevot, irdvTCOv 
OLTipLOTaTOV rjyeLoOaL tov Xoyov ioiKaaw. odev 
ovSe ttlotlv k')(ovoiv rjs rras Xoyos e^ierar to yap 

OLK€LOV aVTOV TtXoS TOVT €UTL, TTLOTLV €V€pydoa- 
adaL TOls OLKOVOVGLV dlTLGTOVVTaL 8' OL XdXoL, KaV 

dXrjOevcocjLV. toairep yap 6 irvpos €ls dyyelov Karva- 
KXeLodels Tto fiev pLeTpcp ttXzlcov €vpLoK€TaL tjj Se 

1 AaAeu>] TTpooXaXeZv Hartman. 

2 iv] 7rap y most mss. 
3 a>o7T€p] Kal a)(j7T€p Stegmann. 

a Cf. Life of Lycurgus, xix. (51 e-f). 

6 Cf, Commentarii in Hesiodum, 71 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. 
pp. 87-88). 
402 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 503 

if chatterers force their talk upon us, the soul sur 
renders to them the ears to be flooded from outside, 
but herself within unrolls thoughts of another sort and 
follows them out by herself. Therefore talkers do 
not find it easy to secure listeners who either pay 
attention or believe what they say ; for just as they 
affirm that the seed of persons too prone to lusts 
of the flesh is barren, so is the speech of babblers 
ineffectual and fruitless. a 

3. And yet Nature has built about none of our 
parts so stout a stockade as about the tongue, 6 having 
placed before it as an outpost the teeth, so that when 
reason within tightens " the reins of silence,'' c if 
the tongue does not obey or restrain itself, we may 
check its incontinence by biting it till it bleeds. For 
Euripides d says that " disaster is the end," not of 
unbolted treasuries or storerooms, but of " unbridled 
tongues." And those who believe that storerooms 
without doors and purses without fastenings are of 
no use to their owners, yet keep their mouths with- 
out lock or door, maintaining as perpetual an outflow 
as the mouth of the Black Sea, appear to regard 
speech as the least valuable of all things. They do 
not, therefore, meet with belief, 6 which is the object 
of all speech. For this is the proper end and aim 
of speech, to engender belief in the hearer ; but 
chatterers are disbelieved even if they are telling the 
truth. For as wheat shut up in a jar-^ is found to 
have increased in quantity, but to have deteriorated 

c Homer, //., v. 226; oiyaXoevra, of course, means " glossy" 
or " shining," but here it is probably used as a playful pun 
on atyr}. 

d Adapted from Bacchae, 386, 388. 

• C/. 519 d, infra. 

f Or a " pit," perhaps ; cf. Moralia, 697 d. 

403 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(503) XP €t V l^oxO^Jporepos, ovrco Xoyos els aSdAecr^ov €/jl- 

7T€GQ)V avdpOJTTOV TToXv 7TOL€L TOV lfj€v8oVS €7TLjJL€TpOV, 

<L 8ia<j>6eipei rrjv ttLqtiv. 

4. "Ert roivvv to fjueOvew 77a? avdpumos alSrjfJLCOV 

/cat Koofjuos, ot/zat, 1 (j>vXat;aiT av jxaviq. yap 6jio- 

E tol^os 2 /JL€V rj opyrj kclt* eviovs, rj 8e fxedrj ovvoikos' 

jjl&XXov Se fiavia rto jxev xpovco tJttojv, rfj S' curia, 

fJL€L^a)V, OTL TO CLv9aLp€TOV aVTTJ 7Tp6o€CFTL. T7JS Se 

fied-qs ovQev ovtoj Karrjyopovoiv d>s to Trepl tovs 
Xoyovs OLKpares kolI aopiorov olvos yap, if^jQW, 9 

€(f)€7]K€ 7ToXv(f)pOvd 7T€p fJidX* aeiCTCU, 

Kai 6' ct7raAov yeAacrat /cat t opxrjvaodai avrJKe. 

/cat rl to Setvorarov ; toSr) /cat yeXcos /cat op^iqais; 
ov8ev ay^pi tovtcov 

/cat tl €7709 TTpoerjKev, oirep t dpprjrov afieivov — 

tovt rj8rj Secvov /cat iniKivSwov. /cat fJLrjTTore to 

^rjrovfjievov Trapd rols <f)iXoo6(f)OLS Xvojv 6 7tol7]t7]9 

F oIvojg€ojs /cat fieOrjs 8ia<f)opav et/r^/cev, olvojoeojs 

fiev dveoiv, fie9r)s Se <f>Xvapiav. to ydp eV rfj /capSta 

TOV Vrj<f)OVTOS €7Tt T7]S yXoJTT7]S eOTt TOV fJL€0VOVTO9, 

cog ol 7rapoi/xta£d/xevot cfraoiv. 66 ev 6 fiev Bta? eV 

1 of/xat] omitted in most mss. 

2 oiiotolxos one ms. of Stobaeus : oyLooroixos. 

3 <j>rjoiv] omitted in some mss. 

a Cf. Antiphanes, Frag. 295 (Kock, Com. Att. Frag., ii. 
p. 128) : Xvtttj fiavtas ofioroixos elval /xot Sokcl. 

b Cf. Seneca, Epistulae Morales, lxxxiii. 18. 

c Homer, 0d. 9 xiv. 463-466; cf. Moralia, 645 a; Athenaeus, 
v. 179 e-f. 

d Cf. De Vita et Poesi Homeri, 149 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. 
p. 421). 
404 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 503 

in quality, so when a story finds its way to a chatterer, 
it generates a large addition of falsehood and thereby 
destroys its credit. 

4. Again, every self-respecting and orderly man 
would, I think, avoid drunkenness. For while, ac- 
cording to some, anger lives next door to madness, a 
drunkenness lives in the same house with it ; or 
rather, drunkenness is madness, shorter in duration, 
but more culpable, because the will also is involved 
in it. b And there is no fault so generally ascribed to 
drunkenness as that of intemperate and unlimited 
speech. " For wine," says the Poet, c 

Urges a man to sing, though he be wise, 
And stirs to merry laughter and the dance. 

And what is here so very dreadful ? Singing and 
laughing and dancing ? Nothing so far — 

But it lets slip some word better unsaid d : 

this is where the dreadful and dangerous part now 
comes in. And perhaps the Poet has here resolved 
the question debated by the philosophers, 6 the 
difference between being under the influence of 
wine and being drunk, when he speaks of the former 
as relaxation, but drunkenness as sheer folly. For 
what is in a man's heart when he is sober is on his 
tongue when he is drunk, as those who are given to 
proverbs say/ Therefore when Bias g kept silent at a 

e Cf. Chrvsippus, Frag. Mor. 644,713 (von Arnim, Stoic. 
Vet. Frag.,\\i. pp. 163, 179). 

' Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, i. p. 
313 ; ii. pp. 219, 687. " Niichtern gedacht, voli gesagt." 

9 Cf. the similar remark attributed to Demaratus in 
Moralia, 220 a-b and to Solon in Stobaeus, vol. iii. pp. 685- 
686 ed. Hense. 

vol. vi o 405 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

tlvl ttotcx) aLOJTfcx)V /cat aKCOTTTOjJievos els dfieXrepiav 
504 vtto tlvos dSoXeaxov, " /cat tls av," ecfrrj, " Svvauro 
fjicopos zv 1 otvcx) ouonav; " 'AOrjvrjcri 8e tls ioritov 
irpeofieis fiaoiXiKovs i(f>iXoTifjLrj8r] airov8dt i ovcFiv 
clvtols awayayelv els ravro rovs (f)iXoo6(f)ovs' 
XpcofJLevcov Se rcov dXXojv KoivoXoyLa /cat tols 
uvfJL^oXas d7To8i86vTOJv, rod Se Zjrjvcovos r)crv)(iav 
dyovroSy <f)iXo(f)povr]GdiJL€VOL /cat rrpomovres ol £evoi, 
/ rrepl aov Se ri xprj Xeyetv," e<f>aoav y ' c3 TjTjvcxjv, 
t£) /JacrtAet; " kclk€lvos, " dXXo p,r)8ev," elirev, 
" rj otl TTpea^vrrjs iorlv 2 iv ' A6r)vais 7rapd 7TOTOV 

OIOJTT'&V 8wdjJL€VOS ." 

Ovrco tl fiauv /cat fjLvarrjpicoSes rj myr] /cat vrj- 
<j)dXiov y rj Se fieOrj XdXov avow yap /cat 6Xiyo<j>pov , 
B Sta tovto /cat iroXv<f>ojvov . ol Se <j)iXoGO(j>oi /cat 
opi^opievoL ttjv fxeOrjv Xeyovoriv elvai Xrjprjaiv rrdpoi- 
vov ovtojs ov ifjeyerat to Trtveiv, et Trpooeirj ra> 
rriveiv to ou&irav dXX rj puoj poXoy La fieOrjv iroiel 
ttjv oivajGW. 6 [lev ovv fiedvajv Xrjpel nap* oivov, 6 
o d86Xeoxos TravTaypv Xrjpel iv dyopa iv dedrpoj 
iv TTepLTrdrq) iv piiOrj vq</>a>v* rjfJiipav vvKrojp- cart 
Se deparrevajv rrjs vooov ftapvrepos, avfJLTrXeojv rrjs 
vavrias drjSearepos, iiratvcov rod ipeyovros eVa^e'- 
arepos' r\8iov yi rot TTOvrjpols opuXovfiev* eVtSe^tots' 
V XPV gt °ls aSoAe'cr^ats'. 6 fiev yap Hocf)OKXeovs 

1 iv] tbv iv most mss. 

2 iorlv] els ianv Tucker. 

3 vrj<j>cov after iv ^liOrj added by Capps. 

4 o/uAotyzev Wilamowitz : ofjuXovacv. 

a Either Ptolemy Soter (Diogenes Laertius, vii. 24) or 
Antigonus (Stobaeus, iii. p. 680 ed. Hense). 
6 Frag. 284 (von Arnim, op. cit. 9 i. p. 64). 

406 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 503-504 

drinking-bout and was taunted with stupidity by a 
chatterer, " What fool," said he, " in his cups can 
hold his tongue ? " And when a certain man at 
Athens was entertaining envoys from the king, at 
their earnest request he made every effort to gather 
the philosophers to meet them ; and while the rest 
took part in the general conversation and made 
their contributions to it, but Zeno b kept silent, 
the strangers, pledging him courteously, said, " And 
what are we to tell the king about you, Zeno ? " 
" Nothing,' ' said he, " except that there is an old 
man at Athens who can hold his tongue at a drinking- 
party." 

Thus silence is something profound and awesome 
and sober, but drunkenness is a babbler, for it is 
foolish and witless, and therefore loquacious also. 
And the philosophers c even in their very definition 
of drunkenness say that it is intoxicated and foolish 
talking ; thus drinking is not blamed if silence attends 
the drinking, but it is foolish talk which converts the 
influence of wine into drunkenness. While it is true 
that the drunken man talks foolishness in his cups, 
the chatterer talks foolishness on all occasions, in the 
market-place, in the theatre, out walking, drunk or 
sober, by day, by night. As your physician, he is 
worse than the disease ; as your ship-mate, more 
unpleasant than sea-sickness ; his praises are more 
annoying than another's blame : we certainly have 
greater pleasure in company with clever rascals than 
with honest chatterboxes. In Sophocles/ 2 when Ajax 

c Cf. Moralia, 716 f; Chrysippus, Frag. Mor. 643 (von 
Arnim, op. cit., iii. p. 163). 

d Nauck, Trag. Oraec. Frag. 2 , p. 312, Frag. 771 (Frag. 855 
ed. Pearson, vol. iii. p. 63) ; cf. Moralia, 810 b. 

407 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(504) Ne'oTCop tov Alavra rpa^vvofievov tlo Xoyco rrpai- 

VCOV TjOiKCOS TOVT €LprjK€V 9 

G ov fieLK^ofjial ere* Sptov yap ev kolkojs Xeyets' 

TTpos Se tov dSoAecr^ryv oi>x ovtcos eyp\L€v 3 dAAa 
rraoav epyov ^dpiv tj tlov Xoyojv aKaipia Sia^OelpeL 

KCLL OLTToAAvGL. 

5. Avoids tlvI 8lkt]v eypvTi Xoyov ovyypdiftas 

eScOK€V 6 Se TToAAoLKLS dvayVOVS TjK€ TTpOS TOV 

Avcriav dOvjJicov Kal Aeycov to \xev irptoTOV avTto 
Sl€^lovtl davfxaoTov (j)avrjvai tov Xoyov, avOis Se 
Kal TpiTOV avaAapLpdvovTi rravTeXcos dfifiAvv Kal 
anpaKTov 6 Se AvoLas yeXdoas, " tl ovv," elrrev, 
ovx airat; iieXXeis Xeyeiv avTov irrl tlov SiKa- 

GTLOV ; " Kal OK07T€L TTJV AvOLOV 7T€l,9cO Kal X^P lV ' 

Kelvov 1 yap iyd) 
D c^apX LOTrXoKapiajv Motadv ev Xa)(€LV. 

tlov Se 7repl tov TroLrjTov XeyopievLov dXrjdearaTov 

eOTLV OTL JJLOVOS "OfJLTJpOS TTJS TLOV dv9pL07TLOV dlfji- 

Kopias rrepiyeyovev, del Kaivos lov Kal rrpos X^P LV 
aKfJid^ajv dAA' o[jllos 2 cIttlov Kal 3 dva^Lovrjoas 
€K€lvo rrepl avTov to 

€)(9p6v Se fJLOt eOTLV 

avdis* dpi^rjXojs elprjjjieva fxv9oXoyev€Lv, 
(j)€vyei Kal </>o/3eiT(u tov icfreSpevovTa TravTi Xoyco 

1 Kelvov] kolkzZvov some MSS. 

8 oficos] d[jLa>ay€7TOJS Apelt; ojjlcos to tov 'OSvooeajs Tucker. 

3 etVcov Kal] Stegmann would delete. 

4 avOis] avTLS the mss. of Homer. 

An anonymous fragment, attributed to Sappho by 
408 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 504 

uses boisterous language, Nestor, in soothing him, 
says in words which show his knowledge of character, 

I blame you not: ill your words, but good your deeds. 

But these are not our feelings toward the chatterer ; 
on the contrary, the untimeliness of his words de- 
stroys and annuls all gratitude for any deed. 

5. Lysias once composed a speech for a litigant and 
gave it to him. The man read it through a number 
of times and came to Lysias in despair and said that 
the first time he read it the speech seemed to him 
wonderfully good, but on taking it up a second and 
third time it appeared completely dull and ineffectual. 
" Well," said Lysias laughing, " isn't it only once that 
you are going to speak it before the jurors ? " And 
consider the persuasiveness and charm of Lysias ! 
For he is one who, for my part, 

I say has a fair portion in the violet-tressed Muses. 

And of the things said about the Poet this is the 
truest — that Homer alone has survived the fastidious- 
ness of men, b since he is ever new and his charm is 
ever at its best ; yet none the less, he spoke and pro- 
claimed that famous remark about himself, 

I scorn to tell 
A tale again that's once been clearly told c ; 

and he avoids and fears the satiety which lies in 

Bergk (Poet. Lyr. Gr., iii. p. 703), to Bacchylides by Diehl 
(Anthologia Lyrica, ii. p. 162) ; cf. Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, 
iii. p. 429. 
b Cf. Pope's 

Those oft are stratagems which error seem, 
Nor is it Homer nods, but we that dream, 
with the judgement of Horace, Ars Poetica, 359. 
c OcL, xii. 452-453 ; cf. Moralia, 764 a. 

409 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kopov, els dXXa e£ aAAcov Si7]yrjpara rrjv olkotjv 
dycov /cat rfj Kaivorrpri rrjv TrXrjapLOvrjv avrrjs napa- 
fJLvdovjJLevos. ol 8' airoKvaiovai Stjttov ra ctira rat? 
ravroXoylais toorrep TTaXipLifjrjora SiapLoXvvovres . 

6. Touto roivvv TTpwrov vTropupLvrjOKcopLev avrovs, 
E ort, KaOoLTrep rov olvov rjSovrjs eVe/ca /cat </>tAo- 

(f>poovvr]s evpiqpevov ol TTpoo^ca^opievoi ttoXvv irlveiv 
/cat cLKparov eviovs els drjSlav /cat irapoiviav rpe- 
7tovglv, ovtcjo tov Xoyov tJSlgtov ovtol /cat cf)iXav- 
dpcoTTOTCLTOV ovpfioXaiov ol \p(x>p,evoi KdKajs /cat 
rrpo-^eipcjos dndvOpajTrov ttolovgl /cat dpuKrov, ols 
olovtcu yapi^eodaL Xvirovvres /cat a<jS wv davpid^e- 
adai KarayeXcofievoc /cat St' cbv <f)iXelodai hvoyepai- 
vofievot. too-Hep ovv 6 rep Kearcp rovs optXovvras 
drrooTpe<j)<xJV /cat direXavvcov dva^poScros, ovtojs 6 
ra) Xoyco Xvrrcov /cat aTre^davopievos dpcovoos tls kcu 
dreyyos eari. 

7. Td)v S' dXXcov ttclOoov /cat voorjpLdrcov ra puev 
F eariv emKLvSwa ra 8e puarjrd ra Se KarayeXaara, 

rfj S' aSoAecr^t'a Trdvra ovpifiefirjKe' yXevd^ovrai /xev 
yap eV rats' kolvols St^y^crecTt, paoovvrai he. Sta 
ras* tcov KCLKcbv rrpoaayyeXtas, KtvSvvevovai Se tcov 
dTTopprjrcov piTj Kparovvres . 006V 'Ava^apat9 eoria- 
505 tfets 7rapa ZoAawt /cat KocpicopLevos a>(f)6r] ttjv puev 
dpiorepdv X € ^P a ro ^ ptopiois rrjv Se Se^tav rep aro- 



a Plutarch probably means that talkers wear out our ears 
by the repetitions of stale news, just as palimpsests are worn 
out by constant erasure. But not all points of the com- 
parison are clear ; c/. Moralia, 779 c ; Cicero, ad Fam. 9 vii. 
18.2. 

6 Probably referring to the ovixTrooiapxos (cf. 9 for example, 
Moralia, 620 a ff.), or magister bibendi. 
410 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 504-505 

ambush for every tale, leading his hearers from one 
narrative to another and soothing away the ear's 
surfeit by constant novelty. But babblers actually 
wear out our ears by their repetitions, just as though 
they were smudging palimpsests. a 

6. Let this, then, be the first thing of which we 
remind them — that just as wine, discovered for the 
promotion of pleasure and good fellowship, is some- 
times misused to produce discomfort and intoxication 
by those b who compel others to drink it undiluted 
in large quantities, so speech, which is the most 
pleasant and human of social ties, is made inhuman 
and unsocial by those who use it badly and wantonly, 
because they offend those whom they think they 
please, are ridiculed for their attempts at gaining 
admiration, and are disliked because of the very 
means they employ to gain affection. As, then, he 
can have no share in Aphrodite who uses her girdle 
to drive away and ahenate those who seek his com- 
pany, so he who arouses annoyance and hostility with 
his speech is no friend of the Muses and a stranger 
to art. 

7. Now of the other affections and maladies some 
are dangerous, some detestable, some ridiculous ; but 
garrulousness has all these qualities at once ; for 
babblers are derided for telling what everyone knows, 
they are hated for bearing bad news, they run into 
danger since they cannot refrain from revealing 
secrets. So it is that Anacharsis, c when he had been 
entertained and feasted at Solon's house and lay 
down to sleep, was seen to have his left hand placed 

c A Scythian of high rank, who travelled widely in the 
pursuit of knowledge, and visited Athens in the time of Solon, 
circa 597 B.C. 

411 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(505) fiarc TTpoGKeipieviqv eyojv eyK parlor 4 pov yap tozro 
^aXivov oelodai tt)v yXcorrav, 6p6a>s olojxevos. ov 
yap dv tls i^apiOpLTjoaiTO paoiajs avhpas togovtovs 
a<f)pooi(jia)v aKpaoia TreTTTWKOTas, ocra? ttoXcis Kal 
rjyejjLOVias Adyo? e^eve^Oels aTropprjros dvaardrovs 
eTTOirjae. HvXXas irroAiopKei tols ' AOrjvas, ovk €-)((x>v 
axoArjv ivoiarplifjai \povov 7toXvv, 

irrel ttovos aXXos erreiyev, 

rjpiraKOTOs fiev 'Acriav MiOpiodrov, rcbv 8e rrepl 
B Mdpiov avOcs iv 'PwpLrj Kparovvrajv dXXd irpeo- 

fivTCOV TIVU)V 6776 KOVp€LOV OiaA€yOfJL€VO)V J)£ OV 

cf)vAdrr€raL to c E77ra^aA/<:ov Kal KivSvvevei to clgtv 
/car' €K€lvo XrjcfrOrjvai to pbepos, aKovoavTes oi /caTa- 
GKOTTOi Trpos tov HvXXav i^rjyy eiXav. 6 8' evdvs 
ttjv hvvap.iv irpooayaycbv Trepl /xecra? vvKTas eicr- 
nqyaye to GTpaTevpia, Kal pLLKpov piev KaTeuKaifje tt)v 
ttoXiv 1 iverrArjae Se <f)6vov Kal veKpcbv, cjot€ tov 
Ys.epapb€LKov at/xart pvr\vai, yaXeuGys Se rrpos tovs 
1 Adrjvatovs ecr^e 8ia tovs Xoyovs pidXXov rj Sia ra 
€pya % KaKtbs yap avTov eXeyov Kal ttjv MeVeAAav 2 
dva7rr]8a)VT€S inl ra Teiyr\ Kal GKcoiTTOVTes, 

ovKapavov €o9* 6 SuAAa? dX^LTCp TreTraopievov, 

C Kal ToiavTa 77oAAa <f>XvapovvTes lireGTrdoavTO '* kov- 
(f)OTaTOV TTpdypiaTOS AoycDv" gjs cfrrjoiv 6 IlAaTCu?^, 
" j3apvTaTT)v tftydav." 

1 rrjv 7t6Xlv added by early editors. 

2 MereAAav Hatzidakis : MereXXav. 

a Cf. Life of Sulla, xiv. (460 c ff.). Athens was captured 
in 86 b.c. 

b Homer, Od, xi. 54. 

c The position of the Heptachalcon is thought to be near 
412 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 505 

upon his private parts, but his right hand upon his 
mouth ; for he believed, quite rightly, that the 
tongue needs the stronger restraint. It would not 
be easy? for example, to enumerate as many men 
who have been ruined by incontinent lust as is the 
number of cities and empires which a secret revealed 
has brought to destruction. When Sulla a was be- 
sieging Athens, he had very little time to waste in the 
operations 

Since other labour was pressing, 6 
Mithridates having ravaged Asia, and the party of 
Marius being again masters in Rome. But spies 
heard some old men in a barber's shop remarking to 
each other that the Heptachalcon c was unguarded 
and that the city was in danger of being captured at 
that point ; and the spies brought word of this to 
Sulla, who at once brought up his forces at midnight, 
led in his army, and almost razed the city to the 
ground, filling it with carnage and corpses so that the 
Cerameicus ran with blood. And Sulla's anger with 
the Athenians was due more to their words than to 
their deeds ; for they used to revile him d and 
Metella, 6 leaping upon the walls and jesting, 

Sulla is a mulberry sprinkled with meal f ; 

and with much similar idle banter they drew upon 
themselves, as Plato 9 says, M a very heavy penalty 
for the lightest of things, words." 

the Peiraeic Gate, near which was also the heroon of Chal- 
codon ; see Judeich, Topographie von Athen 2 , p. 368, note 8. 

d Cf Life of Sulla, xiii. (459 f— 460 a). 

e Sulla's wife. 

f Referring to his complexion : blotches of red interspersed 
with white ; cf Life of Sulla, ii. (451 f). 

Laws, 935 a and 717 d ; cf the note on 456 d, supra. 
vol. vi o2 413 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(505) Trjv §€ 'Poj/xatojv ttoXlv eKcoXvaev iXevOepav ye- 
veoOat, Nepcovo? arraWaytioav evos dvopos dSo- 
Aeo^ta. jjllcl yap rjv vv^ y p,e#' rjv eoei, rov rvpavvov 
aVoAojAeVat, rrapetTKevao pievojv drrdvrajv 6 Se jLtcA- 
Acov avrov drroKrivvvvai rropevopievos els ro 1 
dearpov IScov riva rcov SeSefievcov irrl Ovpais p,e'A- 
Xovra rrpoadyeudai rep 2 Nepouvt /cat rrjv avrov 
rvyrjv a7To8vp6jjL€vov y iyyvs rrpoorjXOev avrco /cat 
TTpoaifjidvpioa^ y " €V)(ov," tfrrjaw, " cS avOpcorre, rrjv 
D GrjfJLepov rjfjiepav rrapeXOeXv [jlovov, avpiov Se /xot 
€Vx a P L<TT7 l (TeL S'' > dprrdaas ovv ro alvi^dev €K€lvo$ 
/cat vorjvas, otp,at, on 

VrjTTlOS, 6V T(X 3 eTOt/Xa At7TOJV dverOLfJia §LCOK€l, 

rrjv fiefiaLOTepav elXero acorrjpuav rrpo rrjs St/cato- 
repas. ipLrjvvoe yap rep Nepcovc rrjv cficovrjv rdvOpco- 
ttov KaKelvos evdvs dvrjprraGro, /cat jSaaavot /cat 
77t>p /cat pbdoTiyes ctt' a^ToV, dpvovpievov rrpos rrjv 
dvdyKTjv a ^ojpt? dvdyKrjs ipLrjvvoe. 

8. Z^vojv S' o cf>iX6oocf>os , tVa p/^S' &kovtos avrov 
rrporjr at ri rcov drropprjrcov e/c/3ta £o/Z€Vov to acopia 
rats* aVay/cats*, Siatfraycov rrjv yXcorrav TrpoaeTrrvae 
rep rvpdvvco. koXov 8e /cat Aeatva rrjs ey/cparctas' 
E e^et yepas. iratpa rcov rrepl 'AppoStov rjv /cat 
'AptOToyetrova /cat ttJ? em tous* rvpdvvovs ovvco- 

1 to] omitted in most mss. 

2 ra>] omitted in most mss. 
3 os ra] ocftls Gaisford. 

a This account differs in every way from the standard 
version in Tacitus, Annals , xv. 54 ff. 

6 Perhaps Subrius Flavus is meant (Annals, xv. 50). 

c Hesiod, Frag. 219 (Frag. 18, p. 278 ed. Evelyn-White in 
414 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 505 

The loquacity of one man, again, prevented Rome 
from becoming free by the removal of Nero/' For 
but one night remained, after which the tyrant was 
to die, and all preparations had been made ; but the 
man b who was to kill him saw at the palace gates 
when on his way to the theatre a prisoner about to 
be led before Nero and lamenting his evil fortune. 
He approached the prisoner and whispered to him, 
" Only pray, my good man, that to-day may pass by 
and to-morrow you will be thankful to me/' So the 
prisoner grasped the intended meaning, and reflect- 
ing, I suppose, that 

He is a fool who leaves things close at hand 
To follow what is out of reach, 

chose the surer rather than the more just way of 
safety. For he revealed to Nero what had been said 
to him by the man, who was immediately seized, and 
tortures and fire and the lash were applied to the 
conspirator as he denied, in the face of constraint, 
what he had revealed without constraint. 

8. Zeno d the philosopher, in order that even 
against his will no secret should be betrayed by his 
body when under torture, bit his tongue through and 
spat it out at the despot. 6 And Leaena f also has 
a splendid reward for her self-control. She was a 
courtesan belonging to the group led by Harmodius 
and Aristogeiton and shared in the conspiracy against 

L.C.L. ; Frag. 234 ed. Kinkel) from the Eoae according to 
von Blumenthal, Hermes, xlix. 319. 

d Of Elea; cf. Moralia, 1126 d, 1051 c; Diels, Frag. d. 
Vorsokrat. 5 , i. p. 249, A 7 ; and Dougan's note on Cicero, 
Tusc. Disp., ii. 22. 52. 

e Called by Plutarch Demylos of Carystus. 

f Cf. Pausanias, i. 23. 1 ; Athenaeus, 596 f ; Leaena means 
" lioness." She was Aristogeiton's mistress. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fjLoacas €Koivd)V€L rals eXirLoiv d)s yvvrj* /cat yap 
avrrj rrepl tov kolAov ei<elvov ij3aK)(ei)G€ Kparrjpa 
tov "Epcoros', /cat KartopyiaaTO Std tov deov rots 
airoppriTOis. <hs ovv eKelvoi TTraiaavres dvrjpedijcraVy 
ava Kptvofjievrj /cat KeXevofievrj 1 <j)pdaaL tovs en 
XavOdvovTas ovk ecfrpaaev, dAA' eveKapTeprjoev, eiri- 
8e[£aoa tovs dv8pas ov8ev dvd£iov iavrwv iradov- 
ras", ei roiavT7]v rjyoLTrrjoav. °A6rjvatoi 8e xclAktjv 
TTOirjudpievoL Xeacvav dyXcoooov ev 7rvXais rrjs 
aKponoXeaJs dveOrjKav, tcq puev OvpLoethel rod ^ojov 
F to drjTT7]T0V avrrjs rep 8' dyXtooocp to OLOJTrrjpdv 

KCU fJLVOTTJpidjSeS €[JL(f)aLVOVT€S . 

OuSets* yap ovtco Xoyos dxfieXrjoe prjOels d>s 7toXXoc 
OLtoTrrjOevTes* eoTi yap elrreiv rroTe to ocyrjOev, ov 
fJL7]v oiajTrfjoai ye to Xe^Oev, dAA' eKKeyyTai koX 
8taTre(f)OLTrjKev. S9ev, ot/zat, tov fiev Xeyeiv avQpd)- 
ttovs tov 8e oio)7rav deovs 8i8aoKaXovs e^p[iev ) iv 
TeXeTats /cat fAVGTrjpLOLS GLOJTrrjv TTapaXapifidvovTes . 
506 6 8e TTOLrjTrjs tov Xoyid)TaTov 'OSucraea glo)7T7]X6- 
TaTov TreTTOtrjKe, Kal tov vlov avTOV Kal ttjv yvvaiKa 
/cat tt]v Tpo(j)6v aKoveis yap Xeyovorjs, 

e£a) §' rjvTe irep KpaTepi] 8pv$ 2 rje olSrjpos. 

1 KeXevofjcevrj] /coAafo/xeVq several mss. 
2 Tjvre . . . Spvs] cos ore tls oreper] XlOos MSS. of Homer. 



° Hippias and Hipparchus ; cf. Thucydides, vi. 54-59 ; 
Aristotle, Ath. PoL, xviii. 2. 

6 The motive of Love runs through the entire story : 
Thettalus and Harmodius's sister, Aristogeiton and Har- 

416 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 505-506 

the tyrants a — with her hopes, all a woman could do ; 
for she also had joined in the revels about that noble 
mixing-bowl of Eros b and through the god had been 
initiated into the secrets which might not be revealed. 
When, therefore, the conspirators failed and were put 
to death, she was questioned and commanded to 
reveal those who still escaped detection ; but she 
would not do so and continued steadfast, proving that 
those men had experienced a passion not unworthy of 
themselves in loving a woman like her. And the 
Athenians caused a bronze lioness c without a tongue 
to be made and set it up in the gates of the Acropolis, 
representing by the spirited courage of the animal 
Leaena's invincible character, and by its tongueless- 
ness her power of silence in keeping a holy secret. 

No spoken word, it is true, has ever done such 
service as have in many instances words unspoken d ; 
for it is possible at some later time to tell what you 
have kept silent, but never to keep silent what once 
has been spoken — that has been spilled, and has 
made its way abroad/ Hence, I think, in speaking 
we have men as teachers, but in keeping silent we 
have gods, and we receive from them this lesson of 
silence at initiations into the Mysteries. And the 
Poet f has made the most eloquent Odysseus the 
most reticent, and also his son and his wife and his 
nurse ; for you hear the nurse saying, 9 ' 

I'll hold it safe like sturdy oak or iron. 

modius. Leaena and Aristogeiton. This was Eros's mixing- 
bowl. 

c See Judeich, op. cit., p. 231. 

d Cf. Moralia, 10 e-f, 125 d ; 515 a, infra. 

e Cf. Horace, Ars Poet., 390 : nescit vox missa reverti. 

f Cf. 442 d, 475 a, supra. 

Eurycleia ; adapted from Od. 9 xix. 494. 

417 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(506) avros Se rfj Ur}veA67Tr) 7rapaKa9ijjjL€vos 

Ovjjlo) [lev yoooooav irjv iXeatpe yvvali<a, 
d</>#aA/xot S' cus" el Kepa eoTaaav 7]€ cr/ST/pos 1 , 
arpefjias iv f$Xe<f)dpoLGLV . 

ovrco to crco/xa pbearov rjv avrtp Travra^oOev iyt<pa- 

reias, kcli ttclvt eytov 6 Aoyos €vtt€l9tj koX vtto- 

yzlpia TTpoGerarre toZs 6p,\iaai firj SaKpvtLV, rfj 

B yXcorrrj jjlt) (f)9iyy€o9aL i rfj Kaphia ptrj rpepieiv fi?]?f 

l>XaK7€LV. 

Tip V avT 1 iv 7T€Lorj KpaSurj peeve rerX^vla, 
pL£XP L T< ^ v dXoycov Kivrjiidrajv 8itJkovtos rod Aoyt- 

OpLOV KCLL TO TTVevpia Kol TO CU/ZCC 77 "€770 L7] pL€VOV 
KCLTTjKOOV iaVTCp KCLL %eLp6r}9eS. TOLOVTOL §€ /Cat OL 

ttoXXol tlov eTatptov to yap eXKopLevovs koll upoo- 

OV&lQopuivOVS V7TO TOV K.VKXtQ1TOS pLTj KaT€LTT€LV TOV 

OSvcrcreoos pt?]8e Sel^ai to irenvpaKTtop^evov eKelvo 
kol TrapeGKevaofAevov opyavov iirl tov 6(f)9aXpLov y 
aAA' wpLovs ioOieodat fidXXov ?} (fipdoai tl tlov 
auopprfrtov virepfloXrjv iyKpaTeiag Kai ttlot€Ojs ovk 

C OLTToXeXo L7T€V. 2 o9eV 6 HiTTCLKOS OV KCLKUJS , TOV 

AlyvTTTiow fiaoiXecos TrepajjavTOs Lepelov avTto kclI 

KeXevoavTOS to kolXXlotov koll 3 yelpLOTOv i^eXelv 

Kpeas, eirepa/jev* i^eXcov ttjv yXcoTTav cos opyavov 

[jiev dyaOcov opyavov 8e KaKtov tlov fieyioTOOv 

ovoav. 

1 S' aur'] he /LtaA' Homer. 

2 a-noXiXonrtv Reiske : iKXeXoiirev ; XeXonrev G. 

3 koX] /cat to most mss. 

418 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 506 

And Odysseus himself, as he sat beside Penelope, 

Did pity in his heart his wife in tears, 

But kept his eyes firm-fixed within their lids 

Like horn or iron. a 

So full of self-control was his body in every limb, and 
Reason, with all parts in perfect obedience and sub- 
mission, ordered his eyes not to weep, his tongue not 
to utter a sound, his heart not to tremble or bark b : 

His heart remained enduring in obedience, 

since his reason extended even to his irrational or in- 
voluntary movements and made amenable and sub- 
servient to itself d both his breath and his blood. Of 
such character were also most of his companions ; for 
even when they were dragged about and dashed 
upon the ground by the Cyclops, 6 they would not 
denounce Odysseus nor show that fire-sharpened 
instrument prepared against the monster's eye, but 
preferred to be eaten raw rather than to tell a 
single word of the secret — an example of self-control 
and loyalty which cannot be surpassed. Therefore 
Pittacus f did not do badly, when the king of Egypt 
sent him a sacrificial animal and bade him cut out 
the fairest and foulest meat, when he cut out and 
sent him the tongue, as being the instrument of both 
the greatest good and the greatest evil. 

a Od., xix. 210-212 ; cf. 442 d-e, supra. 
» Cf. Od. 9 xx. 13, 16. 
c Od., xx. 23 ; cf. 453 d, supra. 
d Cf. 442 e, supra. 
'■ Cf. Od. 9 ix. 289. 

f Cf. Commentarii in Hesiodum, 71 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. 
p. 88) ; told also of Bias in Moralia, 38 b and 146 r. 

4 €7T€fJLl/j€v] €^€7T€IJHp€V niOSt MSS. 

419 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(506) 9- C H 8' Eupi7rtSet09 'Ivtb Trapprjalav dyovaa 

7T€pL CLVTTJS elSeVCU CpTjGL, 

oiyav 6* orrov 1 Set Kal Aeyeiv Iv acn^aAe?. 

ol yap zvyevovs Kal fiaaiAiKrjs rep ovtl TratSetas 
Tvxovres irpcorov oiyav elra XaXelv piavOdvovoLV. 
Avriyovos yovv 2 6 fiaaiAevs Ikzlvos, epcorrjaavros 
avrov rod vlov TrrjvcKa pbeAAovatv dva^evyvvecv, 

J) " TL SeSoiKCLS; " €ITT€, " jJLTJ [AOVOS OVK OLKOVG7]S 

rrjs odAmyyos ; " ovk apa cbajvrjv eniGrevev drrop- 
prjrov to rrjv fiaoiAeiav diroAetTTeiv ejxeAAev; ioi- 
8a<jK€ fiev ovv avrov iyKpartos %X^ lv ^P ? Ta 
roiavra Kal rretpvAay/JLevajs. NlereAAos S' 6 yepojv 
erepov tl roiovrov enepajrcoiievos iirl arpareias, 
tl" cprjatv, " ayprqv rov xurtovd jjlol ovveiSevai 
rovro TaTTopprjTOV, 3 aTTohvoapLevos dv avrov £ttI 
to* TTvp edrjKa." EvfJLevrjs §' aKovaas eTrepx^crdai 
Ys^parepov ovSevl rcov (f>tAojv etfrpaoev, aAA' iipevaaro 
NeoTTToAepiov elvai' rovrov yap ol arpancoraL 
Karecppovovv, £k€lvov Se Kal ttjv S6£av iQavpia- 
£ov Kal rrjv dperrjv r\ya7TLov. eyva) S' ovSels a'A- 
E Aos", aAAa oviifiaAovres eKparrjoav Kal drreKre cvav 
avrov dyvoovvres Kal veKpov irreyvajcrav. ovra)s 
earparyjyrjaev rj aiOJTrrj rov dycova Kal ttjAlkovtov 

dvTayO)VLGT7]V aTT€KpVlfj€V LQGT aVTOV TOV$ <f)LAoVS 

firj rrpoeiTTOvra OavpAt^eiv jxaAAov rj pLefxtpecrdac Kav 
fi€pi(f)r]TaL 8e ns, lyKoAeiudai fieAriov iari aa>- 

1 orrov Moralia, 606 a and Stobaeus : 07701. 

2 yovv] ovv most mss. 

8 T&TTopprjTov] Pohlenz would delete, 

4 to added from 202 a. 

420 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 506 

9. And Ino in Euripides, a speaking out boldly 
concerning herself, says that she knows how to be 

Silent in season, to speak where speech is safe. 

For those who have received a noble and truly royal 
education learn first to be silent, and then to speak. 
For example, that famous king Antigonus, & when his 
son asked him at what hour they were to break camp, 
said, " What are you afraid of ? That you alone may 
not hear the trumpet ? " This was not, surely, be- 
cause he would not entrust a secret to the man to 
whom he intended to leave his kingdom ? No, he was 
teaching his son to be self-controlled and guarded 
about such matters. And the old Metellus, when 
on a campaign he was asked some such question, said, 
If I thought my shirt was privy to that secret, I 
would have stripped it off and put it in the fire." And 
Eumenes, d when he heard that Craterus was advan- 
cing, told none of his friends, but pretended that it was 
Neoptolemus. For his soldiers despised Neoptolemus, 
but both respected the reputation of Craterus and 
admired his valour. No one else knew the truth, and 
they joined battle, won the victory, killed Craterus 
without knowing it, and only recognized him when he 
was dead. So successfully did silence manoeuvre the 
contest and keep hidden so formidable an opponent 
that his friends admired Eumenes for not forewarning 
them rather than blamed him. And even if some do 
blame you, it is better that men should criticize you 
when they are already saved through mistrust than 

Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 486, Frag. 413. 2 ; cf 
Moralia, 606 a. 

6 The One-eyed; cf Moralia, 182 b; Life of Demetrius, 
xxviii. (902 b-c). c Cf Moralia, 202 a. 

d Cf Life of Eumenes, vi., vii. (586 b ff.). 

421 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Oevras 1 St' drnorriav tj KanqyopeZv drroAAvpievovs 2 

OLCL TO TTLGTeVGai. 

10. Tis 8' 6Aojs z eavrco 7jappr\olav dnoAeAonre 
Kara rod jjLrj oiojirrjoavros ; el yap dyvoeladai rov 
Aoyov ehei, KaKws eAexOrj Trpos aAAov el 8' d(f>els 
€K aeavrov Acare^ct? ev erepco rdiToppr^rov y els 
F dAAorptav irloriv Kararre^evyas rrjv aeavrov rrpo- 
efievos. i<dv fiev eKelvos* opioids uol yeviqrai, 
hiKalojs drrdAojAas' dv he fieAriojv, orco^rj rrapaAdyoJs 
erepov evpcbv gov 5 vrrep aeavrov 6 mordrepov. 
aAAa (jjiAos ovros epioi." rovrco 8' erepds ris, <3 
TTiorevoei Kal 1 ovros ojs eycb rovrcp' KaKeXvos dAAcp 
TrdAtv eiO* ovra>s ernyovrjv Aapufidvei Kal 77oAAa77Aa- 
OLaufjiov, elpofjiev-qs rrjs aKpaotas, 6 Aoyos. ojs yap 
537 rj fiovas ovk eK^atvet rov eavrrjs opov aAA' arra^ 
rd ev pLevei, hid KeKArjrac piovds' rj he hvas dpx^J 
htacfropas dopcoros' evdvs yap eavrrjv e^Lorrjai ra> 
hnrAaoiaopLcp els to ttAtjOos rperropbevr]' ovrco Aoyos 
ev rcb TTpojrtp KarapLevajv aTTOpprjros ojs dArjOojs 
eoTLV dv 8' els erepov eK^ij (frrjpbrjs £o~X e Tdi~iv. 
" errea " yap " Trrepdevra," (frrjalv 6 TTOLTjrrjS' ovre 
yap TTTTjvdv eK tojv x €L pd>v d(jjevra pahidv eonv 

1 oo)6ivTas] otoOevTo. most mss. 

2 OL7ToXXviJL€VOVs] OL7ToXXvfJL€VOV SOme MSS. 

3 oXcos] dXXos most mss. ; aXXoos C. 

4 €K€lvos] omitted in most mss. 

5 gov added by Capps. 

6 aeavrov] aeavrov most mss. 

7 Kal] omitted in most mss. 

a Cf, Moralia 9 429 a, 1012 d-f. For the indeterminate 
dyad, see Aristotle, Met., 987 b 26 and 1081 a 14; A. E. 
422 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 506-507 

that they should accuse you when they are being 

destroyed because you did trust them. 

10. Yet, speaking generally, who has left himself 
the right to speak out boldly against one who has not 
kept silent ? If the story ought not to have been 
known, it was wrong for it to be told to another ; 
and if you have let the secret slip from yourself and 
yet seek to confine it to another, you have taken 
refuge in another's good faith when you have already 
abandoned your own. And if he turns out to be no 
better than yourself, you are deservedly ruined ; if 
better, you are saved beyond all expectation, since 
you have found another more faithful on your own 
behalf than you yourself are. u But this man is my 
friend.' ' Yet he has another friend, whom he will 
likewise trust as I trust him ; and his friend, again, 
will trust another friend. Thus, then, the story goes 
on increasing and multiplying by link after link of in- 
continent betrayal. For just as the monad a does not 
pass out of its own boundaries, but remains once and 
for all one (for which reason it is called a monad), and 
as the dyad is the indeterminate beginning of differ- 
ence (for by doubling it at once shifts from unity to 
plurality), so a story confined to its first possessor is 
truly secret ; but if it passes to another, it has ac- 
quired the status of rumour. The Poet, 5 in fact, says 
that " words " are " winged " : neither when you let 
go from your hands a winged thing is it easy to get 

Taylor, Philosophical Studies, pp. 130 if. ; and for Plutarch's 
understanding of the dyad see L. Robin, La Theorie platoni- 
cienne des idees et des nombres, pp. 648-651 (Notopoulos and 
Fobes). 

b Homer, passim ; on the formula, see the most recent 
discussions in Classical Philology, xxx. 215 ff., xxxii. 59 ff., 
Classical Quart., xxx. 1-3. 

423 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(507) avOtS KOLTOLGXeiV ', OVT€ X6yOV €K TOV OTOfJiaTOS 

Trpo€fL€vov GvXXafielv Kal Kparrjcrai hvvarov, dXXd 
(f>eperai 

Xaufjrjpd kvkAcogols Trrepd 

St' dXXajv 1 err* dXXovs GKiSvapLevos. vechs fiev yap 

apTTayeiGrfS vtto TrvevjxaTOs eViAa/x/3dVovTCU, gtt€i- 

B pais Kal ayKvpais to rd^os dfifiXvpovTes' Xoyov S' 2 

(5(7776/3 €K XlfJLeVU)V €KSpafJLOVTOS OVK €GTLV SpflOS 

ouS' ayKvpo[36Xiov, dXXd ifj6(f)Ci) ttoXXco Kal rf^cx) 
(^epofievos npoGepprj^e Kal KareovGev els fJieyav 
rivd .Kal Seivov rov (f)9ey£djjL€Vov kivovvov. 

puKpov yap €K XafjLTTrrjpos 'ISaTov Xeiras 
7TprjG€L€V av tls' Kal rrpos avhp* elntbv eva, 
ttvOoivt av dorol Trdvres. 

11. r H Poj/xatcov GvyKX^rog aTropprjrov riva 
/3ovXr]V IfiovXevero Ka6* avrrjv €ttI TroXXas r)f.i€pas' 
dodcfreiav 8e ttoXXt)v Kal vrrovoiav e^ovros rod irpdy- 
fjuaros, yvvrj rdXXa Gaxfipojv, yvvrj 8e, rrpoGeKeiro 
C rep iavrfjs dvSpl XiTraptos SeojJLevrj TTvdiodai rd- 
TropprjTov opKot §e Kal Kardpai irepl glwtttjs lyl- 
vovro Kal oaKpva TTOTVia)[Levy]s avrrjs, ojs ttlgtlv 
ovk i)(ovGr]s. 6 Se 'PatfiaTos e^eXey^ai fiovXojJizvos 
avrrjs rr)v dfieXrepiav, " vik&s, cS yvvai" elirev, 
" dXX aKove cjiofiepov rrpayfjia Kal repdoriov npoo- 
r]yyeXrat yap tj/jllv vtto tojv tepewv KopvSov d)(f)daL 
Trerofjievov Kpdvos eypvra y^pvoovv Kal oopv gkzttto- 

1 St' aAAcov] hi a/jievcuv D, whence Bernardakis would correct 

St* aV€jJLO)V. 

2 Xoyov 8'] rov Se Xoyov most mss. 

° Cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 691, Euripides, Frag. 
1044. 

424 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 507 

it back again, nor when a word is let slip from the 
mouth is it possible to arrest and control it, but it is 
borne away 

Circling on swift wings, 6 
and is scattered abroad from one to another. So 
when a ship has been caught by a wind, they try to 
check it, deadening its speed with cables and anchors, 
but if a story runs out of harbour, so to speak, there 
is no roadstead or anchorage for it, but, carried away 
with a great noise and reverberation, it dashes upon 
the man who uttered it and submerges him in some 
great and terrible danger. 

With but a little torch one might set fire 
To Ida's rock ; and tell one man a tale, 
Soon all the town will know. 

1 1 . The Roman Senate d was once for many days 
debating in strict privacy a certain secret policy ; and 
since the matter gave rise to much uncertainty and 
suspicion, a woman prudent in other respects, but yet 
a woman, kept pestering her husband and persistently 
begging to learn the secret. She vowed with im- 
precations upon herself that she w r ould keep silent, 
and wept and moaned because she w T as not trusted. 
And the Roman, wishing to bring home her folly 
by proof, said, " Wife, you have won ; listen to 
a terrible and portentous matter. We have been 
informed by the priests that a lark has been seen 
flying about with a golden helmet and a spear ; we 

h Cf. Moralia, 750 b; probably from the Epodes of 
Archilochus, cf. Eusebius, Praep. Evang. y xv. 4. 5 ; Edmonds, 
Elegy and Iambus, ii. p. 142. 

c Nauck, op. cit., p. 486, Euripides, Frag. 411, vv. 2-4, from 
the Ino ; cf. St. James, iii. 5, 6. 

d Cf. the tale of Papirius Praetextatus, Aulus Gellius, i. 23. 

425 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(507) jxeOa Srj to Tepas eire ^p^crrov etre (jxivAov ion, 

/cat uvvStaTTopovfjiev to is fiavreoiv aAAa atctWa." 

tolvt elrrcov a>X €T ' €L $ T V V o/yopav rj Se tcjv Oepa- 

iraiviScov evOvs ecfreXwaajJievr] ttjv 7rpcorrjv elo- 

D eXdovoav, eiraie to gttjOos olvttjs /cat tols ryot^a? 

€G7TdpOLTT€V, " OLfJLOL," AeyOVGOL, " TOLV&pOS KCLI TTJS 
TTCLTpiSoS' TL TTeLGOfJLeda ; " flovXofJLevr} Kdl StSa- 

GKovoa ttjv OepdiraLvav elrrelv, " tl yap yeyovev; * 
cos S' ovv TrvOofjievrjs St7]yrjGaTO /cat rrpooeOrjKe tov 
kolvov CLTrdo-qs dSoXeoxlas ZttcqSov, to " raura 
pnqSevl (f>pdorjs aAAa aulytra" ov <f)ddveL to 6epa- 
ttcuvlSlov drroxoopfjoav avTrjs, /cat tcov SfioSovXcov 
evOvs rjv pidXiuT elSe oxoXd^ovorav ififidXXeL tov 
Xoyov eKelvrj Se tw epaoTrj napayevo\ievco Trpos 
avTTjv €(f)pao€V. ovtco o' els dyopdv tov SLrjyrjiJLaTos 
E eKKvXioOevTos couTe TrpoSpafielv tov irXaodpLevov 
ttjv (prjfjLrjv, aTravTrjoas tls aura) tcov yvcoptpLCov, 
11 dpTccos," elirev, " olko0€V els dyopdv /caTa- 
fiaiveis; " " dpTLOOs," €<f>y] eKelvos* " ovkovv 
ovSev aKrjKoas; " " yeyove yap tl Kaivov; \; 
aAAa 1 KopvSos coiTTai TreTopievos Kpdvos epv 
Xpvaovv /cat 86pv, /cat pueXXovoi nepl tovtov uvy- 
kXtjtov e'xeiv ol apxovTes" KaKelvos yeXdoas, 
" ev 2 tov T<&)(QVs/' elrrev, " co yvvai, to /cat cf)9dcrai 
fxe tov Aoyov els dyopdv TTpoeXOovTa." tovs piev 
ovv dpxovTas evTVXoov drnqXXa^e ttjs Tapax^S' ttjv 
Se yvvolKa Tipbcopovfievos, cos ot/caS' elorjX6ev y 
" dncoXeods fi 9 " elirev, " to yvvai' to yap diroppr\- 
tov e/c ttjs efirjs oIkicls ixe^copaTai SeSrjpLOOicopLevov 
cooTe fJLOL (f)evKTeov eoTi ttjv iraTpiSa Sta ttjv orjv 

F OLKpaalaV." Tp€7TOfl€V7)S Se 7TpOS dpVTjOLV avTrjs 
1 Kaivov; dXXa Reiske: Kaivov d'AAo. 2 cu] <j>ev Cobet. 

426 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS. 507 

are therefore examining the portent whether it be 
good or bad, and are in constant consultation with the 
augurs. But do you hold your tongue." So saying 
he went off to the Forum. But his wife at once 
seized the first maid to come into the room and beat 
her own breast and tore her hair. " Alas," she cried, 
" for my husband and my country ! What will be- 
come of us ? " wishing, and in fact instructing, the 
maid to ask, " Why, what has happened ? " So when 
the maid asked the question, she told the tale and 
added that refrain common to every babbler, " Keep 
this quiet and tell it to no one ! " The little maid 
had scarcely left her when she herself tells the tale 
to that fellow servant who, she saw, had least to do ; 
and this servant, in turn, told it to her lover who was 
paying a visit. With such speed was the story rolled 
out a into the Forum that it preceded its inventor : 
he was met by an acquaintance who said, " Have 
you just now come down to the Forum from home ? " 
11 This very moment," said he. " Then you have 
heard nothing ? " " Why, is there any news ? " 
" A lark has been seen flying about with a gold 
helmet and a spear and the magistrates are going 
to convene the senate about the matter." And the 
husband laughed and said, " All praise to your speed, 
my wife ! The story has even reached the Forum 
before me ! " So he interviewed the magistrates and 
relieved them of their anxiety ; but, by way of pun- 
ishing his wife, as soon as he entered home, he said, 
" Wife, you have ruined me ! The secret has been 
discovered to have been made public from my house ; 
consequently I am to be exiled from my native land 
because you lack self-control." When she denied it 

a As by the eccyclema on the Greek stage. 

427 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kal Aeyovorjs, " ov yap ravra /x£Ta TptaKooiojv 
7] kovg as ; " tl ttolojv," z^y " TpiaKooLajv; GOV 
ftia^ofjLevrjs eVAaaa^v avoir eipujixevos ." ovtos 
fjiev ovv oLGcfraAtos rrdvv Kal pier evAafieias , coGirep 
els dyyelov Gadpov ovk olvov ovk eAaiov aAA' 
508 vSwp ey^ias, eneipaoe rrjv yvvaiKa. 

QovAficos 1 S' 6 Kaloapos iracpog rod HefiaoTod 
yepovTos rjSrj yeyovoTOS aKovoas oSvpofxevov rrjv 
rrepl tov oIkov eprjpiiav, Kal on tcov fxev ovelv avra) 2 
dvyarpio&v arroAcoA6ra)v UooTOvpiiov* S' os <etl 
Aolttos eoTiv €K SiafioArjs twos ev fay?} ovtos 
avayKa^eTac tov ttjs yvvaiKos vlov eiTeiodyeiv tt\ 
StaSoxfj ttjs rjyepLovias, KaLirep oiKTcpajv Kal fiov- 
Aevopievos eK ttjs vrrepoplas dvaKaAelodai tov 
OvyaTpcoovv TavT 6 QovAfiios aKovoas e^iqveyKe 
rrpos ttjv iavTov yvvaiKa, rrpos Se Aifiiav eKeivrj, 
B Ai^la Se KaOrjifjaTO rriKpoos Kaicrapos", el rrdAai 
TavT iyvojKcbs ov pbeTanepLTreTai tov OvyaTpiSovv, 
aAA' els e^Opav Kal TToAefiov avTrjv tw StaSo^eo ttjs 
dpxfjs KaOiGTrjoLV. eAdovTOs ovv ewOev, ws eld)0ei ) 
tov QovAfiiov rrpos avTov i<al elrrovTOS, " x°^P € > 

aioap, vyiaiv , eme, lyovApie. KaKecvos 
vorjoas &>X €T ' € v6vs dmcbv OLKaSe, Kal ttjv yvvaiKa 
pLeTairepLifjapLevos, " eyvojKev," ecjyr), " YLaloap, otl 
TaTTopprjTOV ovk eGiajTrrjoa- Kal Sta tovto fieAAa) 

1 OouA^tos-] Qdptos Meziriacus. 

2 avrq) D : avrov. 

3 Jloarovfjiov Wilamowitz. 

428 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 507-508 

and said, " What, didn't you hear it in company with 
three hundred others?" " Three hundred, non- 
sense!" said he. " You made such a fuss that I 
had to invent the whole story to try you out." Thus 
this man made trial of his wife cautiously and in com- 
plete safety, pouring, as it were into a leaky vessel, 
not wine or oil, but water. a 

But Fulvius, & the friend of Caesar Augustus, heard 
the emperor, now an old man, lamenting the desola- 
tion of his house : two of his grandsons c were dead, 
and Postumius, d the only one surviving, was in exile 
because of some false accusation, and thus he was 
forced to import his wife's son e into the imperial 
succession ; yet he pitied his grandson and was 
planning to recall him from abroad. Fulvius divulged 
what he had heard to his own wife, and she to Li via ; 
and Livia bitterly rebuked Caesar : if he had formed 
this design long ago, why did he not send for his 
grandson, instead of making her an object of enmity 
and strife to the successor to the empire. Accord- 
ingly, when Fulvius came to him in the morning, as 
was his custom, and said, " Hail, Caesar," Caesar 
replied, "Farewell, Fulvius." t And Fulvius took 
his meaning and went away ; going home at once, 
he sent for his wife, " Caesar has found out," he 
said, " that I have not kept his secret, and there- 

a Plutarch is probably quoting a verse, as Wilamowitz has 
seen : 

is ayytlov aadpov 
ovk olvov ouS' e'Acuov aAA' vhcop X e 'aS". 
b Fabius Maximus in Tacitus, Annals , i. 5, who relates the 
story quite differently. 

c Gaius and Lucius Caesar. 

d Postumus Agrippa ; cf. Tacitus, Annals, i. 3. 

e Tiberius. ' " Ave, Caesar " ; " Vale, Fulvi." 

429 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

pUo) avcupecv efxavrov ■ 7) 06 yvvrj, ot/catoj?, eLrrev, 
" or 1 jjLOL roaovrov ovvolkojv xpovov ovk eyvojs ou§' 
i(f)vXd^a> rrjv aKpaolav aXX eacrov ifie TTporepav" 
/cat Aa/3ouaa to ^i(f)Os eavrrjv rrpoavelXe rdvSpog. 
C 12. *0p6cbs ovv ^iXimTtSrjg 6 KcofJUpSioiroids 1 
cf>tXo(f)povoviJL€Vov rod fiacnXeajs avrov Avaifidxov 
kclI 2 Xeyovrog, " tlvos vol jxeraoo) rcov epbtov; " 
11 ov fiovXet," (f)7]GL, " fiaGiXeVy rrXrjV rtov drropp-q- 
Titiv!' rfj S' aSoAco^ta /cat r) irepiepyia kolkov ovk 
eXarrov TrpooeoTc 77-oAAa, yap aKovew OeXovcriv, Iva 
TToXXd Xeyetv e)(a)OL' /cat /zaAtora rovs drropprjrovs 

KCLI K€KpVfl[JL€VOVS TCx)V X6yOJV TT€pLLOVT€S li;LyyeV- 

ovol koll avepevvtooLV, tooirep vXtjv iraAatdV 3 tlvcl 
cfropTLtov* rfj <f)XvapLa 7TaparLdejjL€VOL, eld' tooirep oi 
TTalhes tov KpvoraXXov ovre SvvavraL 5 /care^etv ovt 
D OL(f)€LvaL OeXovoL' jjlolXXov S' worirep iprrerd rovs arrop- 
prjrovs Xoyovs eyKoXirLodybevoL /cat uvXXafiovres 
ov KparovGLv 6 dXXd Sta/Jt/Spoja/covrat vtt* avrtbv. 
tols jxev yap fieXovas (f>aol prjyvvoOaL TLKrovoas /cat 
rds e^tSva?, ol 8' drropprjroL XoyoL rovs /X17 ore- 
yovras £kttlittovt€S arroXXvovoL /cat 8ta</>#£toouc7t. 

HeXevKos 6 KaAAtVt/cos" iv rfj rrpos raAaras 1 p^d^rj 
tt&v aTToftaXajv to arpdrevfia /cat rrjv SvvapLLV, 

1 KtofjLcp&LOTToids Bernardakis : KcjpicphoTTOLos* 

2 /cat] TTpos iavrov koX most mss. 

3 77aAatav] -rrvXaiav Bernardakis. 

4 (f>opTiQ)v] <j)opvr6jv Wyttenbach. 

6 Svvavrai added by W.C.H. after Reiske. 
6 KparovGiv] ovyKparovoLV all mss. but two. 

a Cf. 517 b, infra; Moralia, 183 e; Life of Demetrius, 
xii. (894 d). 
430 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 508 

fore I intend to kill myself." It is right that you 
should," said his wife, " since, after living with me 
for so long a time, you have not learned to guard 
against my incontinent tongue. But let me die first." 
And, taking the sword, she dispatched herself before 
her husband. 

12. Philippides, a the comic poet, therefore, made 
the right answer when King Lysimachus courteously 
asked him, M What is there of mine that I may share 
with you ? " and he replied, " Anything you like, 
Sire, except your secrets." And to garrulousness 
is attached also a vice no less serious than itself, 
inquisitiveness. & For babblers wish to hear many 
things so that they may have many things to tell. 
And they go about tracking down and searching out 
especially those stories that have been kept hidden 
and are not to be revealed, storing up for their foolish 
gossip, as it were, a second-hand stock of hucksters' 
wares ; then, like children with a piece of ice, c they 
are neither able to hold it nor willing to let it go. 
Or rather, the secrets are like reptiles d which they 
catch and place in their bosoms, yet cannot confine 
them there, but are devoured by them ; for pipe- 
fish e and vipers, they say, burst in giving birth, and 
secrets, when they escape, destroy and ruin those 
who cannot keep them. 

Seleucus f the Victorious lost his entire army and 
power in the battle against the Gauls ; he tore off his 

b Cf 519 c, infra. 

c Proverbia Alexandr., i. 19 {Paroemlographi Graeci, i. p. 
324) ; cf Pearson on Sophocles, Frag. 149 (153 ed. Nauck). 

d Cf Aesop, Fable 97 ed. Halm. 

6 Cf Aristotle, Historia Animalium, vi. 13 (567 b 23); 
De Generatione Animalium, iii. 4 (755 a 33). 

' Cf 489 a, supra. 

431 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(508) avros Se 1 Trepiorrdoas to SidSrjpLa koll cpvycbv Itttto) 
fiera TpLa>v 7} rerrapcov olvoSlcus koli rrAdvais ttoAvv 
Spopiov, 77S77 St' evheiav dnayopevajv eiravXiaj rivl 

7TpOGrjA0€, KCU TOV SeOTTOTrjV CLVTOV €Vp())V KCLTCL 

rvyy]v dprov ko\ vocop rjrrjoev. 6 Se Kal tclvtcl koli 
E rwv clAAcjov ocra rraprjv ev dypw ooufjcAcos €tti8ioovs 
Kal <f)iAo(f)povovfA€Vos eyvwptue to rrpoGOJirov rod 
fiaoiAecos y Kal 7Tepiyapr)s yevopbevos rrj ovvrvyia 
rrjs ypeias ov Kareoyev ovSe ovveiftevoaro /3ouAo- 
(Jievcp AavddveiVy aAA' dypi rrjs ooov it poire papas Kal 
arroAvof-LevoSy " vyiaiv >' eirrev, " to fiaoiAev 2e- 
AevKe." KaKelvos eKreivas rrjv Se^iav avrco Kal 
TrpooeAKOfievos cos* <j>iArjoa)v, evevaev evl rcbv pier* 
avrov £i(f)€L tov rpdyrjAov anoKoijjai rod dvOpajnov 

cpdeyyopievov S* dpa rod ye Kaprj kovltjolv epbLyOrj. 

el 8' eoiyrjore rore Kapreprjoas oAiyov ypovov, 

F evTvyrjoavros vorepov rod fiaoiAeojs Kal fieydAov 

yevopievov pcel^ovas av y otpLat, ydpiras eKopLioar 

dvrl TTJS GLOJTT7JS Tj TTJS (j>lAo^eVia£ . 

Ovtos p,ev ovv dfJLQJoyeTTOJs ea^€ rrp6(f)aotv rrjs 
aKpaoias ttjv eAiriha Kal rrjv (piAocfypoovvrjv, (13) ol 
Se rrAeloTOi rcov dhoAeayojv oi5S' alriav eyovres 
aTToAAvovotv avrovs. olov ev Kovpeioj tlvI Aoyojv 
yLvopuevojv irepl rrjs Alovvolov rvpavvihos, d>s 
dSapLavrivT) Kal dpprjKros eon, yeAdoas 6 Kovpevs, 
" ravd' vpL&s," €(f)7j, " rrepl Aiovvoiov Aeyeiv, ov 

1 avrds Se Pohlenz : avros or avrov Be. 

a Homer, II ,x. 457. 
432 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 508 

crown with his own hands and fled on horseback with 
three or four companions. When he had travelled 
a long journey through winding ways and trackless 
wilds, at length becoming desperate from lack of food 
he approached a certain farmhouse. By chance he 
found the master himself and begged bread and 
water from him. And the farmer gave him lavishly 
both these and whatever else there was in a farmstead, 
and, while entertaining him hospitably, recognized 
the face of the king. In his joy at the fortunate 
chance of rendering service he could not restrain 
himself or dissemble as did the king, who wished to 
remain unknown, but he escorted the king to the 
highway and, on taking leave, said, " Fare well, 
King Seleucus." And Seleucus, stretching out his 
right hand to him and drawing him towards himself 
as though to kiss him, gave a sign to one of his 
companions to cut off the man's head with a sword : 

Still speaking his head was mingled with the dust. a 
But if the man had remained silent at that time and 
had mastered himself for a little while, w T hen the king 
later won success and regained power, he would 
have earned, I fancy, an even larger reward for his 
silence than for his hospitality. 

This man, it is true, had as something of an excuse 
for his incontinence his hopes and the friendly service 
he had rendered ; (13) but most talkers do not even 
have a reason for destroying themselves. For ex- 
ample, people were once talking in a barber's shop 
about how adamantine b and unbreakable the despot- 
ism of Dionysius was. The barber laughed and said, 
" Fancy your saying that about Dionysius, when I 

b Cf Life of Dion, vii. (961 a), x. (962 b) ; Aelian, Varia 
Historic vi. 12. 

433 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

eyto nap* r^JLepas oXtyas eirl tov rpa^-qXov to £vpov 
509 e^co/' tolvt aKovoas 6 Alovvulos dveoTavptooev 
clvtov. 

'JLmeiKtos he. XdXov earl to tcov Kovpecov yevos' 
ol yap dSoXeaxorarot irpoopeovoi /cat tt poo kclO trov- 
er iv, coot olvtovs dvaTTLfiTrXaaOai ttjs avvr)9eias. 
XapcevTcas yovv 6 fiaoiXevs 'ApxeXaos a8oXeox ov 
Kovpetos 7r€pij3aX6vTOs avra) to wjjloXlvov /cat ttvOo- 
jxevoVy " ntos ae Kelpto, jSacrtAeu; " " oilottlov" 
€(f>rj. Kovpevs he /cat tj\v ev Zt/ceAta tcov 'Adrjvalajv 
fjieydXrjv KCLKOTrpayiav durfyyeiXe TrpcoTos, ev TleL- 
paiel TTvOopievos oIk£tov tlvos tcov dnohehpaKOTCov 

€K€l9€V. elT d(f>els TO ipyaCFTTjpLOV els CLOTV 

aVV€T€LV€ hpOfJLCp 

jJLTJ TLS KvhoS dpOLTO 

B tov Xoyov els ttjv ttoXlv epifiaXcbv, 

6 he hevTepos eX9oi. 

yevopbevrjs he Tapax^js, olov elKos, els eKKXrjolav 
ddpoiodels 6 Srjfjios eirl ttjv dpx^jv efidhu^e ttjs 
(f>rjfji7]s. rvyer ovv 6 Kovpevs /cat dvefcpcveTO, pL7]he 
Tovvojia tov <f)pdoavTOs elhcos aAA' els dveovvpeov 
/cat dyvcooTov dva<j>eptov ttjv apx^v Trpooamov. 
opyrj hrj 1 /cat f3orj tov OeaTpov " ftacrdvi£,e /cat 
OTpefiXov tov dXdaTopci' ireirXaoTai raura /cat 
GWTeOeiKe 2 ' tls 8' aAAo? rjKovoe; tls 8' enLOTev- 
oev ; " eKOfJLLoQrj Tpoxds, KaTeTadrj 6 dvdpamos. 
C ev tovtco 7raprjaav ol ttjv GvpL(f)opdv dirayyeXXovTes , 

1 8^ Pohlenz : he or ovv (omitted in most mss.). 

2 avvredeiKe] avvTedeiTCLi or avvredrjKe most mss. 
434 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 508-509 

have my razor at his throat every few days or so ! 
When Dionysius heard this, he crucified the barber. 
It is not strange that barbers are a talkative clan, 
for the greatest chatterboxes stream in and sit in 
their chairs, so that they are themselves infected 
with the habit. It was a witty answer, for instance, 
that King Archelaiis a gave to a loquacious barber, 
who, as he wrapped his towel around him, asked, 
u How shall I cut your hair, Sire ? " " In silence," 
said Archelaiis. And it was a barber b also who first 
announced the great disaster of the Athenians in 
Sicily, having learned it in the Peiraeus from a slave, 
one of those who had escaped from the island. Then 
the barber left his shop and hurried at full speed to 
the city, 

Lest another might win the glory 

of imparting the news to the city, 

and he come second. 

A panic naturally arose and the people gathered in 
assembly and tried to come at the origin of the 
rumour. So the barber was brought forward and 
questioned ; yet he did not even know the name of 
his informant, but referred the origin to a nameless 
and unknown person. The assembly was enraged 
and cried out, " Torture the cursed fellow ! Put him 
on the rack ! He has fabricated and concocted this 
tale ! Who else heard it ? Who believed it ? " The 
wheel was brought and the man was stretched upon 
it. Meanwhile there arrived bearers of the disas- 

a Cf Moralia, 177 a. 

b Cf Life of Nicias, xxx. (542 d-e). 

c Homer, //., xxii. 207. 

435 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(509) e£ clvtov tov epyov hiaire^evyoTes . eoKe8do9rjoav 
ovv iravres errl ra ot/ceta Trevdr], KaTaXiTTovTes ev too 
rpo)(cp tov dOXiov evSeSeLievov. oifje Se XvOels rjSrj 
rrpos euirepav rjpcora tov SrjfjLOOLOv 1 el /cat Trepl 
Nt/ctou tov GTparrjyov, ov rporrov drroXcoXev, 01/07- 
Koaaiv. ovtcxjs d/xa^ov tl kclkov /cat dvovOerrjrov r) 
ovvrjdeia 7tol€l tt)v dSoAca^tav. 

14. KatVot y cooTrep ol rd mKpd /cat ra SvoooStj 
(frdppLCLKa TTiovres ovoxtpaivovoL /cat rag /cuAt/cas", 
ovtcos ol rd /ca/ca irpooayyeXXovTes vtto tcov 
aKovovTtov hvGxzp&Lvovrai /cat ilioovvtlxi. odev 2 
yapievTUis 6 So^o/cAtJs* SirjTroprjKev, 

O. ev Tolaiv cbolv r) Vt rfj ifsvxfj SaKvr] ; 

D K. TL Se pvd[JLL^€LS TTjV efJLTjV Xv7T7]V OTTOV ;* 

O. 6 Spcvv a' dVta ras* <f>peva$ y rd 8' cut' eyto. 

Xvttovol 8' ovv cooirep ol Spcovres /cat ol Xeyovres } 
dAA' ofJLCos ovk eon yXcboarjs peovorjs err [exeats 
ov8e KoXaopios. 

'Ev AcLKeScLLfJiovi Trjs XaA/ctot/cou to lepov cotpOrj 
oeovXrjfjievov, /cat KeiLievrj evSov Kevrj Xdyvvos* ^\V 
ovv diropla ttoXXlov ovvSeSpaLirjKOTcav, /cat tls tcov 
TTdpovTOW, " et f3ovXeo9\ eyco tf>pdoco VLUV 6 LLOl 
TrapLOTaTCLL irepl Trjs Xayvvov vo/xt£a> ydp," etprj, 
" tovs lepoovXovs errl ttjXlkovtov eXdelv klvSvvov 
E Ktoveiov eLLiriovTas /cat kolil^ovtcls olvov, Iv el Liev 
avTols Xadelv eyyevotTO, tco aKparcp iroOevTi ofie- 
oavTes /cat 8taAuaai/T69 to cpdpLiaKOV drreXOoiev 
docfxiXcos' el 8' dXioKoiVTo, rrpo tcov fiacrdveov vtto 

1 SijfJLLOV G. 

2 odev] kolltol (ye) most mss. 

3 OTTOV] OTl Or 07T7) HlOSt MSS. 

436 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 509 

trous news, men who had escaped from the slaughter 
itself. All, therefore, dispersed, each to his private 
mourning, leaving the wretched fellow bound on the 
wheel. But when he was set free late in the day 
when it was already nearly evening, he asked the 
executioner if they had also heard " how the general, 
Nicias, had died." Such an unconquerable and 
incorrigible evil does habit make garrulity. 

14. And yet, just as those who have drunk bitter 
and evil-smelling drugs are disgusted with the cups 
as well, so those who bear ill tidings cause disgust and 
hatred in those who hear them. Therefore Sophocles a 
has very neatly raised the question : 

Gu. Is it in ear or soul that you are stung ? — 
Cr. But why seek to define where lies my pain ? — 
Gu, The doer grieves your heart, I but your ears. 

Be that as it may, speakers also cause pain, just as 
doers do, but none the less there is no checking or 
chastening a loose tongue. 

The temple of Athena of the Brazen House at 
Sparta was discovered to have been plundered, and 
an empty flask was found lying inside. The large 
crowd which had quickly formed was quite at a loss, 
when one of the bystanders said, " If you wish, I shall 
tell you what occurs to me about that flask. I think 
that the robbers, before undertaking so dangerous a 
task, drank hemlock and brought along wine, so that, 
if they should escape detection, by drinking the un- 
mixed wine they might quench the poison and rid 
themselves of its evil effects, b and so might get away 
safely ; but if they should be caught, that they might 

a Antigone, 317-319 : Creon and the Guard who brings 
news of the attempted burial of Polyneices are the speakers. 
6 Cf. Moralia, 61 b, 653 a. 
vol. vi p 437 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rov (f)apfjidKov paolcos /cat dvcoSvvcos OLTTodaVOLeV." 
tclvt elnovTos clvtov to 7rpay/xa ttXoktjv ^x ov KCLi 

7T€pLVOr]GLV TOGaVTTjV OV)( V7TOVOOVVTOS dXX etSoTO? 
€(f)CLLV€TO. KOLL 7T€pLOTCLVT€S CLVTOV dv€KpiVCLV dX~ 

Aaxouev aAAos, tls et; /cat tls (J otoe; 
/cat " rrodev ettlotolocll ravra; " /cat to Trepas 
iXeyxdpievos ovtcos cbpLoXoyrjoev els etvcu tcov Upo- 
avXcov. 

Ot 8' "I/Svkov a7TOKT€LvavT€s ovx ovtcos idXcocrav, 

J 1 iv Oedrpco KaOrjfxevot 2 /cat yepdvcov TrapacfraveLCTcov 

Trpos dXXrjXovs dfJLCL yeXcoTL ifjLOvpic^ovTes, cos at 

IfivKOV e/cSt/cot TrdpeLGLv; aKOvaavTes yap ol 

Kade^opbevoi ttXtjolov, 7]8r) tov 'I/3vkov ttoXvv 

Xpovov ovTOS d(f>avovs /cat ^rjrovpLevov, ineXdfiovTO 

Trjs cf)covrjs /cat TrpoarjyyeLXav rots d'pxpvoLV. iXey- 

xdevres 8' ovtcos d7rrjx^ r j (Tav > °^X v 77 ® tcov yepdvcov 

510 KoXaodivres aAA' vtto Trjs clvtcov yXcoooaXyias 

cocnrep '"EpLVVos rj TloLvrjs ^LaoOivTes i^ayopevocLL 

TOV (f)OVOV. COS ydp iv TO) OtbfJLCLTL TTpOS Ta TT€- 

ttovOotcl pLep?] /cat dXyovvTCL yiveTCLL <f)opd /cat oXktj 
tcov 7rXr]CTLOv, ovtlos r) yXtoTTCL tcov dSoXeaxoov del 
<j>XeypLovr)v k'xovaa /cat acfrvyfidv e'A/cct tl /cat ovvdyei 

TLOV dTTOppTjTOOV /Cat K€KpvpLpL€VO)V €</>' eCLVTTjV. StO 

Set 7T€(/)pdx0cLi, /cat tov XoyLapuov cos TrpofioXov ipL- 

7To8o)V del Tjj yXcOTTT] K€ipi€VOV ilTLOX^ TO p€V{JLCL 
/Cat TOV oXiodoV CLVTTJS, LVCL piTj TCOV X^VCOV d(f)pOV€- 
OT€pOL etvOLL 8oKCOJJL€V, OVS <j)CLOLV y OTCLV V7T€pfidXXcO- 

1 dXXaxoOcv] dXXoOev a few mss. 
2 Kad€^6fM€voi, most MSS. 

438 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 509-510 

die an easy and painless death from the poison before 
they should be put to the torture." When he had 
said this, the explanation appeared so very com- 
plicated and subtle that it did not seem to come from 
fancy, but from knowledge ; and the people sur- 
rounded him and questioned him one after another, 
M Who are you ? " " Who knows you ? " " How 
did you come to know this ? " and at last he was put 
through so thorough an examination that he confessed 
to being one of the robbers. 

Were not the murderers of Ibycus a caught in the 
same way ? They were sitting in a theatre, and when 
cranes came in sight, they laughed and whispered to 
each other that the avengers of Ibycus were 
come. Persons sitting near overheard them, and 
since Ibycus had disappeared and now for a long time 
had been sought, they caught at this remark and 
reported it to the magistrates. And thus the slayers 
were convicted and led off to prison, not punished 
by the cranes, but compelled to confess the murder 
by the infirmity of their own tongues, as it were 
some Fury or spirit of vengeance. For as in the 
body the neighbouring parts are borne by attrac- 
tion toward diseased and suffering parts, so the 
tongue of babblers, ever inflamed and throbbing, 
draws and gathers to itself some portion of what has 
been kept concealed and should not be revealed. 
Therefore the tongue must be fenced in, and reason 
must ever lie, like a barrier, in the tongue's way, 
checking its flow and keeping it from slipping, in 
order that we may not be thought to be less sensible 
than geese, b of whom they relate that when from 

° The parallel accounts are collected by Edmonds, Lyra 
Graeca, ii. pp. 78 ff. b Cf. Moralia, 967 b. 

439 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(510) oiv Ik RiAi/a'a? rov Tad pov dercov ovra fieorov, eis 
B to orofxa Xafji^dveLV evfieyeOrj Xidov toorrep KXeldpov 
rj xaAivov ipLftaXXovras 1 rfj cfrcuvfj, /cat vvktos ovtojs 
V7Tep(/)€peadaL XavOdvovras. 

15. Et TOLVVV €pOLTO TtS", 

TOV KOLKKJTOV OGTLS €GTL Kal TOV l^CoXeOTaTOV , 

ovSels oiv a'AAov €litol rov 2 irpohorrfv rrapeXdcov. 

H&vdvKpOLTrjS fJL€V OVV " 7]p€l/j€ TTjV OLKtaV Tols €K 

MoLKeSovcas ^vXois," cos (f)rjGL At) jjLoodevqs' OiAo- 
Kpdrrjs 8e y^pvoiov rroXv XafStov " rropvas kolI 
IxOvs rjyopa^ev"' JLvcfroppa) Se Kal QcXdypcp rols 
'Eperptav irpohovoi yoopav 6 fiaotXevs eScoKev. 6 
S' dSoXeoxos dpuaOos iom, 7rpo86rrjs Kal avrendy- 
C yeXros, ox>x Ittttovs ov8e T^iyr] rrpoSiSovs, dXXd 
Xoyovs €K(f)€pojv arroppriTOVs iv Sikols iv ordoeoiv 
iv hianoXireiais , pLrjSevos avrco x^P LV ^X OVTOS ^^ 
avros, oiv 3 aKovrjrai, Trpoao^elXajv ^apiv. coare to 
XeXeyfievov irpos rov etKrj Kal aKpirtos eKx^ovra rd 
iavrov Kal /cara^apt ^opievov 

ov <f)iXdv9ptQ7TOS ov y' 4 iaa m e^cis voaov, ^cupeis 
8i8ovs 

ivapfJLOTret Kal Trpos rov <f)Xvapov lt ov </)lXos el av 

1 ififidWovTas] efifiaXovTas most MS9. 

2 tov\ rj rov most mss. 

3 avros, av Pohlenz : av avros. 

4 ov y y ] tv y Life of Publicola, xv. 

440 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 510 

Cilicia they cross Mt. Taurus, which is full of eagles, 
they take a great stone in their mouths to serve as 
a bolt or bridle for their scream, and pass over at 
night unobserved. 

15. Now if anyone were to ask, 

Who is the most wicked and the most abandoned man," 

no one would pass the traitor by and name anyone 
else. So Euthycrates b " roofed his house with the 
timber he got from Macedon," c as Demosthenes d 
says, and Philocrates e received much money and 
" bought strumpets and fish " ; and to Euphorbus 
and Philagrus, who betrayed Eretria, the king f gave 
land. But the babbler is a traitor who volunteers 
his services without pay : he does not betray horses 9 
or city-walls, but divulges secrets connected with law- 
suits, party strife, and political manoeuvres. No one 
thanks him, but he himself, if he can win a hearing, 
must owe thanks. The result is that the verse 
directed at the man who recklessly and injudiciously 
pours forth and squanders his own possessions, 

You are not generous : it's your disease, 
You love to give, 71 

fits the foolish talker also : " You are no friend or 

° Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 544, ades. 774. 

6 An error for Lasthenes ; Plutarch mentions both traitors 
together in Moralia, 97 d. 

c For Macedonia as the source of timber supply, cf. Inscr. 
Graec, i 2 . 105. 

d De Falsa Legatione, 265. 

e Ibid. 229 ; cf. Moralia, 668 a, 97 d. 

1 Darius I ; cf. Herodotus, vi. 101 ; Pausanias, vii. 10. 2. 

9 Perhaps an allusion to Dolon's betrayal of the horses of 
Pthesus ; cf. II., x. 436 ff. 

h Epicharmus, Frag. 274 : Kaibel, Com. Graec. Frag., i. 
p. 142. 

441 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(510) ravra jjltjvvoov ouS' zvvovs* e^ct? voaov, ^aipetg 
XaXoov /cat <f)Avapa)v." 

16. Tavra 8' ov Kar^yopiav rjyrjreov aAA' ta- 
rpeiav T7Js aSoAecr^tas" tcjv yap ttolOcov Kpcaet /cat 
acrKr](j€L 7T€pLyLv6fjL€da, rrpoTepa 1 8' rj Kpiois eoTtv 

D ovSels yap edi^erai (frevyew Kal <ittot plfStod ai rrjs 
foxys ° H'V Sucr^epatWt, 8vgx € P ol w°I j ' €V °£ T< * nadr), 
orav ras pXdfias /cat ras aloxvvas ra? owr' avrcov 
rep Xoyco KaravorjoajpLtv . tooTrep vvv Karavoovfiev 
€7Tt rcov dSoXeaxoov, otl (f)iXelo9ai ftovXojJLevot, pa- 
aovvraiy ^apt^ecr^at OeXovres eVo^Aouat, Oavpid^e- 
aOai hoKovvres KarayeXcovrat, KepSalvovres ovSev 
avaXioKovoiv, dSt/coucrt tovs <j)iXovs, dxfreXovoi tovs 
exOpovs, iavrovs (ittoXXvovolv. ooare tovto Trpw- 
rov ta/za /cat (papfiaKov ian rod irddovs, 6 rcov 
am* avrov yivo/JLevoov alaxp^v /cat oSvvrjpcbv em- 
XoyiajJLOs. 

17. Aevrepoj 8e xP r ) (JT ^ 0V eVtAoyta/xaj rep tojv 
E ivavTioov, aKovovras del /cat pLepbvrjpLevovs /cat 

rrpox^p* ixovras rd rrjs ix^fJLvOias eyKoopaa, /cat to 
oefJLvdv /cat to dyiov /cat to pLVOTrjpicoSes tt)s 
GiooTTr)s, /cat otl Oavfid^ovTai jjl&XXov /cat dyair&v- 
Tat /cat ao(f)a)T€poL hoKovai toov egijvicuv tovtojv 
/cat €K(f)€poiJL€va)v 2 oi OTpoyyvXoi /cat fipaxvXoyoi, /cat 
a)v ttoXvs vovs iv oXiyr) Ae£et owearaArat. /cat 
yap IIAaraJV rous* toiovtovs eVatret, Setvot? d/cov- 

1 rrporlpa D : 7rpoT€pov. 

2 €K<l>€pOlX€VOJV PohlenZ : <f)€pOJJL€VCOV. 

a 0/. 504 e, supra. 
442 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 510 

well-wisher in revealing this : it's your disease, you 
love to be babbling and prating.'' 

16. But these remarks are not to be regarded as an 
accusation against garrulity, but an attempt to cure 
it ; for we get well by the diagnosis and treatment 
of our ailments, but the diagnosis must come first ; 
since no one can become habituated to shun or to 
eradicate from his soul what does not distress him, and 
we only grow distressed with our ailments when we 
have perceived, by the exercise of reason, the injuries 
and shame which result from them. Thus, in the 
present instance, we perceive in the case of babblers 
that they are hated when they wish to be liked, that 
they cause annoyance when they wish to please, a that 
they are laughed at when they think they are ad- 
mired, that they spend their money without any gain, 
that they wrong their friends, help their enemies, and 
destroy themselves. Consequently this is the first 
step in curing the disease — by the application of 
reason to discover the shameful and painful effects 
that result from it. 

17. And the second is that we must apply our 
reasoning powers to the effects of the opposite be- 
haviour, always hearing and remembering and keep- 
ing close at hand the praises bestowed on reticence, 
and the solemn, holy, and mysterious b character of 
silence, remembering also that terse and pithy 
speakers and those who can pack much sense into a 
short speech are more admired and loved, and are 
considered to be wiser, than these unbridled and 
headstrong talkers. Plato, c in fact, commends such 
pithy men, declaring that they are like skilful throwers 

b Cf. 504 a, 505 f, supra. 
e Cf. Protagoras, 342 e. 

443 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

tlotclls eoiKevai Xeytov, ovXa kclI ttvkvol kolI avv- 
ecrTpa/x/xeVa (fydeyyojiivovs. kclI 6 AvKovpyos et? 
ravrrjv ttjv heivorrjTa tovs ttoXltcls ev6vs €K 7tcllolqv 
F rfj aia)7rfj me^cov crvvfjye kcll kclt€ttvkvov. KaOdrrep 
yap oi ReAri/S^pes* i*c tov Gtorjpov to oto\xlo\lcl 

7TOLOVOLV, OTCLV KCLTOpV$;CLVT€S €LS T7]V yf]V TO IToXv 

kcll yetoSes diroKaOdpcooLV, ovtcos 6 Aclkojvlkos 
Aoyos ovk e^et c/)Xol6v, dAA' els clvto to SpaoTTjpiov 

OL(f)CLLp€0€L TOV 7T€pLTTOV SiOLKOVfJieVOg 1 OTOfJLOVTCLL' 

to ydp drrocjydeyiJLaTLKov clvtois tovto kcll to \xz.t 

511 €VCTTpO<f)icLS 6£l) TTpOS TO\s CLTTCLVTrjCreLS €K ttjs TToXXfjs 
TTepLyiVZTCLl GIOJTTTJS. 

Kai Set tcl tolclvtcl {JLaXiOTCL tols dSoXeoxoLS 

TTpOpdXXeLV 2 OCTTjV X^P lV ^X €l K0Li OVVa^LLV^ oloV 6GTL 
TO " AaK£Oaip.OVLOL QlXlTTTTLQ 9 AlOVVOIOS Iv Ko- 

pivBco*' kcll irdXiv ypdijjavTOS clvtoZs tov QlXlttttov, 

' dv ifjLpdXto €L$ TTjV AcLKCOVLKTjV , dvCLOTaTOVS Vfl&S 

TTOLrjcra)," dvTeypaifjav, " aifca." Ar]Lir)Tpiov Se tov 
fiaoiXetos d^yavcLKTovvTOs kcll fiocovTOs, " era TTpds 
€jjl€ AaKeSatjJLovLOL TrpecrfievTrjv eirepupav; ' ov kcltcl- 
TrXayels 6 Trpeo^evTrj?, " ev' ," ei7re, " ttotI eva." 
Qavfid^ovTac Se kcll tcov ttclXclllov oi ^pa^vXoyoL, 
kcll TO) iepco tov Tlvdlov ' AttoXXcovos ov ttjv 'IAidSa 
B kcll ttjv 'OSuacretav ovSe tov? HivSdpov iraLavas 
irreypai/jav oi : ' AjJL^LKTVoves , dXXd to " yvco0L oav- 

1 $lolkovjjl€vos Capps : 8iaJKOfl€VOS. 
2 7rpo/5aAAetv] 7rpoojSdXX€LV most mss. 

a That is, they speak, as the acontist throws, with the sure 
aim which puts the adversary to rout with a single cast. 

b Cf Life of Lycurgus, xix. (51 d-e). 
444 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 510-511 

of the javelin, for what they say is crisp, solid, and 
compact. a And Lycurgus, 5 constraining his fellow- 
citizens from their earliest childhood to acquire this 
clever habit by means of silence, made them concise 
and terse in speech. For just as the Celtiberians c 
make steel from iron by burying it in the earth and 
then cleaning off the large earthy accumulation, so 
the speech of Spartans has no dross, but being 
disciplined by the removal of all superfluities, it is 
tempered to complete efficiency ; for this capacity of 
theirs for aphoristic speech and for quickness and 
the ability to turn out a neat phrase in repartee is 
the fruit of much silence. 

And we must be careful to offer to chatterers 
examples of this terseness, so that they may see how 
charming and how effective they are. For example : 
" The Spartans to Philip: Dionysius in Corinth." d 
And again, when Philip wrote to them, If I invade 
Laconia, I shall turn you out," they wrote back, 
" If." And when King Demetrius 6 was annoyed and 
shouted, " Have the Spartans sent only one envoy to 
me ? " the envoy replied undismayed, M One to one." 

And among the men of old also sententious speakers 
are admired, and upon the temple of the Pythian 
Apollo the Amphictyons inscribed, not the Iliad and 
the Odyssey or the paeans of Pindar, but " Know thy- 

c Cf. Diodorus, v. 33. 4. 

d Cf. Tryphon apud Spengel, Rhetores Graeci, iii. p. 202 ; 
Quintilian, viii. 6. 52 ; Dionysius the Younger upon being 
expelled from Syracuse (cf. Moralia, 783 d) kept a school in 
Corinth. The expression is somewhat like saying, " Re- 
member St. Helena." 

e Cf. Life of Demetrius, xlii. (909 c) ; Moralia, 233 e. In 
Moral ia 9 216 b, Agis (the Younger ?) makes the remark to 
Philip. 

vol. vi p 2 445 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/K11\ /ft \ ^ t< o \ v >> \ \ (i > / / 

(Oil) tov /cat to fJLTjoev ayav /cat to eyyva irapa 
8' ara" OavfidoavTes tt\s Xe^ecog to evoyKov /cat to 
Xltov, iv jSoa^et acfyvprjXaTOV vovv Treptexovorjg. 
tvTog 8' o ^€o? ov (f)iAoovvTOjJLos koTi koX ftpaxy- 
Xoyog iv ToZg xpyvf^oLS, KaL Aortas /caAetrat Sta to 
<f>evyeiv ttjv aSoAeoxlav jjl&XXov t) t^f dad^eiav; ol 
Se ovjifioXiKcog dvev c/)covrjg a Set (j)pd^ovTeg ovk 
eirawovvTai /cat QavpLd^ovTai hia^epovTCog ; cog 
UpaKXetTog, d^iovvTCov avTOV tcov ttoXltcov yvcoprqv 
C tiv elireZv nepl 6 jxovo lag, dvafidg irrl to ^rjfia /cat 
Aa/?ojv ifjvxpov /cuAt/ca /cat toji> dXcjyiTCOv iTTiirdoag 
/cat to; yA^ajvt /camera?, eKmwv airrjXdev, im^ei^d- 
fievog avTols otl to ToZg tvxovolv dp KeZaO at /cat /X17 
SeZodcu tcov rroXvTeXcov iv elprjvr) /cat Sfiovoia Sta- 
TrjpeZ Tag no Acts'. Hf<iXovpog Se /caraAt7ra>v oySoTy- 
kovtcl iraZhag, 6 Hkv6cov fiaaiXevg, r\Tt)oe SeafMr]v 
SopoLTLtov, ot direOvrjcrKe, /cat XafiovTag ihceXevoe 
KaTaOpavaaL /cat /cara^at ovvSeSejjievrjv /cat dOpoav 
cog 8' direZTrov, avTog eXKCov ev /ca#' eV aVavra 
paSicog Ste/cAacre, r^v ovpicficoviav avTCov /cat r^v 
SjJLovoiav laxvpov dno^alvcov /cat SvcrKadaipeTov, 
■D doOeveg Se r^v StaAucrtv /cat ov fiovLfJiov. 

18. Et 807 TavTa /cat to, rotaura owe^cD? rt? 
eVtot 1 /cat dvaXapifidvoi, rravoaiT dv locos ^Sd/xevos" 
raj (j)XvapeZv. e/ze Se KaKeZvog 6 olk€T7]s ev pudXa 
SvacoireZ, to irpooex^v too Xoyco /cat /cparetv 7rpoat- 

1 eVi'oi Stegmann, confirmed by G : e?77oi or okott€l. 

a Cf. Moralia, 408 e, 385 d, 164 b ; Pausanias, x. 24. 1 ; 
Tryphon, Z.c. ; Plato, Charmides, 165 a. 

b C/. Moralia, 164 b. 

c As though derived from Ao£o's, " slanting," " ambigu- 
ous " ; and see Roscher, s.v. 
446 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 511 

self " a and " Avoid extremes " and " Give a pledge 
and mischief is at hand," b admiring, as they did, the 
compactness and simplicity of the expression which 
contains within a small compass a well-forged senti- 
ment. And is not the god himself fond of conciseness 
and brevity in his oracles, and is he not called Loxias c 
because he avoids prolixity rather than obscurity ? 
And are not those who indicate by signs, without a 
word, what must be done, d praised and admired 
exceedingly ? So Heracleitus, 6 when his fellow- 
citizens asked him to propose some opinion about 
concord, mounted the platform, took a cup of cold 
water, sprinkled it with barley-meal, stirred it with 
penny-royal, drank it up, and departed, thus demon- 
strating to them that to be satisfied with whatever 
they happen upon and not to want expensive things 
is to keep cities in peace and concord. And Scilurus/ 
king of the Scythians, left behind him eighty sons ; 
when he was dying, he asked for a bundle of spear- 
shafts and bade his sons take it and break it in pieces, 
tied closely together as the shafts were. When they 
gave up the task, he himself drew all the spears out 
one by one and easily broke them in two, thus reveal- 
ing that the harmony and concord of his sons was a 
strong and invincible thing, but that their disunion 
would be weak and unstable. 

18. If anyone will but review and recollect con- 
stantly these and similar instances, he may conceiv- 
ably stop taking pleasure in foolish chatter. But as 
for me, that famous case of the slave puts me utterly 
to shame when I reflect what immense importance it 

d Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vii. 66. 
• Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , i. p. 144, A 3 b. 
f Cf. Moralidt 174 f and Nachstadt's note ad loc. 

447 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(511) peoecos tjXlkov iarlv lv9v\iov\xevov . TLovttlos Ilei- 
aow 6 prjTcop fAT) fiovXojJLevos evoxAeiaOai rrpooera^e 
tols olketolls irpos ra epcoTcofieva XaXelv koll firjSev 
rrXeov. efra KAcoStov apypVTa he^uboaadai jSouAd- 
fievos eKeXevae f<Xr)9rjvai, koll TrapeaKevdaaro Aa/x- 
Trpav cbs eiKos eoriaoiv. ivoTaorjs Se ttjs copas, 
ol [lev dXXoi rraprjcrav 6 Se KAcoSto? TrpoaeSoKaro' 

E KOLL 7ToXXaKLS €7T€[JL7T€ TOV €LCo96tOL KOlXeLV OLKeTTJV 

eiroifjofievov el rrpooeLOLV. cog 8' rjv iarrepa koI 
aTTeyvaooTO, " ri 8'; " €<f>r) TTpos tov OLKerrjv, 
eKaAeoas avrov; eycoy , €ltt€. olol tl ovv 

ovk dcf)LKraL; " KaKelvos, " otl r\pvr\(ja,To! y " ttcos 
ovv ovk ev9vs €<f>paoas; " " otl tovto /x' ovk 
rjpojTrjoas ." ovtcos 1 piev 'Pco/zaiKos" OLKerrjs, 6 8' 

AtTLKOS €p€L TOO SeOTTOTT) OKaiTTCOV 

€(/>' ols yeyovaoLV at StaAuaet?. 

oirrcos fieya upos rrdv9' 6 idiapbos iorL, koll Trepl 
tovtov y tJStj Xeycop.ev. 

19. Ov yap €otlv cos ^aAtvcov €(f>aifjajJLevovs €7TL- 
o^eLV tov dhoXiGyrpf, dAA' €0€L Set KpoLTrjcraL tov 

VOOrjfJLOLTOS. TTpCOTOV /JL€V OVV €V TOLS TCOV TTeXcLS 

F epcoTTjaeoLV eavTov idc^era) 2 glcottcLv ^XP l °^ 
TrdvTes direLTTCovTaL ttjv dnoKpLOLV 

ov ydp tl fiovXrjs tolvto koI Spofiov TeXos, 

cos (/>rjoL ^lo(f)OKXrjs, ov8e ye <f)covrjs koI aTTOKpLoecos* 

1 ovtcos G : ovtos. 
2 e0ife oclvtov in some mss. 

a Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 473, ades. 347 ; cf. 518 f— 
519 a, infra. 
448 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 511 

is to pay attention to what is said and to be master of 
our purpose. Pupius Piso, the orator, not wishing to 
be troubled, ordered his slaves to speak only in 
answer to questions and not a word more. Subse- 
quently, wishing to pay honour to Clodius when he 
was a magistrate, Piso gave orders that he be invited 
to dinner and prepared what was, we may suppose, a 
sumptuous banquet. When the hour came, the other 
guests were present, but Clodius was still expected, 
and Piso repeatedly sent the slave who regularly 
carried invitations to see if Clodius was approaching. 
And when evening came and he was finally despaired 
of, Piso said to the slave, " See here, did you give him 
the invitation ? " " I did," said the slave. " Why 
hasn't he come then ? " " Because he declined." 
" Then why didn't you tell me at once ? " " Because 
you didn't ask me that." So a Roman slave, but the 
Athenian slave while digging will tell his master 

On what terms the truce is made," 

so great in all things is the force of habit. And of 
this let us now speak. 

19. For it is impossible to check the babbler by 
gripping the reins, as it were ; his disease must be 
mastered by habituation. In the first place, then, 
when questions are asked of neighbours, let him 
accustom himself to remaining silent until all have 
refused a response : 

For counsel's aim is not that of a race, 6 

as Sophocles c says, nor, indeed, is this the aim of 

b To see who can get to the goal first. 
c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 312, Frag. 772 (Frag. 856 
ed. Pearson, vol. iii. p. 63). 

449 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

dAA' €K€L jJL€V 7j VLK7] TOV cf>ddoaVTOS icTTLV, ivTOLvda 

8e, edv jxev lkclvgos erepos aVo/cotV^Tat, KaXcos €?x €t 
ovverraiveoavTa /cat ovvem^oavra 86£av evpuevovs 
512 dvdpcorrov XafieZv edv 8e jjirj, rore /cat StSa^at to 
rjyvorjpievov /cat dvaTrXrjpcooai to eXXeZrrov averrc- 
cf>6ovov /cat ovk a/catpoV eon. fidXiara 8e (f)vXdrrco- 
fiev iavrovs, ottcos pur) irepov tlvos epcorrjOevros 
avrol TTpoXapbfidvLop,ev VTrocfyOdvovres ttjv arroKpioiv . 
lacos fjbev yap ouS* dXXore 1 KaXcos ^X ov *&tw> 
alrrjOevros irepov, Trapcooapievovs eKeZvov clvtovs 
errayyeXXeodaL' 86^ofiev yap a/jua /cat rovrov cos 
irapaoyeZv o alreZrai pur] Swdpuevov, KaKeZvov cos 
alreZv reap cov Svvarai XafleZv ovk emordpLevov 
6v€l8i%€iv jxaXtora 8' vfipiv <\>epei rrepl ras airo- 
Kpiaeis rj roiavrrj rTporrereia /cat Opaovrrjs. crvv- 
B epL<j>aivei yap 6 <j>8dvcov ev rep arroKpivaodai rov 
epcorcopuevov to tl tovtov oerj; /cat rt ovros 
ot8e; " /cat " epiov rrapovros, rrepl rovrcov ov8eva 
Set aAAov epcorav." /catVot rroXXaKLS rivas ipcorco- 
fiev ov rod Xoyov 8e6p,€Voi, (/>covtjv 8e Tiva /cat 
<f)iXocf)pocrvvrjv eKKaXovpievoL nap* avrcov /cat rrpo- 
ayayeZv els opaXiav edeXovres, cbs TiCOKpdrrjs 
QeaLrrjrov /cat Xao/zt'S^v. opioiov ovv rep rov v(j> y 
irepov fiovXopievov (friXrjdfjvaL Trpoo8papLovra 2 cfriXeiv 
avrov rj rov irepep Trpoo^Xerrovra pberaarpe^eLV els 
iavrov to TrpoXapifidveiv ras airoKploeis /cat rd cora 
fierdyetv, /cat rrjv StdVotav e'A/cetv /cat airooTpecfreiv 
C rrpos iavrov % orrov, k&v drreLrrrjraL rov Xoyov 6 

1 dXXore Pohlenz : dXXo (sic) tl. 
1 npoaBpajxovra Reiske, confirmed by mss. : TTpohpapLovra. 

450 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 511-512 

speaking and answering. For in a race the victory is 
his who comes in first ; but here, if another makes a 
sufficient answer, it is proper to join in the approval 
and assent and so acquire the reputation of being a 
friendly fellow. But if such an answer is not made, 
then it is not invidious or inopportune both to point 
out the answer others have not known and thus to fill 
in the gap. And, in particular, let us be on our guard, 
when someone else has been asked a question, that we 
do not forestall him by taking the answer out of his 
mouth. For perhaps there are other times also when 
it is not seemly, another having been asked, to 
shoulder him aside and volunteer ourselves, since we 
shall seem to be casting a slur both on the man asked, 
as being unable to furnish what is demanded of him, 
and on the asker, as being ignorant of the source from 
which he can get help ; and, in particular, such pre- 
cipitancy and boldness in answering questions smacks 
of insolence. For one who tries to get in the answer 
ahead of the man who is questioned suggests, " What 
do you need him for ? " or " What does he know ? " or 
" When I am present, no one else should be asked 
about these matters." And yet we often ask people 
questions, not because we need an answer, but to elicit 
some friendly word from them, and because we wish 
to draw them on to friendly converse, as Socrates did 
with Theaetetus and Charmides. a So to take the 
answer out of another's mouth, to divert another's 
hearing and attract his attention and wrest it from 
some other, is as bad as to run up and kiss someone 
who wished to be kissed by somebody else, or to turn 
toward yourself someone who was looking at another ; 
since, even if he who has been asked cannot give the 
° Cf. Plato, Theaetetus, 143 d, Charmides, 154 e ff. 

451 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(512) alrrjdeLS, imcrxovTCL kclAcds ex ei /cat irpos to j8ot>Ad- 
fjievov rov ipa)TO)VTOs dpfxoadfjLevov ws ifri kXtjolv 
dXXorptav 1 alSrjfjLovcos /cat koojjllcos dnavrav. /cat 
yap ol p,ev ipcorrjOevreg, dv cr</>aAojcrtv iv rep drro- 
Kpivaodai, avyyvod\xfr]s St/cata? rvyxdvovuiv 6 S' 
avdaiperoos v^ujrapbevos /cat irpoXafJifidvajv rov 
Xoyov dr]8rjs pcev icrrt, /cat Karopda)v, Siafiaprdvcov 
8e iravrdiraoiv errixapros ytVerat /cat /carayeAaoTOS'. 
20. Aevrepov roivvv aGKrjfia 77/009 Ta? tSta? a7ro- 
KpLaeis iartv, at? ou^ rJKiara Set rrpooeyeiv rov 
D d86Xeo;x ov ' TTpcorov /xeV, tva jitr) Aa#?7 rots' eVt ye- 
AojTt /cat vftpei TrpoKaXovfievoLS els Xoyovs avrov 
diroKpLvopLevos fxerd O7rov8fjs. evtot yap ovoev 
Seofxevot Starpt^? 8e /cat TratSta? eW/ca ovvdevres 
rivds ipojTrjoeis Trpof5d,XXovoi 2 rois tolovtols /cat 
dvaKivovoiv avra>v s rov Xrjpov o Set (frvXdrrecrd at, 
/cat jit?) 7a^u to) Adyco /xr^S' coarrep x®-P LV ^X OVTas> 

€7TL7T7]8aV, dAAa /Cat TO> TpOTTOV TOV 7TVv9aVOpL€VOV 

OKOTTelv /cat tt)v X9 eiav • oVav Se <f>aivr]TaL rep ovtl 
povXofievos jiaOelVy iOiareov ecftiardvai /cat noielv 
tl StaAet/x/xa pLera^v rfjs ipajrrjcjecos /cat T779 oVo- 
KpLaeaiSy iv <L npoudelvai fiev 6 epajreov, et rt 
fiovXeraL, Svvarai, OKei/jaaOat S' aurd? 7T€pt aiv 
E aTTOKpivelraiy /cat /xt) /cararpe^etv /xrySe /caTa^ojv- 
t'wai rr)v ipwrrjacv, eVt irvvOavopievois iroXXaKis 
vtto GTrovSrjs aAAa? oVt' aAAojv diroKpioeis StSoVra. 4 
77 /xev yap Ilu^ta /cat 7rpd ipa)rrjaea)s avdwpl 

1 n)v airoKpiaiv after aAAorptav deleted by Pohlenz. 

2 777>o/3aAAot/ai] TrpoofiaWovai most MSS. 

3 aurcov] ai5ra> or aurot? most MSS. 

4 hthovra Reiske : hihovras. 

452 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 512 

information, it is proper to practise restraint and 
conform oneself to the wish of the asker and thus to 
encounter with modesty and decorum the situation, 
an invitation, as it were, given to another. And 
it is also true that if persons who are asked questions 
make mistakes in their answers, they meet with just 
indulgence ; but he who voluntarily undertakes an 
answer and anticipates another is unpleasant even if 
he corrects a mistake, and if he makes a mistake 
himself, he affords a malicious joy to one and all, and 
becomes an object of ridicule. 

20. Then the second matter for diligent practice 
concerns our own answers ; to these the chatterer 
must pay very close attention : in the first place, that 
he may not inadvertently give a serious answer to 
those who provoke him to talk merely that they may 
insolently ridicule him.° For some persons who re- 
quire no information, but merely to divert and amuse 
themselves, devise questions and put them to men of 
this sort to set going their foolish twaddle. Against 
this talkers should be on their guard and not leap 
upon a subject quickly, or as though grateful that it 
is offered to them, but should first consider both the 
character of the questioner and the necessity for the 
question. And when it appears that the questioner 
is really anxious to learn, the babbler must accustom 
himself to stop and leave between the question and 
the answer an interval, in which the asker may add 
anything he wishes and he himself may reflect upon 
his reply instead of overrunning and obscuring the 
question by giving a long string of answers in a 
hurry while the question is still being asked. For 
although the Pythian priestess is accustomed to 
a Cf. Moralia, 547 c. 

4>53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xp7]Cr/JLOVS €Lwd€ TIVOLS €K(f)€p€LV 6 yap 0€OS, CO 

XaTpevei, 

/Cat KO)(f)OV £vVL7](JL /Cat OV XdXeOVTOS 1 OLKOV€L, 

tov Se povAofievov ifjLfJLeAtus arroKpivaadai Set rrjv 
StdVotav dvafietvai /cat ttjv irpoaipeoiv aKpcfiajs 
KarafiaOetv tov rrvvdavofievov, (jltj yevrjTOU to /card 
rrjv 7Tapoi\ilav 

a/xas* 2 OLTTrjrovv, ol S' dirv^pvovvTO gkolc/xis. 

F dXXtos Se to Xdfipov tovto /cat Trpos tovs Xoyovg 

6£viT€LVOV aVCLKpOVGT€OV, IVCL /JLTJ 8oKjj Ka9(X7T€p 

pevfia ttj yXcoTTTj irdXai TTpoGioTdpLevov da/xeVa)? 
vtto ttjs epojTTjoeojs e^epdodai? /cat yap 6 2a>- 

KpCLTTJS OVTOJS €KoXoV€ TTJV SilfjOLV, OVK e(f)Lels laVTLO 
7TL6LV fl€TOL yVJJLvdoLOV, €t flTj TOV 7TpO)TOV e/C^e'at 

/caSov dvijxrjaas ottojs editpr^Tai tov tov Xoyov 
KGLipov dvajji€V€LV to dXoyov . 
513 21. "Eart toivvv rpta yevrj tcov 7rpos rds epaj- 
TTjoeig drroKptaeajv, to fxev dvayKCuov to Se <£tAdv- 

OpUmOV TO Se TTeplOOOV. OLOV 7TvdojJL€VOV TWOS €t 

HwKpaTTjs evoov, 6 /Jiev djoirep clkojv /cat dirpodviicxjs 
anoKpiveTai to ovk evoov • eav be povArjTai, 

XcLKCOVL^eLV, /Cat TO " €v8ov" d(f)eX(l>V avTrjv fiovr]v 

cf)0€y^€TaL ttjv drro^aaLV ws e/cetvot, <&iXl7tttov 
ypdi/javTos el Se'^ovrat 4 ttj 7rdAet olvtov, els ttjv 5 
xdpTrjv OY [xeya ypdipavTes aTreoTeiXav. 6 Se 
(friXavdpamoTepov diroKpiveTaiy u ovk evSov aAA' 
€77t rat? TpaTTe^ais M - /cdv /JouA^rat TTpooeTTLfJLeTprj- 

1 XaXdovros] <j>o)V€vvros Herodotus, i. 47, and C.I.G., i. 1724. 

2 a/Aas] aAAas most mss., and they omit ol . • . oi<a<j>as. 

3 igcpdaOai Emperius, confirmed by mss. : igopaodai and 
i(aip€a$ai. 4 hi^ovrai Richards : Segoirai. 
454 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 512-513 

deliver some oracles on the instant, even before the 
question is put — for the god whom she serves 

Understands the dumb and hears when no man speaks ° — 
yet the man who wishes to make a careful answer 
must wait to apprehend exactly the sense and the 
intent of him who asks the question, lest it befall, as 
the proverb b has it, 

They asked for buckets, but tubs were refused. 
In any case this ravenous hunger for talking must be 
checked so that it may not seem as though a stream 
which has long been pressing hard upon the tongue 
were being gladly discharged at the instance of the 
question. Socrates, in fact, used to control his thirst 
in this manner — he would not allow himself to drink 
after exercise until he had drawn up and poured out 
the first bucketful, so that his irrational part might 
be trained to await the time dictated by reason. 

21. Furthermore, there are three kinds of answers 
to questions : the barely necessary, the polite, and 
the superfluous. For example, if someone asks, " Is 
Socrates at home ? " one person may reply, as it 
were unwillingly and grudgingly, " Not at home. ,, 
And if he wishes to adopt the Laconic style, he may 
omit the " At home " and only utter the bare nega- 
tive. So the Spartans, when Philip wrote to ask if 
they would receive him into their city, wrote a large 
" No " on the paper and sent it back. Another will 
answer more politely, " He is not at home, but at the 
bank," and if he wants to give fuller measure may 

a Cf. Herodotus, i. 47. 

6 Paroemiographi Graeci, i. p. 28 ; Kock, Com. Att. Frag., 
iii. p. 494, ades. 454. 

5 rriv added by Capps ; x^P T7 l v T V V a ^ T l v Tucker. 

4^55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(513) aai, " £evovs rivets' e/cet Trepipevajv ." 6 8e nepiTTOs 

B /cat a8oAecj)(7]s, dv ye 8rj Tvyr\ /cat tov KoAoc^aVtov 

dveyvwKcbs *AvTLpia)(ov, u ovk ev8ov," cfrrjoiv, 

aAA' eVt rat? rpaire^ais, £evovs dvapcevaiv "Iwvas, 

vrrep (Lv avro) yeypacfrev 'AA/ci/StaS^? Trepl MiXtjtov 

tov /cat irapa TiaaacfrepveL Starpi^ajv, rep tov 

pieydXov aarpdirrj fiaaiXeoJs, os TrdXai \xev efiorjOei 

Aa KeScu/jLOVLO is , vvv 8e TrpooTideTai 8t' 'AA/ct/JtaS^v 

*AQrjvaiois' 6 yap 'AA/c t^iaS^s emOvpbcov KaTeXOelv 

ki$ ttjv TrarpiSa tov Tiaoacfrepvrjv lAeTaTiOrjai." /cat 

SXa>s rrjv oySorjv &ovkv8l8ov KarareivdyLevos epel 

/cat /cara/cAucjei tov dvOpoDirov, ea>s (frOdaei 1 /cat 

C M.iArjros eKTToAepuo Vetera /cat <j)vya8ev9els to 8evTe- 

pov 'AA/ci/StaS^?. 

MaAtora S97 Trepl tovto Set r^v aSoAea^tav 

ovveyew djGTrep els y !>X v °S epifiifid^ovTa ttjv ipcoTrjaiv 

/cat KevTpco /cat SiaoTT^tan T77 XP et V T0 ^ Trvvdavo- 

fievov TTepiypdifjavTa ttjv diroKpioiv \ K.apved8rjv 

[lev yap ovttoj fjieydXrjv k\ovTa 86£av iv to> yv- 

fjLvacrta) 8iaXeyopievov Trepufjas 6 yvpLvacnapxos 

eKeXevaev valval 2 to pt,eye9os z ttjs cfrajvrjs (rjv yap 

fjLeyaXocfrojvoTaTOs) ' eltrovTOS S' ehceivov, " 80s p<oi 

fxeTpov <f)a)vrjs," ov (fravXws vneTVxe,* " StSa>/xt tov 

7Tpoo8iaX€y6pL€Vov." Tcp 8' aTTOKpivopieva) puETpov 

€gto) rj tov ipa)TO)VTOs fiovXrjais . 

1 (f>dda€L] <f>0dor) most MSS. 

2 v<f>eivai\ d^eivai all mss. but two. 

3 to iiiyzdos] rod iieyidovs Reiske and two mss. 

4 VTT€TVX*\ €7T€TVX€ HlOSt MSS. 

456 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 513 

add, " waiting there for some guests." But your 
over-officious and garrulous man, particularly if he 
happens to have read Antimachus a of Colophon, will 
say, " He is not at home, but at the bank, waiting for 
some Ionian guests on whose behalf he has had a 
letter from Alcibiades who is near Miletus staying 
with Tissaphernes, 6 the satrap of the Great King, 
who formerly used to help the Spartans, but now is 
attaching himself to the Athenians because of Alci- 
biades. For Alcibiades desires to be restored to his 
native country and therefore is causing Tissaphernes 
to change sides." And he will run on, reciting at full 
stretch the whole eighth book of Thucydides, and 
deluge the questioner until, before he has done, 
Miletus is at war again and Alcibiades exiled for the 
second time. 

Regarding this tendency especially, one must keep 
talkativeness within bounds by following the question 
step by step and circumscribing the answer within a 
circle to which the questioner's need gives the centre 
and the radius. c So when Carneades,^ who had not 
yet acquired a great reputation, was disputing in a 
gymnasium, the director sent and bade him lower his 
voice, which was a very loud one. And when Car- 
neades said, " Give me something to regulate my 
voice," the director aptly rejoined, " I am giving you 
the person conversing with you." So, in making an 
answer, let the wishes of the questioner provide the 
regulation. 

° The epic poet, a by- word for longwindedness : thus 
Catullus (95. 10) calls him " tumidus." 

b Cf Life of Alcibiades i xxiv. (204 b-c). 

c Cf Moralia, 524 e, 603 e, 776 f, 822 d, 1098 d. 

d Cf Diogenes Laertius, iv. 63; for Carneades' noisiness 
cf Moralia, 791 a-b. 

457 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(513) 22. Kat [irjv tboirep 6 HajKpdrrjs e/ce'Aeue <£uAdr- 
D recrOai rcZv gltlojv ooa fjurj ireivLovras iadUw dva- 
rreideL 1 /cat rwv TTopbdrcov ooa ttivziv firj SuJjwvtcls, 
ovtco xprj /cat tlov X6ya>v tov dSoAea^Tiv , olg TJSerai 
fidXtara /cat /ce^p^rat KaraKopojg, tovtovs cpofiel- 
a#at /cat 77/30? toutou? eTTippiovras avrifialveiv. 

oloV OL UTpaTLCjOTLKOL TToXejJLLOV €LOL 8i7]yr]fJLaTlKOr 

/cat tov Ne'crropa tolovtov 6 7Toir}Trjs elodyei, ras 
avrov 77oAAd/cts > apiareias /cat irpd^zis SirjyovjJLevov. 
emet/cojs" Se /cat rots' 77£pt St/ca? ever 0^0 aaiv 7} 
77ap' rjyefJLOGL /cat /3acrtAeucrtv 0:77/90080*777-609 ei5rj- 
fjLeprjaacjLv coGTrep voarjfjid tl TrpooTrtVret /cat 77ap- 
E OLKoXovOei to /JL€fjLvrja9cLL /cat StrjyeLoOai 77oAAd/ct9, 6V 
rpoiTov elarjXOov 7rpoarjx^ r ) aav 'ffyoaviaavro SteAe^- 
OrjoaVy i^rjXey^av dVrtSt'/cou9 rtra9 77 Karrjyopovs, 
eTTTjviOrjoav , ttoXXco ydp iortv rj X a P^ T V$ KOj/xt/C7j9 
€K€Lvqs dypvTrvLas XaXlarepov, avappnri^ovoa ttoX- 
Ad/ct? iavrrjv /cat Trpoofyarov iroiovoa rols Sirjyrj- 
fjLaaw. 66 ev oXioOrjpol 77009 rovs tolovtovs twv 
Xoycov elolv e/c 770:0*779 7rpocf>do€ti)S' ov yap fiovov 

o7tov tls dAyet, /cet#t /cat rrjv X € ^p' 2 ^X €L > 
dXXd /cat to t)86{jl€Vov efA/cet tt)v cf>a)vrjv £<f>* iavro 3 
/cat Trepidyei ttjv yXcorrav e776petSetv del rfj fjLvrjfJLrj 

fiovX6jJL€VOV. OVTCO Kol Tols ZpOJTlKoZs TJ TrXeLOTTj 

1 ZoQUiv avaTT€id€i Bernardakis from Mor., 521 r, infra, 
661 F: ava.7T€id€L iadUiv. 

2 rr)v x € ip'] T ° v v °v y Stobaeus. 

3 €9 iavTo] eV iavrcp all mss. except GD. 

a Cf. Xenophon, Memorabilia, i. 3. 6 ; Moralia, 124 d, 
521 f, infra, 661 f. b Cf. Moralia, 546 d, 630 f ff. 

c For example, Homer, II., i. 269 ff. 
d Cf Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 48, Menander, Frag. 

458 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 513 

22. Moreover, just as Socrates a used to urge men 
to be on their guard against those foods which induce 
us to eat when we are not hungry, and against those 
liquids which induce us to drink when we are not 
thirsty, so it is with the babbler as regards subjects 
for talk : those in which he takes most delight and 
employs ad nauseam he should fear and stoutly resist 
when they stream in upon him. For example, military 
men b are great tellers of war-stories, and the Poet 
introduces Nestor c in that character, often narrating 
his own deeds of prowess. Again, as one might expect, 
those who have scored a victory in the law-courts or 
have had some unexpected success at the courts of 
governors or kings are attacked, as it were, by a 
malady which never leaves them, by the desire to call 
to mind and tell over and over again how they made 
their entrance, how they were presented, how they 
argued, how they held forth, how they confuted some 
opponents or accusers, how they were applauded. 
For their delight is far more loquacious than that 
well-known insomnia in the comedy d : it often fans 
itself into new flame and makes itself ever fresh with 
each successive telling. They are, therefore, ready to 
slip into such subjects on any pretext. For not only 

Where one feels pain, there will he keep his hand, e 
but also what causes pleasure draws the voice toward 
itself and twists the tongue from a desire to dwell 
perpetually on the joys of remembrance. So also 
with lovers, who chiefly occupy themselves with con- 

164 (p. 353 ed. Allinson) : " Surely of all things insomnia is 
the most loquacious. At any rate, it has roused me and 
brings me here to tell my whole life from the very beginning." 
* A proverb, according to Stobaeus, vol. v. p. 860 ed. 
Hense, where see the note. " Ubi dolor, ibi digitus." 

459 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F SiCLTpiBr) irepl Xoyovs fXvrjfJLrjv Tivd tlov ipajpLevajv 
avaSi&ovras' 61 ye kolv firj 7rpos avOpamovs, rrpos 
d\\)vya 7T€pl o,vtojv StaAe'yovrar 

to <^(AraT?] kXlvtj 
Kal 

Baits' 9eov 6* ivopaoev, evSaipuov 1 Air^ve* 
kcll tlov Qetov (ley lotos, el 2 ravrr] So/cet?. 

"Ecrrt [lev ovv are^cus rj XevKrj ardOfjirj npos 
514 tovs Xoyovs 6 dSdAea^o?, ov jjltjv dAA' o 3 jjl&XXov 
irepcuv erepois TrpooTrerrovOcos d(/>et'Aet tovtovs 
<f)vXaTT€odai Kal aveyeiv iavrov arro tovtlov kcll 
avdKpovew ojs Troppcordrco irpodyeiv /cat aTro/x^- 
Kvveiv* del St' rjSovrjv Svvafievojv. to S' avro 

TOVTO /Cat TTpOS TOVS X6yOVS €K€LVOVS 7T€7TOv6aOLV , 

iv ols /car' i/JbrreLpLav fj e£iv Tivd tow ctXXcov Sta- 
(f)ep€LV vofiL%ovoL. (fciXctVTOs yap tov Kal c/)lX68o£os 

6 TOIOVTOS 

ve'/xet to TrXeloTov rjfxepag tovtlo fjuepos, 
Iv* avTos avTOV TvyyaveL /cpdrtcrros' tov* 

iv loTopiais 6 dvayvojoTLKos , iv re^voAoytats' d 
B ypapLfiaTLKos, iv St^y^/xaat ^eviKols 6 ttoXXtjv 
yoipav iireXrjXvOths Kal ireTrXavrjfjLevos. logt€ /cat 
TavTa Set <j>vXaTT€o6ai • SeXea^opbivrj yap vtt* a&Ttov 
rj dSoAea^ta KaOdirep l^coov iirl vojjlols avvrjOets 

1 evSat[xov Kock : cuBca/uov. 

2 el] rj or fj some mss. 

3 dAA' o Reiske: dXXa. 

* rrpoayayeLV Kal aTTOfirjKvvai most MSS. 

460 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 513-514 

versation that recalls some memory of the objects of 
their love ; and if they cannot talk to human beings, 
they will speak of their passion to inanimate things : 

O dearest bed ! 
and 

O blessed lamp, Bacchis thought you a god, 
And greatest god you are if she thinks so. a 

There is, however, really not a pin's difference b to 
the chatterer what subjects may arise ; nevertheless 
he that has a greater weakness for one class of 
subjects than for the other should be on his guard 
against these subjects and force himself to hold back 
and withdraw as far as possible from them, since they 
are always able, because of the pleasure they give, 
to lure him on to dilate upon them. And talkers 
have this same difficulty with those subjects in which 
they think that they surpass all others because of 
some experience or acquired habit. For such a 
person, being self-centred and vain, 

Will give the chief part of the day to that 
In which he chances to surpass himself c : 

the great reader will spend it in narrating tales, the 
literary expert in technical discussions, the wide 
traveller and wanderer over the face of the earth in 
stories of foreign parts. We must, therefore, be on 
our guard against these subjects also, since garrulity 
is enticed by them, like a beast making for familiar 

a Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 438, ades. 151, 152. 

b Literally " a white line " on a white stone : cf. Sophocles, 
Frag. 330 ed. Pearson (307 ed. Nauck) with the note ; Plato, 
Charmides, 154 b ; Paroemiographi Graeci, i. pp. 109, 327. 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 413, Euripides, Frag. 183. 
2-3, from the AntiopS ; cf. Moral la, 43 b, 622 a, 630 b. 

461 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(514) rrpoeioi. davfiaaros S' 6 Kvpos, on /cat rag 

djJLlXXaS €7TOL€LTO TTpOS TOVS 7]\lKCLS, OVK €V OLS 

Kpelrrcov dAA' ev ols arreiporepos rjv eKeivajv, els 
ravra TTpoKaXovpLevos , cva \xr\re Xvirfj irapevSoKLfjLtov 
Kal jxavddvojv dx^eXr^r ai. 6 8' dSoAecr^s' rovvav- 
tlov, av fiev ns €jjL7T€Grj Xoyos, i£ ov jiaOelv n 
Svvarat Kal nvBeoQai rcov dyvoov pievojv, rovrov 
e^ojOel Kal eKKpovei, pnaOov ovrco 1 fipa^vv Sovvat 
to 2 oiamrjoai fir) Swdfievos' els Se ras ecLXovs Kal 
7ToXvTrarr]Tovs kvkXo) Trepucbv elaeXavveu paipcpSlas 
rov Xoyov. ojs rcov Trap tjjjuv ns Kara rvyy\v 
dveyvajKcos §vo rcov 'E^dpou j8t/?Ata>v rj rpia, 
rrdvras dvOpcorrovs /careVpt/Je Kal irav dvdorarov 
eVotet ovjxttooiov, del rrjv ev AevKrpois \*<dyy]v 
Kal rd avvex^j 8i7]yovfJievos' odev ^l^TTafieLVcovSas 

TTapOJVVfJLLOV €OX €V ' 

23. Ov fir]v dXXd rovro ye rcov KaKcov eAd^tcrrdv 
iart, Kal Set TTaparpeireiv els ravra rrjv dSoXeaxlav 
rjrrov yap drjSes eorai rd XdXov ev rep cf>iXoX6ycp 
TrXeovd^ov. eOiareov Se /cat ypdc\>eiv n rovs roiov- 
D rovs Kal hiaXeyeodai Kar 18 lav, 6 fiev yap Sran- 
kos > AvrL7rarpos, cos eot/ce, [jltj hvvdpievos jitrySe 
povXofJbevos opLoae ytopelv rco K.apved$rj fierd rroA- 
Xov pevfiaros els rrjv Urodv tpepo/Jievcp, ypdcf>cov Se 
/cat TrXrjpcov rd /3t/3At'a rcov irpos avrov dvnXoyicov , 
M KaXajJLofioas " eVe/cAryflr/ • rov 8' dSoAe'cr^Tp lctcds 

1 ovrco] avTto most mss. 
2 to Emperius, confirmed by mss. : ra>. 

Xenophon, Cyropaedia, i. 4. 4 ; cf. Moralia, 632 c. 

h With this chapter cf. chapters 18 and 19 of De Laude 

462 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 514 

haunts. And Cyrus's conduct was admirable, be- 
cause he challenged his mates to match themselves 
with him, not in those contests in which he was 
superior, but in those in which he was less skilled 
than they, so that he might cause no pain by sur- 
passing them and might also have the advantage of 
learning something. But the chatterer, on the con- 
trary, if some topic comes up from which he can learn 
and find out something he does not know, thrusts it 
aside and diverts it, being unable to give even so 
small a fee as silence, but he works steadily around 
until he drives the conversation into the stale and 
well-worn paths of twaddle. Just so, in my native 
town, there was a man who chanced to have read two 
or three books of Ephorus, and would always bore 
everybody to death and put every dinner-party to 
rout by invariably narrating the battle of Leuctra 
and its sequel ; so he got the nickname of " Epa- 
meinondas. ,, b 

23. Nevertheless, this is the least of the evils, and 
we should turn garrulity into these channels ; for 
talkativeness will be less unpleasant when its excesses 
are in some learned subject. Yet such persons must 
accustom themselves to do some writing and so argue 
all by themselves. So Antipater c the Stoic, since, as 
it seems, he could not and would not come to close 
quarters with Carneades d and his violent attacks 
upon the Stoa, used to fill whole books with written 
disputations against him, and so earned the sobriquet 
of" Pen-valiant/ - But with the talker, such shadow- 

Ipsms (Moralia, 546 b-e) and the first part of Quaestiones 
Conviv., ii. 1 (Moralia, 629 e— 632 c). 

c Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., iii. p. 244, Frag. 5. 

d Cf. Aulus Gellius, xvii. 15. 1. 

463 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

av rj npos to ypacfreiov 1 GKiapiax^ Kal fiorj tov 
7rArjdovs direpvKovoa Kad* rjLLepav eXacfrporepov 

7Tapa<JK€vd(J€L€ TOLS GVVOVOIV, CJCT7T€p Ol KVV€S €6? 
XldoVS KCLl £vXa TOV dviLOV d(f)€VT€S fjTTOV CtCTt 

XaXenol toZs dvdpcoTTOis. apLLocrei 8' avrolg acfroopa 

KCLl TO L16TCL Kp€lTTOVOJV OL€L KCLl TTpeofivTepCOV 

E oLLiAeiv aioxvvoLLevoi yap clvtcov ttjv 86£av iv e9ei 

yeVTjGOVTCLl TOV GIOJTT&V. 

Tovtois 8' del Set kcltclll€llixO ai kcli gvlltt€7tX€- 
xOai tois idiGLLOis ttjv npoGoyr\v eKeivrjv kcli top 
imXoyiGLLoVy otclv ti /xe'AAco/zev AaAetv kcli tol 

pTjLLCLTCL TO) GTOLLCLTl TTpOOTplyT] > " T ^ OVTOS 6 X6yO$ 

6 i<f)€OTaJS kcli KaTaftialsOLLevos ; eVt ti 8' rj yXcooG* 
dcnraipei; 2 ti 8' eittovti irepiyiveTai kclXov tj ti 
aioj7Trjc7avTi Svoxepis; " ov yap cos" /3apo? ti Set 
TTie^ov 3 duod iodai tov Xoyov, iirel rrapaiLevei ye /cat 
prjueis olloicos' aAA 7] 01 avTovs avvpamoi oeofjievoi 

TWOS XaXoVOlV Tj TOVS 6.KOVOVTaS tb(f)€XoVVT€S 7] 

X&pw tivcl TrapaoKevd^ovTes aXXrjXoig cooirep dXol 
F toZs Xoyois i(f>r]8vvovoi ttjv $iaTpi/3r)v Kal ttjv 
irpa^iv iv fj Tvyxdvovoiv 6vt€$. et Se Lufyr^ tco 
XeyovTi XP 7 ] (JLLL0V f JL V T * dvayKolov toZs aKovovoi to 
XeyoLLevov r)8ovr) Se 5 /cat ^apt? ov TrpocrecTTi, Sta ti 
Aeyerat; to yap \xaTr\v koX oiaKevfjs ovx tJttov iv 
toIs Xoyois r) toIs epyois eoTiv. 

'Em 7raai Se Kal irapa TavTa irdvTa Set npo- 

515 X €L P ov *X €LV KaL fAVQl^oveveiv to ZtiLLcoviSeiov ort 

XaXrjaas piev iroXXaKis LieTevorjoe, oiamiqoas 8' 

1 ypa(f>eiov G : ypa^ctv. 

2 aoiraipei] airaipei most MSS. 

3 ttU^ov Reiske, confirmed by G : Tnit.ovra. 

1 /xifre Reiske : ovrc. 5 Se Wilamowitz : re. 

464 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 514-515 

boxing a with the pen and such alarums, by keeping 
him away from the multitude, may Perhaps make him 
less of a daily burden to his associates, just as dogs 
that vent their anger on sticks and stones are less 
savage to men. And it will also be very advan- 
tageous for chatterers to frequent invariably the 
company of their superiors and elders, out of respect 
for whose opinion they will become accustomed to 
silence. 

And with these exercises in habituation it is proper 
to intermix and entwine that well-known vigilance 
and habit of reflection, at the very moment when we 
are about to speak and the words are hurrying to our 
lips, " What is this remark that is so pressing and 
importunate ? What object is my tongue pant- 
ing for ? What good will come of its being said 
or what ill of its being suppressed ? " For it is not 
as though the remark were some oppressive weight 
which one ought to get rid of, since it stays by you 
all the same even if it is spoken ; when men talk, it 
is either for their own sake, because they need some- 
thing, or to benefit their hearers, or they seek to 
ingratiate themselves with each other by seasoning 
with the salt of conversation the pastime or business 
in which they happen to be engaged. But if a re- 
mark is neither useful to the speaker nor of serious 
importance to the hearers, and if pleasure or charm is 
not in it, why is it made ? For the futile and purpose- 
less can exist in speech as well as in deeds. 

And over and above all else we must keep at hand 
and in our minds the saying of Simonides, & that he 
had often repented of speaking, but never of holding 

a Cf. Plato, Laws, 830 a-c. 
b C/. Moralia, 10 f, 125 d ; 505 f, supra. 

465 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(515) Ol)8e7TOT€- KCLl TTjV a(JK7]GlV, OTL 7TOVTC0V i7TlKpCLT€l 

Kal Icrxvporepov 1 €gtlv ottov Kal Xvyfiov Kal firjx 
av8pa)7TOL rep Trpoae^etv diro^ia ^opbevot, fierd ttovov 
Kal aAyrjSovos i^eKpovaavro. oiyrj S' ov p.6vov 
aSiiftov, cos </>r)<jiv 'iTrTTOKpdrrjs, dXXd Kal aXvrrov 
Kal avcbSvvov. 

1 laxvporepov Pohlenz : laxvpov. 



466 



CONCERNING TALKATIVENESS, 515 

his tongue. We must remember also that practice is 
master of all things and stronger than anything else ; 
since people can even get rid of hiccoughs and coughs 
by resisting them resolutely and with much pain and 
trouble. But silence, as Hippocrates a says, not only 
prevents thirst, but also never causes sorrow and 
suffering. 

a Cf. Moralia, 90 c-d. 



467 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY 

(DE CURIOSITATE) 



VOL. VI 



INTRODUCTION 

This essay, which was apparently written only a short 
time before De Garrulitate, a has much the same 
interest and charm as that pleasant work. The 
essays are akin in many ways ; portions of the later 
treatise are merely a reshaping of ideas and common- 
places which the earlier had adumbrated. 

The source of much of this work has been traced to 
Ariston of Chios by O. Hense (Rhein. Mus.,x\v. 541 ff.) ; 
and F. Krauss b has shown with some success the 
relation to diatribe literature. 

The essay was already known to Aulus Gellius 
(xi. 16), who speaks with feeling of the difficulty of 
rendering TroXvirpay/Aocrvvr) in Latin c ; nor has it been 
unknown to English moralists. Jeremy Taylor has 
again borrowed largely from it in his Holy Living, ii. 5. 

In the translation of this and the preceding essay 
I am greatly indebted to Mr. Tucker's d spirited ver- 
sion, from which I have taken numerous phrases and 
sometimes whole sentences. 

The work is No. 97 in the Lamprias catalogue. 

° And no doubt also before Be Tranquillitate (so rightly 
Brokate). 

b Die Rhetorischen Schriften Plutarchs, Munich Diss., 
Niirnberg, 1912, pp. 67 ff. See also the interesting table 
(p. 87) of rhetorical figures which places our essay in the very 
centre of Plutarch's literary activity. 

c It is hard to render it in English also. The translator 
uses the word " curiosity " — Ed. 

d Select Essays of Plutarch, Oxford, Clarendon, 1913. 

471 



(5i5) nEPI noArnPArMOSYNHS 

B 

1. "Anvovv rj oKoreivrjv rj Sua^ct/zepov ot/ctav Tj 
voaojhiq (f)vyelv jiev locos dpLorov dv he (f)i\o^cxjpf\ 

TLS V7TO OVVTjdeiaSy €GTL KCLL (fxjJTCL fJL€Ta9eVTCL KCLl 

KXlfiaka (jLerafiaXovTa /cat Ovpas rivas dvoi^avra 
ras he KXelaavra Xapurporepav evrrvovorepav vyi- 
eLvorepav /jLrjxavrjoaaOai. 1 /cat ttoXzis rives ovtqj 

C fieradevres cbcfreXrjcrav' oooirep ttjv epLTjV Trarpioa 
rrpos ^ecfrvpov dve\xov KeKXi\xevr\v /cat rov rjXiov 
epeioovra helXrjs drro rod Ylapvaauov hexofievrjv errl 
ras dvaroXds rpaTrrjvaL XeyovoLv vtto rod Xat'pawos'. 
6 he (bvoLKos 'HjJLTrehoKXrjs opovs riva Stacr</>aya 
fiapvv /cat voacohrj /caret rcov Trehicov rov vorov 
eparveovaav 2 epLcf)pd^as y Xoljjlov eho^ev e/c/cActcrat rrjs 
Xoopas. 

'E77el tolvvv eon riva irdOr] vootohrj /cat f$Xaj3epa 
/cat ^etjLtcoya irapeyovra rfj ipvxfj /cat okotos, dpi- 
arov {lev e^codelv ravra /cat KaraXveiv els ehacfros, 
aWplav /cat cf)cos /cat Trvedjia KaOapov hchovras 

D eavroLS' el he [jLtj, pLeraXapL^dveLV ye /cat fiedap- 
pLOTTeiv dficxjayeTTCos 3 Trepidyovrag rj orpecfrovras* 

1 firjxo.vqoao9aL] ipyaoaodai most MSS. 

2 €{17TV€OVOLV] €K7TV€OVOCLV Reiske. 

3 afiwoyeTTtos Reiske : aAAcos ye ttojs, 

a Chaeroneia. 

472 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY 

1. It is perhaps best to avoid a house which has no 
ventilation, or is gloomy, or cold in winter, or un- 
healthy ; yet if familiarity has made you fond of 
the place, it is possible to make it brighter, better 
ventilated, and healthier by altering the lights, shift- 
ing the stairs, and opening some doors and closing 
others. Even some cities have gained by such 
changes. So in the case of my own town, a which used 
to face the west and receive the full force of the sun 
in the late afternoon from Parnassus, they say that 
it was turned by Chaeron to face the east. And 
Empedocles, & the natural philosopher, by blocking 
up a certain mountain gorge, which permitted the 
south wind to blow a dire and pestilential draught 
down upon the plains, was thought to have shut 
plague out of his country. 

Since, then, there are certain unhealthy and in- 
jurious states of mind which allow winter and dark- 
ness to enter the soul, it is better to thrust these out 
and to make a clean sweep to the foundations, thus 
giving to ourselves a clear sky and light and pure air ; 
but if that is impossible, it is best at least to inter- 
change and readjust them in some way or other, 
turning or shifting them about. 

h Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker* \ i. p. 284, A 14 ; cf. 
M or alia, 1126 b. 

473 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(515) Olov evdvs r) TToXvTTpayjJLoavvr] (friXopLaOeid tls 
eoriv dXXorpioov kclkcov, ovre <f)96vov 8oi<ovaa 
KaOapeveiv vooos ovre KaKorjOecas' 

tl rdXXorpiov, dvOpame fiaoKavoorare, 

KCLKOV 6£vSopK€ls TO 8' LOLOV 77(X/)a/3Ae77€t9 / 

pLerdOes e£oodev /cat pLerdarpeipov elaoo ttjv ttoXv- 
Trpay/jiOGVvrjv' el xatpeis kclkojv pLerax^pi^dpievos 
loropiav, e^ecs oIkol 7ToXXrjv hiCLTpifirjV' 

OOGOV VOCOp KCLT* ' AXi^OVOS Tj SpVOS d[JL<f)L TTeTTjXa, 1 

rocrovrov ttXtjOos evprjoeis ap,a pTTjpidrcov ev too /3loo 
E Kal iraddov ev rfj iftvxfj /cat TrapopapLaroov iv rots 

KadrjKOVGLV^ 

*£ls yap 6 'Revocfroov Xeyei rots olKovopuKols loiov 
elvai tcov d[i(f)l Ovglclv uKevcov, loiov tcov dficfrl 
helrrva to7tov, aXXa^ov Kelodai ra yecopytKa, ^copes' 
rd rrpos TroXepiov, ovtoo gol ra [lev ioTiv dud 

(f)96vOV KCLKa K€L(JL€Va, T(l 8' CXTTO ^rjXoTVTT IOCS' , T(X 8' 

a77o SeiXlas, rd 8' dno puKpoXoylas' ravr eireXOe, 
TavT dvadeojprjGov rds els yeiTovcov OvpiSas /ecu 
rd? irapohovs ttjs 7ToXvTrpaypioovv7]s epicfrpa^ov, 
irepas 8' dvoi^ov els ttjv avSpcovuTLV ttjv aeavTov (f>e- 
povoas, els ttjv yvvaiKOovlTiv, els rds tcov Qepairov- 
Y tcov Statras' evravd* eyei SiaTpiftds ovk dxprjorovs 
1 oacros vhojp kclQ' dXos arovos rj 8/>. dfi(j>l 7T€t. Madvig. 

a Of. Menander's typical curious slave, a -noXvirpdy^oiv, 
474 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 515 

Such a malady of the mind, to take the first instance, 
is curiosity, which is a desire to learn the troubles of 
others, a a disease which is thought to be free from 
neither envy nor malice : 

Why do you look so sharp on others' ills, 
Malignant man, yet overlook your own ? & 

Shift your curiosity from things without and turn it 
inwards ; if you enjoy dealing with the recital of 
troubles, you have much occupation at home : 

Great as the water flowing down Alizon, 
Many as the leaves around the oak, c 

so great a quantity of transgressions will you find in 
your own life, of afflictions in your own soul, of over- 
sights in the performance of your own obligations. 

For as Xenophon d says that good householders 
have a special place for sacrificial utensils, and a 
special place for dinner-ware, and that farming imple- 
ments should be stored elsewhere, and apart from 
them the weapons of war ; even so in your own case 
you have one store of faults arising from envy, another 
from jealousy, another from cowardice, another from 
pettiness. Assault these, examine these ! Block up 
the windows and the side-doors of your curiosity that 
open on your neighbours' property, and open up 
others leading to your own — to the men's quarters, 
to the women's quarters, to the living-rooms of your 
servants ! Here this curiosity and meddlesomeness 
of yours will have an occupation not unhelpful or 

who says (Frag. 850 Kock) : ovSev yXvKvrcpov iariv rj tt6.vt 
elhevai. 

b Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 476, ades. 359 ; cf. 469 b, 
supra. 

A verse of unknown origin ; the text is probably corrupt. 

d Oeconomicus, viii. 19, 20. 

475 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovSe KaKorjdeis aXX dxjyeXLfJLOvs /cat ocorrjpiovs to 
<f>i\oTT€vdes rovro Kal (friXoiTpaynov, Ikolotov Trpbs 
iavrov Xeyovros, 

nrj TparrojJirjv; 1 ri 8' epe^a; ri /xot Se'ov ovk 
ireXcGOrj ; 

2. "Nvv 8' ojarrep ev tu> pLvdw rrjv Adpuav Ae- 

yovatv oIkoi fiev evoeiv 2 tvc^Xtjv, iv ayyeico nvl 

516 tovs 6(j>6aXpiovs e^pvoav ol7tok€Lijl€Vovs, e£a) Se 

7Tpo'Covcrav €vri9ea9ai z Kal pXerretv, ovtcos tj/jlcov 

€KCLOTOS €^C0 Kal TTpOS €T€pOVS TTj KaKOVOlO. T7JV 

TTepiepylav tooirep otfrdaXpidv ivriOrjai, tols 8' eau- 
rcov afiapTrjfJLaai Kal KaKols noXXaKis TT€pnrTalo\xev 
vt? ayvoias, oxjjiv in avra Kal (ficbs ov TTopL^oixevoi. 
816 Kal tols ixOpoig wcfyeXtfJiajrepos Igtiv 6 ttoXv- 
rrpdyfiajv ra ydp €K€lvojv eAey^ei Kal irpo^eperai 
Kal SecKvvcnv avrolg a Set (f>vXd£aadaL Kal Stop- 
dcooaiy rcov 8' olkol tol 7rXeloTa irapopa Sia ttjv 7repl 
ra el;oj tttotjglv. 6 fxev ydp 'OSvacrevs ovSe rfj 
fjirjTpl StaXexdfjvai rrporepov imefjieivev rj irvOeodai 
Trapa rod fiavreajs, cov eveK rjX8ev ets* "AiSou* 

B 7Tvd6[JL€VOS 8e TOVTO 77/90? T€ TaVTTjV €Tp€lfj€V ai)TOV , 

Kal rag aAAa? yvvalKas dveKptve, tls rj Tvpcb Kal ris 
rj KaXrj XAcupt? Kal 8ta ri rf 'Em/cacrTTy dnedavev 

di/jafjL€vrj fipoxov alirvv d(f> y vifjrjXoto fieXddpov. 6 

1 TpaTTOjjLrjv] nape^ijv Mot. % 168 B. 

2 €v<$€lv Xylander : a8ctv. 

3 ivrldeodaL Pohlenz : airoTidcoB 'at or 7re/HTi0€o-0cu . 

4 ri rj] riV all mss. but two. 

5 fieXddpov] omitted in all mss. except two. 

476 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 515 516 

malicious, but useful and salutary if each one will but 
say to himself, 

Where did I err ? And what deed have I done ? 
What duty neglected ? ° 

2. But as it is, like the Lamia in the fable, who, 
they say, when at home sleeps in blindness with her 
eyes stored away in a jar, but when she goes abroad 
puts in her eyes and can see, so each one of us, in 
our dealings with others abroad, puts his meddle- 
someness, like an eye, into his maliciousness ; but 
we are often tripped up by our own faults and vices 
by reason of our ignorance of them, since we provide 
ourselves with no sight or light by which to inspect 
them. Therefore the busybody is also more useful 
to his enemies than to himself, b for he rebukes and 
drags out their faults and demonstrates to them 
what they should avoid or correct, but he neglects the 
greater part of his own domestic errors through his 
passionate interest in those abroad. So Odysseus c 
refused to converse even with his mother until he 
had learned from the seer d the matters by reason 
of which he had come to the House of Hades ; and 
when he had his answer, he both turned to his mother 
and also made inquiries of the other women, e asking 
who was Tyro, who the beautiful Chloris, why Epicaste 
met her death 

Tying a noose, sheer-hung, from the high roof/ 

rt "Pythagoras," Carmina Aurea, 42; cf. Moralia, 168 b. 
6 Cf. Mbralia, 87 b-c. 

e Cf. Homer, Od., xi. 88 if. ; Ps.-Lucian, De Astrologia, 24. 
d Teiresias. 
• 0d. 9 xi. 229 ff. 

f Ibid. 278 ; Epicaste is better known as Jocasta, the 
mother of Oedipus. 

vol. vi q 2 477 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(516) t)jjl€L9 Se ra kcl9* clvtovs ev rroAXfj paOvfita /cat 
dyvola defievoi /cat d/JLeArjoavTes irepovs yeveaAo- 
yodfxev otl rod yelrovos 6 77(177770? rjv Hvpos, 
parr a 8' rj ttjOtj^ 6 helva 8' ocpelAei rdAavra rpta 
/cat tovs tokovs ovk oVoSe'Soj/ccy. 2 i^eTa^ofiev Se 
/cat ra roiavra, irodev rj yvvrj rod Selvos iTravrjpxeTO, 
C ri 8' o Setva /cat 6 Setva /ca#' iavrovg iv rfj yoovla 
SteAiyovTO. HojKpdrrjs Se nepir\zi hiairopchv tL 
Ylvdayopas Aeycov eireide' /cat * ApioTunros 'OAu/z- 
TTiaoiv 'Ia^o/xa^oj ovpifiaAcbv rjpwra ri HajKpdrrjs 
StaAeyo/jLevos ovtoo tovs veovs z Start^crr /cat \xiKp 
drra toov Aoycov clvtov oTreppbara /cat Sety/xaTa 
Aaficbv ovtoos ifJL7ra9a)s i^X €V ( * )GT€ TC ? crcofiarL 
avjJL7T€G€tv /cat yeviodai rravTaTracnv compos /cat 
logos' d)(pLS ov 7TAevoas ^ Adrjva^e Sufjtov /cat Sta- 
K€kclv[jl€Vos rjpvocLTO ttjs irrjyfjs, /cat tov dvSpa /cat 
tovs Aoyovs avrov /cat ttjv cj>iAooo4>iav loroprjaev, 
rjs tjv reAos imyvoovai rd iavrov /ca/ca /cat <x7raA- 
Aayrpat. 

3. 'AAA' eVtot tov lScov fiiov cos aTeprridTaTov 
D deafia TrpoortSeiv ov^ virofiivovuLV ouS' aVa/cAaaat tov 
AoyicrpLov ojs (fioos £</>' iavTOVs /cat nzpiayayelv , aAA' 
7] ipvx^j yefiovaa kolkgov TravToSarrcov /cat (f>pLTTOvaa 
koll cj)o^ov[JL€vr] ra evSov €K7r7]8& Ovpa^e /cat 7rAa- 
vovrai Trepl TaAAoTpia, fiooKovoa /cat iriaivovoa to 
KCLKorjdes. obs ydp opvcs iv ot/cta 4 7roAAa/ct9 Tpocfrrjs 
7TapaK€i(JL€V7)s els ycovtav /caTaSucra cr/caAeuet 

1 rrjOrj] rir&v most mss. 

2 aTTohehaiKtv] aTT&ojKtv some mss. 

3 veovs] Oeovs, or 'Kd-qvaiovs> or dearas various MSS. 

4 ot/aa] olklgko) Valckenaer. 

478 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 516 

But we, while treating our own affairs with consider- 
able laxity and ignorance and neglect, pry into the 
pedigrees of the rest of the world : our neighbour's 
grandfather was a Syrian and his grandmother a 
Thracian ° ; so-and-so owes three talents and has not 
paid the interest. We inquire also into such matters 
as where so-and-so's wife was coming back from, 6 and 
what A and B's private conversation in the corner was 
about. Yet Socrates went about seeking to solve the 
question of what arguments Pythagoras used to carry 
conviction ; and Aristippus, when he met Ischo- 
machus at Olympia, asked him by what manner of 
conversation Socrates succeeded in so affecting the 
young men. And when Aristippus had gleaned a 
few odd seeds and samples of Socrates' talk, he was 
so moved that he suffered a physical collapse and 
became quite pale and thin. Finally he sailed for 
Athens and slaked his burning thirst with draughts 
from the fountain-head, and engaged in a study of the 
man and his words and his philosophy, of which the 
end and aim was to come to recognize one's own 
vices and so rid oneself of them. 

3. Yet there are some who cannot bear to face 
their own lives, regarding these as a most unlovely 
spectacle, or to reflect and revolve upon themselves, 
like a light, the power of reason, but their souls, being 
full of all manner of vices, shuddering and frightened 
at what is within, leap outwards and prowl about 
other people's concerns and there batten and make 
fat their own malice. For as a domestic fowl will 
often, though its own food lies near at hand, slip 
into a corner and there scratch 



That is, both were probably slaves. 
h i.e., where she had been. 



479 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

(516) ev9a ye rrov 1 SiacfralveO* dV ev KOTrpirj 2, (jllcl Kpidij 

7Tapa7rXrjoUos ol ttoXvtt pay proves, VTrepfiavres tovs 
iv fxeaci) Xoyovs Kal loropias Kal a pcrfiels KO>Xvec 
TTwddveaOai /zr^S' a'xQerai TrvvOavofievois, rd Kpvrr- 

E ropceva Kal XavOdvovra kolkol rrdorjs olKias it<- 
Xey overt, kclitoi to ye 3 rod Alyvirriov x a p^ v rrpos 
rov ipcorcovra ri (f>epeL ovyKeKaXvptpievov, " Sid 
tovto ovyK€KdXv7TTai." Kal av 8rj ri TToXvirpay- 
ixovels to aTTOKpviTTonevov ; el jjltj tl k<xkov rjv, ovk 
av d,7T€KpvTTT€TO. Kairoi fiTj Koiftavrd ye dvpav els 
oIkiov dXXorpiav ov vofiL^erai rrapeXdelv dAAd vvv 
{lev elol OvpcopoL, rrdXat Se porrrpa a 4 Kpovofxeva 
rrpos rals Ovpais aiaOrjoLV irapelyev, Iva pur] rrjv 
OLKoSeaTTOivav iv pLeaco KaraXdfirj 6 dXXorpios rj rr)v 
rrapOevov r) KoXa^opievov olKerrjv r) KeKpayvtas rag 
deparraivlSas' 6 Se rroXvrrpdypiOJV err* avrd ravra 

F rrapaSverat- adxf)povos puev OLKuas Kal Kadecrrworjs 
ouS' av napaKaXfj tls r)8eo)s yivopievos Oearrjs* Sv 
S' eveKa KXels Kal pcoxXos Kal avXeios, ravr 
dvaKaXvTTTajv Kal <j)epa)v els to pieaov erepois. 
Kalroi Kal " rcov dvepiojv pidXiara Sua^epcuVo/xev/ ' 
<Ls > Apiora)v <f>rjOLV, " 0001 ras rrepifioXas dvaareX- 
Xovglv 77/xcov " • 6 Se 7ToXv7TpdypLOJV ov ra Ipbdria tlqv 
rreXas ov8e tovs x tT ^ )Vas > dXXd tovs tolxovs 
drrapi^ievvvoL, ras dvpas avarrerdvvvaiy Kal " Sid 

1 eV0a8e Kal most mss. 

2 KOTrpirj] Koirpia all mss. but G. 

3 to ye] ye to most MSS. 

* a added by Capps. 

480 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 516 

Where one sole barley grain perhaps appears 
In the dung-heap, a 

in the same way busybodies, passing over topics and 
narratives which are in plain view and matters con- 
cerning which no one prevents their inquiring or is 
vexed if inquiry is made, pick out the hidden and 
obscure troubles of every household. And yet it was 
surely a clever answer that the Egyptian gave to the 
man who asked him what he was carrying wrapped 
up : " That's why it is wrapped up." And why, 
if you please, are you inquisitive about what is con- 
cealed ? If it were not something bad, it would not 
be concealed. Yet it is not customary to walk into 
the house of someone else without at least first knock- 
ing on the door ; but nowadays there are doormen and 
formerly there were knockers to be struck at the 
door and give warning, so that the stranger might not 
catch the mistress of the house or the unmarried 
daughter unawares, or a slave being punished or the 
maid-servants screaming. But it is for these very 
things that the busybody slips in. A sober and re- 
spectable household he would not willingly enter as a 
spectator even if he were invited to come ; but the 
matters to conceal which keys and bolts and street- 
doors are used — these are what he uncovers and 
communicates to outsiders. And yet " the winds 
with which we are most vexed," as Ariston b says, 
" are those which pull up our garments," but the 
busybody strips off not only the mantles and tunics 
of those near him, but also their very walls ; he 
flings the doors wide open and makes his way, like 

a Perhaps a verse of Callimachus (Frag. anon. 374 ed. 
Schneider). 

b Von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag., i. pp. 89-90, Frag. 401. 

481 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rrapdeviKrjs arraXoxpoos " d>s Trvedfia StaSveraL 
517 koX hieprrei, ^a/c^eta koli xopovs /cat Travvvx&as 
i^erdiajv kgI ovKocfxxvTCov. 

4. Kat KaOdrrep rod KQjfJLtpbovpLevov KXeojvos 

TO) X 6 ^ ' €V AlTCoAotS', O VOVS 8' 1 eV KAcomScoy, 

ovrcxj rod TToAvTTpdyfjLovos 6 vovs dp? iv rrXovaiojv 
o'lkois ioriv, iv SajpLOLTtoLS rrev^rajv, iv auAafc 
paaiXetDV, iv OaXdpLots veoydjicov navra 2 rrpdyfiara 
Crjrei, rd £iva)v, rd rjyepiovajv, ouS' aKLvSvvais 
ravra -tpqrchv dXX olov, et ti$ aKovlrov yevotro 
7ToXv7Tpayjjiova)v rrjv TTOLorrjTa, cj^Odoeiev dv z rrjs 
aiaOrjoeajs rrpoaveXobv rov alaOavopuevov, 4 ' ovtojs ol 

TOL TOJV JJLei^OVOJV KCLKa tpTjTOVVTeS TTpOavaXiCFKOVGl 

B rrjs yv(x)G€tos iavrovs. koX yap ol rov rjXtov ttjv 
d<j)9ov6v ye ravrrfv kclI KaraKexvpiivrjv arraoiv 
aKTiva Trapopchvres, avrov 8e rov kvkXov dvaioobs 
Kara^Xeneiv koll oiacrreXXeiv to <f>ajs eiauj /jta£o- 
fievoL kclI ToXpLcbvres drrorv(f)XovvTai. hid /caAcos* 

QlXlTnTiSrjS 6 KCOfMpS 107TOIOS, €LTrOVTOS aVTCp 7TOT€ 

AvaLfiaxov rod paatXeajs, " rivos ooi rcov ipicov 
fxeraSa); " " pbdvov," eirrev, " c3 fiaotXev, purj rcov 
aTTopprjTiov." ra yap TJStora Kal KaXXtora rcov 
fiaaiXewv e£a) TTpoKeirai, rd Selrrva, ol ttXovtol, al 
Travrjyvpeis, al x^P LT€ ^' ^l §6 rt drropprjTOV earn, 

1 vovs 8'] Be vovs most mss. of Plutarch and Aristophanes. 

2 7rdvTa] rravroZa Reiske. 

3 cf)ddo€i€v av W.C.H.: <j>Qaoei. 

4 rov alo6av6fjL€vovW.C. II . after Madvig (who read to): tov 
or to 7Tpoaiodav6iJL€vov. 

° Hesiod, Works and Days, 519 ; c/. 465 d, supra. 

482 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 516-517 

a piercing wind, " through the maiden of tender 
skin," a and creeps in, searching out with slanderous 
intent drunken revels and dances and all-night 
festivals. 

4. And like Cleon in the comedy, 6 

His hands in Beggar-town, his mind on Thefton,* 

so the mind of the busybody is at the same time in 
mansions of the rich, in hovels of the poor, in royal 
courts, and in bridal chambers of the newly-wed. He 
searches out everybody's business, that of strangers 
and that of rulers, nor is this search of his without 
danger ; but j ust as though a man should taste aconite d 
through curiosity about its properties, he would find 
that he had killed the taster before he had got his 
taste, so those who search out the vices of those more 
powerful than themselves destroy themselves before 
they acquire their knowledge. For instance those 
who scarcely glance e at these sunbeams which have 
been poured down so lavishly upon us all, but reck- 
lessly dare to gaze upon the orb itself and to rend 
its radiance apart, striving to force their way within, 
are blinded. This is the reason why Philippides/ 
the comic poet, made an excellent reply when King 
Lysimachus once said to him, " Which one of my 
possessions may I share with you ? " " Anything, 
Sire," said Philippides, " except your secrets." For 
only the most pleasant and most decorous attributes 
of kings are displayed openly — their banquets and 
wealth and festivals and favours ; but if there is any- 

6 Aristophanes, Knights, 79 ; Klopidai (Thief-deme) is a 
play upon the actual deme Kropidai. 

c Or better, Theevingen. d Cf. Moralia, 49 e. 

• Cf. Xenophon, Memorabilia, iv. 3. 14. 
f Cf. 508 c, supra. 

483 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(517) fir] TrpooiXdrjs fiySe KLvrjor]s. ov Kpv7TT€rcu xapa 

C fiaoiXiojs evrvxovvros ov8e yiXcog rrai^ovros ovhe 

<f)LAav6pa)7TLas rrapaoKevr) koll ^apiros" (frofiepov 

€OTL TO KpVTTTOfJLCVOV, OKvdpOJTTOV dyiXaOTOV SuCT- 

TTpooiroVy opyrjs tlvos vttovXov Orjcravpos rj TipLOjpias 

Papvdv/JLOV GK€lpLS Tj ^TjXoTVTT ICL yVVCLlKOS Tj TTpOS 
VLOV VTTOlfjta T69 Tj TTpOS (f)lXoV aTTLOTia. (f)€Vy€ TO 

fieXalvov 1 tovto koll avvtOTapLevov vinos' ov A^crerat 
oe PpovTTJoav ov8* doTpdipav otclv eKpayfj to vvv 

KpyTTTOfieVOV. 

5. TcV ovv rj (f)vyrj; TrepioiraopLos, ojs etprjTCU, 

KOI fJLedoXKT) TTJS TToXvTTpayiJLOGVVrjS jJidXtOTa JJL€V iirl 

ra fleXTtoj /cat to, rjhla) TpiipavTi ttjv ifjvyprjv. tol iv 
ovpavto TToXvTTpayjjLovei, ra iv yfj, ra iv dipt, tol iv 
D OaXaTTj). fjuhcpoov iretfivKas rj fxeydXcov (^iXoOedfjuajv ; 
el jjieydXajv, -fjXiov TToXvTTpayjiovei ttov 2 Acaretat koli 
TToOev aveicri' £r}T€L ras* iv aeXrjvr) KaOdrrep iv z 

dv9pOJ7TCp fl€Taf3oXds , TTOV TOOOVTOV KaTCLV7]Xa)CF€ 

</)QJS, TTodev avdts iKTrjoaTO , ttcos 

i£ dSrjXov rrptoTOv epxeTcu via 
TTpooojTra KaXXvvovoa koI TrXrjpovfJiivy]' 
-^coTav Trep avTrjs cuyavecxrar^ 4 (f>avfj, 
ttoXlv Stappel kottl firjSiv epytTai. 

koX tclvt diroppr^T ioTi (frvaews, ciAA' ovk a^erai 
Tors' iXiyxovoLV. dXXd tojv jJLeydXcov diriyvcoKas ; 

7ToXvTTpayiXOV€l TOL fJUKpOTepOL, TTCOS TOJV tf)VTLOV TO. 

1 (jLeXalvov] fieXavov most mss. 

2 7toi>] ttol Bernardakis. 

3 eV] omitted in most mss. 

4 €vyav€GraTr) Pohlenz ; evyeveaTO.Tr) or evTrpeneoTCLTT]. 

a In 515 d, supra, 

484 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 517 

thing secret, do not approach it, but let it be ! The 
joy of a prosperous king is not concealed, nor is his 
laughter when he is amused, nor his outlay on enter- 
tainment and favours ; but it is time for alarm when 
something is hidden, something dark, unsmiling, un- 
approachable, a storehouse of festering wrath, or the 
meditation of a punishment indicative of sullen anger, 
or jealousy of a wife, or some suspicion against a son, 
or distrust of a friend. Beware of this darkening 
and gathering cloud ! That which is now hidden will 
be disclosed to you when the cloud bursts forth amid 
crashes of thunder and bolts of lightning ! 

5. What escape is there, then, from this vice ? By 
a process of shifting and diverting our inquisitiveness, 
as has been said, a and, if possible, by turning the 
soul to better and more pleasant subjects. Direct 
your curiosity to heavenly things and things on 
earth, in the air, in the sea. Are you by nature fond 
of small or of great spectacles ? If of great ones, 
apply your curiosity to the sun : where does it set and 
whence does it rise ? Inquire into the changes in the 
moon, as you would into those of a human being : 
what becomes of all the light she has spent and from 
what source did she regain it, how does it happen that 

When out of darkness first she comes anew, 
wShe shows her face increasing fair and full ; 
And when she reaches once her brightest sheen, 
Again she wastes away and comes to naught ? b 

And these are secrets of Nature, yet Nature is not 
vexed with those who find them out. Or suppose 
you have renounced great things. Then turn your 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 315, Sophocles, Frag. 787 
(871 ed. Pearson) ; the full quotation may be found in Life 
of Demetrius, xlv. (911 c-d). Cf also Moralia, 282 b. 

485 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fjiev aet T€0r]A€ /cat ^Aoa£et /cat ayaAAerat ttolvtI 
E Kcuptp tov iavrcov emSetKvviJLeva 7tXovtov, tol 8e vvv 
\xiv Zotiv ofioia tovtols, vvv S' coorrep avoiKovofir}- 
tos avdpcDiros e/c^eavr' ddpocos rrjv 7T€pLOvoiav 
yvpLva /cat TTTOj-^a /caTaAetVeTar Sta tl 8e ra jxev 
TrpopLrjKeLS to, Se ytovicLSets ra Se OTpoyyvXovs /cat 

7T€pi(f)ep€iS €KOl8ojGL KdpTTOVS . 

"\oojs Se tolvt* ov TroXvirpaypbovrjcreLS , otl tovtols 
ovSev kclkov eveoTLV. 1 dAA' et Set 7rdvTa>s to 
7T€pUpyov iv (jyavXois tlolv, tocnrep IpneTov iv 
davaoifiois vXclls, del vefieaOai /cat Star/HjSeiv, em 
ra? toTopta? dydyajfiev clvto /cat 77apa/3dAa>/zev 
a(f)9ovlav /ca/caJv /cat irepiovoiav ivTavda yap 
eWtcrt 

TreornLCLT* dvSpcov /ca7roAa/crt(7/xot 2 /3l(jov* 

F <f)9opal yvvaiKOiv y eVt^e'cret? OLKeTtov, Sta/3oAat 
(f>iXcx)v, 7rapaoK€val (^apfiaKCov, c/)06voi y IflXoTViriai, 
vavdyi olkcov, €K7TTtocr€Ls rjyepLOVLOjv*' ejJLTTLTrXaao 
/cat T€p7T€ aavTov, ivoxXcov fjLrjSevl tcov gvvovtojv 

JJLTjSe XvTTOJV. 

6. 'AAA' €olk€V rj 7ToXvTrpayfJLOcrvvrj [xrj yaipeiv 
icLXoLs /ca/cot? aAAa Oepfxols /cat TrpoocfidTOis* /cat 
518 Kaivds Tpaycohias rjSecos deaodai, tols Se KajfiLKols 
/cat IXapcoTcpois TTpdy\iaviv ov fidXa 7rpodvfJLOjg opa- 
Xelv. Sto ydfiov pcev twos rj dvacav rj 7Tpo7rofJL7rr)V 
Sce^iovTos dp.eXrjs 6 TroXvTrpdyfxcov /cat pddvpios 
aKpoaTrjS cart, /cat 7rpoaKT]KoevaL to, 77AetCTrd (f)r]OL 
/cat /ceAeuet raura avvTepLvetv /cat TrapipxzoQai tov 

1 tzveoriv Pohlenz : zotiv. 

2 7T€aijijLaT y . . . KaTToAaACTicr^tot Diibner : ncaTJixaTa . . . /cal 
a7roAa/CTtcrftot. 

486 






ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 517-518 

curiosity to smaller ones : how are some plants 
always blooming and green and rejoicing in the dis- 
play of their wealth at every season, while others are 
sometimes like these, but at other times, like a human 
spendthrift, they squander all at once their abundance 
and are left bare and beggared ? Why, again, do 
some plants produce elongated fruits, others angular, 
and still others round and globular ? 

But perhaps you will have no curiosity about these 
subjects since there is nothing evil in them. Yet if 
your zest for meddling must by all means be for ever 
feeding and dwelling on depraved things, like a 
maggot on dead matter, let us escort it to history and 
supply it with an unstinted abundance of evils. For 
there you will find 

The deaths of men, the shufflings off of life, 

seductions of women, assaults of slaves, slanders of 
friends, compounding of poisons, envies, jealousies, 
shipwrecks of households, overthrow of empires. 
Glut and enjoy yourself and cause no trouble or pain 
to any of your associates ! 

6. But curiosity apparently takes no pleasure in 
stale calamities, but wants them hot and fresh ; it 
enjoys the spectacle of novel tragedies and has not 
much zest for association with the comic and more 
cheerful side of life. Consequently when anyone 
tells the tale of a wedding or a sacrifice or a compli- 
mentary escort, the busybody is a careless and in- 
attentive listener, and declares that he has already 
heard most of the details and urges the narrator to 

a Aeschylus, Suppliants, 937 ; cf. Moralia, 937 r. 

3 piov Aeschylus. 4 rjyefiovcov most mss. 

487 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(518) 8tr]yovpL€vov' av 8' 7) (f)dopdv tls Trapdivov rrapa- 
Kadrjpievos rj \JLOiyzLav yvvaiKos rj Slkt]s TrapaaKevfjV 
rj gtokjlv dSeXcfrcov ScrjyrjraL, ovre vvard^ei ovr 
acr^oAetrat, 

aAAa re Siirjrai inecov irapd r ovara /JaAAet. 

/cat to 

OljJLOL, TO KCLKOV TTjS €VTV)(LaS 

cos fjidXXov is ovs <f)€p€Tai Ovtjtcov 

en! tcov TToAvTTpayfjLovajv €Gtlv dXrjOcos elprjpievov. 
j> cos yap at GLKvai to yeipiOTov €/c ttjs oapKos 

eXKOVGLVy OVTCO TOL TCOV TToXvTTpayfJLOVOJV LOTtl TOVS 

cf)avXoTaTovs X&yovs eTrto-TidYat . pc&XXov 8', cooirep 
at iroXeis e^ouat rti'as* nvXas dirocppaSas /cat 
OKvOptorrds, St' cov i^dyovoi tovs OavaTovfievovs 
/cat Toe Au/xara /cat tovs KaOappiovs e/c/3aAAoucjtv , 
evayes o ovoev ovo cepov etaetat ovo e^eioc ol 

CLVTtOV OVTCO KOI T(X TCOV TToXviTpaypLOVCOV COTCL 

Xpvjo-Tov ov&ev ouS' doTtZov dXX ol cpoviKol Xoyoi 
SiepxovTai /cat TpifSovoiVy e/cfWox/za /cat puapd 
St^y^jLtara 7rapaKopLt^ovTes . 

act 8' aotSaw 1 piovvos iv OTeyais ipicus 

KCOKVTOS ipL7T€TTTOJK€V 

Q aVTTj Tols 7ToXv7TpdypLOGL pLOVOOL Kol G€Lp7)V jLtta, 
TOvff rjSiOTOV dhCOVOpidTCOV avTols. 

"Eart yap rj TroXvirpay^ioovvrf cfuXoTrevoTia tcov 
iv aTTOKpvi/jei /cat XavdavovTCOv ovSels 8' aya^ov 

a7TOKpV7TT€L K€KT7]pi€VOS, OTTOV /Cat TCt /X7^ O^Ta 

1 doi&cov'] azLhajv most MSS. : arjhcjv Lumb. 
2 <f>iXo7rpayfjLO(7wr] most MSS. 

488 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 518 

cut them short or skip them. But if someone sitting 
near at hand narrates the seduction of a maiden or 
the adultery of a wife or the framing of a law-suit or 
a quarrel of brothers, the busybody neither dozes 
off to sleep nor pleads an engagement, 

But asks more speech and proffers both his ears a > 

and that saying, 6 

Alas! 
How much more readily than glad events 
Is mischance carried to the ears of men ! 

is spoken truly when applied to busybodies. For as 
cupping-glasses c draw from the flesh what is worst in 
it, so the ears of busybodies attract the most evil 
stories. Or rather, as cities have certain unlucky and 
dismal gates through which they lead out condemned 
criminals and cast out the refuse d and the scape- 
goats, while nothing undefiled or sacred either goes 
in or out through them, so also the ears of busybodies 
give passage and thoroughfare to nothing good or 
decent, but only to gruesome tales, serving, as they 
do, as conveyance for foul and polluted narratives. 

The only song that's heard within my house 
Is wailing cries. e 

This is the one Muse and Siren for busybodies, this 
is the sweetest of all music to their ears. 

For curiosity is really a passion for finding out 
whatever is hidden and concealed, and no one con- 
ceals a good thing when he has it ; why, people even 
pretend to have good things when they have them 

a Callimachus, Frag. anon. 375 ed. Schneider. 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 913, ades. 386. 

c Cf. 469 b, supra, and Moralia, 600 c. 

d Cf. Mora! la, 271 a. • Cf 463 b, supra. 

489 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(518) TTpooTTOiovvrai. kclkqjv ovv LGToplas 6 TToXvTTpay- 
fjLcov opeyofAevos, enixaipeKaKias ovvex €Tat TrdOet, 
(f)86vov kcll fiaohcavlas dSeXcfxx). (f>96vo$ fiev yap 
earl Xvtttj eir* aXXorplois dyadols, imxaipeKaKia 
8' rjSovrj eir* dXXorpiois kclkoTs' d/x</>orepa 8' £k 
rrdOovs dvrjjjiepov Kal Orjpiajhovs yeyevrjrai rrjs 

KaKOr)0€LCLS. 

7. Ovra) 8' eVaara) Xvtttjdov ioriv rj rcov rrepi 
D avrov kclkcov avcLKaAvipis, ware ttoXXovs drrodavelv 
rrporepov r) Sel^ac ri rcov duopprjTCOV voorjixdrajv 
carpels. </>epe yap c Hpo</><JW r) 'EpaaLorparov r) 
rov KukXtjitlov avrov, or rjv avOpojrros, e-^ovra ra 
<f)dpfJLaf<a Kal rd opyava, Kar* otKcav rrpoaiardpievov 1 
avaKpiveiv pafj tls e"^€i ovpiyya rrapd haKrvXiov 2 rj 
yvvr) KapKivov iv vorepa* Kairoi oojrrjpiov iart rfjs 
Texyrjs ravrrjs rd TToAvirpaypbov dXXa rras dv ns, 
olfJiaL, rov rotovrov aTrrjXaoev, on rr)v xP eiav ov 
Trepifievajv aKXrjros err* aXXorpcwv KaKWV ep^erat 
KaravorjOLV. ol 8e ttoXvtt pay fioves avrd ravra Kat 

E TCt TOVTOJV €TL X € tyOVa &JTOVGW, OV 0epa7T€VOVT€S 

dXXa fiovov dvaKaXvTTTOVTes' o9ev paoovvr at Si- 
Kaiajg. Kal yap tovs reXcovas fiapwopieda Kal 8va- 
Xepaivofjiev, ovx orav rd ifufravfj rcov eloayo\xivtov 
eKXeycooLv , aAA' orav rd KeKpv\x\ieva tprjrovvres ev 
dXXorpLOis gk€V€gl Kal (fropTLOLS dvaoi petfiajvr ar 

KaiTOL TOVTO 7TOL€LV 6 VOfXOS Si8o)OLV avrois, Kai 

fiXdiTTOvrai fir) rrotovvreg. ol Se TroXvTTpdyjJLoves 
1 7TapLaTdfjL€vov some mss. 2 rrepi BclktvAiov most mss. 

a A term better expressed by the German Schadenfreude, 

b Cf. Moralia, 1046 b. 

c Of Chalcedon, a great anatomist of the Alexandrian age 
(flor. circa 300 B.C.). 
490 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 518 

not. Since, then, it is the searching out of troubles 
that the busybody desires, he is possessed by the 
affliction called " malignancy/'" brother to envy and 
spite. For envy is pain at another's good, while 
malignancy is joy at another's evil b ; and both spring 
from a savage and bestial affliction, a vicious nature. 
7. So painful for all of us is the revelation of our 
own troubles that many die rather than reveal to 
physicians some hidden malady. Just imagine Hero- 
philus c or Erasistratus d or Asclepius himself, when 
he was a mortal man/ carrying about their drugs and 
instruments, calling at one house after another, and 
inquiring w T hether a man had an abscess in the anus 
or a woman a cancer in the womb ! And yet the 
inquisitiveness of this profession is a salutary thing. 
Yet everyone, I imagine, would have driven such a 
man away, because he does not wait to be sent for, but 
comes unsummoned to investigate others' infirmities. 
And busybodies search out these very matters and 
others still worse, not to cure, but merely to expose 
them. For this reason they are hated deservedly. 
For example, we are annoyed and displeased with 
customs-officials, not when they pick up those articles 
which we are importing openly, but when in the 
search for concealed goods they pry into baggage and 
merchandize which are another's property. And yet 
the law allow r s them to do this and they would lose f 
by not doing so. But busybodies ruin and abandon 

d Of Ceos, worked in Alexandria at the height of his fame 
(258 b.c). 

* Asclepius, the son of Apollo, was deified after death as 
the god of medicine. 

1 Since the collection of taxes and duties was farmed out 
to individuals, they would be the losers in failing to make 
a minute search for dutiable articles. 

491 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aiToWvovcn Kal irpotevraL ra avrtvv aoxoXovjievok 
7T€pl raXXorpia koli onavlajs pLev els dypov fiaoi- 
£ouat, to rjcrvxov Kal OLOJTrrjpov rrjs eprjjiias ov 
F (f)epovT€£' idv ok koX 7rapaj3dXa)OL Sta, \povov, tolls 
tcov yeLTovojv apLrriXois e/x/jAeVouat jiaXXov tj rats 
tStats" koA TTwddvovrai ttoool floes rod yelrovos 
aTToreOvrjKacnv rj ttogos olvos o^lvtjs yeyove' ra^v 
Se tovtojv ifiTrXinaOevres duoTpiypvaiv. 6 fiev yap 
aXrjOtvos eKzivos yecopyos ovSe tov avrofidrajs 
epXopLtyov it< ttoXzcos Xoyov rjSeoos 7rpoa§6^erat, 
Xeyojv, 

5] Q t / / > 

LV eira jjlol OKarrTOJV eoet 

£(f>' ots yeyovaoLv at StaAuaet?* ravra yap 

TToXvTTpaypLOVoov vvv 1 6 Kardparos TrepnraTel. 

8. Ot he TroXvTTpdyjJLOves oj? ewXov rt rrpaypLa 
/cat i/jvxpov Kal drpdycoSov (jievyovTes ttjv dypot- 
Kiav, els to her/fia Kal ttjv dyopdv Kal tov? 
Xtjievas u)9ovvrai' " parj tl Kaivov; " ov yap tjs 

upon Kar dyopdv; tl ovv ; ev ojpaL? rpLOLV 

OL€L TTJV TToXlV fJL€TaKeKOOpLTJo9aL 2 / " OV [JL7]V CtAA' 

dv jiev tl? exT) TL tolovtov elirelv, Kara/3ds arro rod 
L7TTTOV he^LOJodfievo? Karacf)LXrjGas eoTrjKev aKpooj- 
B fxevo?. idv 8' arravr-qoas elrrrj tl? otl ovOev Kat- 
vov, tooirep dxOdjjLevos, " tl XeyeLs; " cj>rjOLV, " ov 
yeyovas Kar dyopdv; ov TrapeXrjXvda? to OTpaTt)- 
yLOV ; ovhe toZ? i£ 'iTaAta? tjkovolv evT€TVx^jf<ag; ' 
Sto KaXcvs ol tcov AoKpwv dpxovTes* eirel yap tl? 

1 7roXv7rpayiJLova>v vvv Emperius, confirmed by mss. : vvv 
77 oXvnp ay fiovcvv. 

2 fX€TaK€KO{jiLadaL many mss. 
492 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 518-519 

their own interests in their excessive occupation with 
those of others. Only rarely do they visit the farm, 
for they cannot endure the quiet and silence of being 
alone. But if, after a long absence, they do chance to 
put in there, they have more of an eye for their 
neighbours' vines than for their own, and they ask 
how many of their neighbours' cattle have died, or 
how much of his wine has turned sour. But they are 
soon sated with such news and run away. Yet the 
true and genuine farmer does not care to hear even 
news that makes its own way from the city ; he says a 

Then he will tell me while he digs 
On what terms peace was made. The cursed scamp 
Now strolls around and meddles with these things. 

8. And the busybody, shunning the country as 
something stale and uninteresting and undramatic, 
pushes into the bazaar and the market-place and the 
harbours : " Is there any news ? " " Weren't you at 
market early this morning ? Well then, do you 
suppose the city has changed its constitution in three 
hours ? " If, however, someone really does have 
something of that nature to tell him, he dismounts 
from his horse, grasps his informant's hand, kisses 
him, and stands there listening. But if someone 
meets him and tells him that there is no news, he 
exclaims as though he were annoyed, " What do you 
mean ? Haven't you been at market ? Didn't you 
pass the War Office ? Didn't you interview the new 
arrivals from Italy either ? " It is for this reason that 
the legislation of the Locrian magistrates was excel- 
lent. For if anyone who had been out of town came 

a Kock, Com. Att. Frag., iii. p. 473, ades. 347 ; ef. 511 e, 
supra, where it is the typical Athenian slave of whom his 
farmer-master complains. 

493 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(519) i£ a7To8r]fjLLas rrpooLcbv rjpcLrrjcre, " \xr\ tl kclwov" 
i^rjfiLOJorav avrov. ws yap ol fidyeipoi <f>opav 
evxovrai ^oaKrifxdrcov ol 8' dXieis lxOvojv, ovtcds ol 
TToXvTTpdyjxoves evxovrai (f)opdv KaKtov Kal TrXrjdos 
TTpaypLarajv Kal Kaivor-qras Kal fjL€Taj3o\ds , Iv del 
tl 6r]p€V€LV Kal KaraKOTrreiv e^coatv. 

E5 8e Kal 6 rcbv ®ovpia>v vojjLo6eT7]S' KWficpSei- 
odai yap eKwXvoe tovs rroXiras TrXrjv [jlolxovs Kal 
TToXvirpdypLovas. eoLKe yap rj re pLOLx^ia rroXvirpay- 
C pioovvT] tls 1 dXXorpias rjSovrjs etvaL Kal £rjTT]ois Kal 
kpevva rcov (f)vXarropL€va)v Kal Xavdavovrojv rovs 
iroXXovs' rj re 7ToXv7rpaypLoovvr) rrapaSvois 2 ion Kal 
(f)9opd Kal airoyvpLVCDGis tojv diropprp-odv . 

9- T77 piev ovv TToXvpuaOeia tt)v rroXvXoyiav erre- 
odai ovpbftaiveL (8lo Kal YivOayopas era^e toZs viois 
Trevraerrj oiamrjVy ixepLvOiav rrpooayopevaas) , rfj Se 
Trepiepyia rrjv KaKoXoyiav avdyKTj ovvaKoXovdeiv 
a yap rjSeajg aKovovoiv rjSeojs XaXovai, Kal a nap 
aXXoov OTTOvSfj ovXXeyovoL rrpos irepovs jLtera %apa9 
€K<f)epovoiv. b'Oev avrols fxerd rwv aXXojv KaKibv to 

J) VOGTjfia Kal TTpOS TTJV €7TldvpLiaV ipL7To8a)V €OTl. 

irdvT€s yap avTOvs cfrvXaTTOVTai Kal aTTOKpvTTTOVTai , 
Kai ovt€ irpa^ai tl TroXvirpdypLOVos opcovTog ovt 
elrreiv aKovovTos rjSeats €x ov(JLV > aXXd Kal fiovXds 
dvaTiOevTai Kal OKeipeis TTpaypLaTCOv vrrepfidX- 
XovTai, [JLexpL dv e/c770§cov 6 tolovtos yevrjTaL' Kav 

1 tls] rrjs most mss. 
2 TrapdSvais] TrapdXvois all mss. except G. 



a The professional cook was also a butcher. 
b Charondas. 



494 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 519 

up and asked, " Is there any news ? " they fined him. 
Just as cooks a pray for a good crop of young animals 
and fishermen for a good haul of fish, in the same way 
busy bodies pray for a good crop of calamities, a good 
haul of difficulties, for novelties, and changes, that 
they, like cooks and fishermen, may always have 
something to fish out or butcher. 

Another good law was that of the legislator of 
Thurii, b for he forbade the lampooning on the comic 
stage of all citizens except adulterers and busy bodies. 
And indeed adultery does seem to be a sort of curiosity 
about another's pleasure and a searching out and 
examination of matters which are closely guarded 
and escape general observation, while curiosity is an 
encroaching, a debauching and denuding of secret 
things. 

9. Since a natural consequence of much learning is 
to have much to say (and for this reason Pythagoras c 
enjoined upon the young a five years' silence which 
he called a " Truce to Speech "), a necessary con- 
comitant of inquisitiveness is to speak evil. d For 
what the curious delight to hear they delight to tell, 
and what they zealously collect from others they 
joyously reveal to everyone else. Consequently, in 
addition to its other evils, their disease actually 
impedes the fulfilment of their desires. 6 For every- 
one is on his guard to hide things from them and is 
reluctant to do anything while a busybody is looking, 
or to say anything while one is listening, but defers 
consultation and postpones the consideration of 
business until such an inquisitive person is out of 

c Cf. Life of Numa, viii. (65 b) ; De Vita et Poesi Homeri, 
149 (Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 420) ; Lucian, Vitarum Auctions, 
d Cf. 508 c, supra. e Cf. 502 e-f, supra. 

495 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(519) rj Xoyov twos aTTopprjTOV irapovros rj Trpd^eojs 
OTTOvhaias rrepatvofjievris dvrjp TroXyrrpdyixcov eVt- 
(j)avfj, KaOdrrep oi/jov yaXrjs TrapaopapLovoir]s alpovoiv 

€K fJLCCrOV Kdl OLTTOKpVTTTOVCrLV' CJOT€ TToXXaKLS TOL 

tols aAAoLs prjTci /cat Oeard tovtols jjlovols apprjTa 
/cat dOeara yiveudai. 

Ato /cat TTLGTecos dnaor]? ep^fios 6 TroAvrrpdyfjicov 

E iariv oIk€tolls yovv /cat pivots ttiot€Vojjl€V fiaXXov 
emaToXas /cat ypdfjLjJLara /cat ofipaytoas i) </)lXols 
/cat oIk€lols TToXvTTpdypLOGiv. 6 he BeXXepo^ovrrjs 
€K€.Zvqs ovSe /ca#' iavrov ypafifiara kojjll^wv eXvoev, 
dAA' dmeoyero rrjs emoToXr]s tov fiaoiXeojs ojs rr\s 
yvvaiKog Stot rrjv avrrjv eyKparetav. aKpaolas yap 
to TToXvTTpayfJLOveZv ojs /cat to /xot^euetv, /cat rrpos 
T7] a/cpaata Setts' dvoias /cat d^poGvvrjs' to yap 
ToaavTas irapeXdovTa Koivas /cat SeSrjfjLooiw/JLevas 1 
yvvalKas inl ttjv /cara/cAetcTrov djdetodat /cat ttoXv- 
TeXrj, 7roAAa/ct9 dv ovtqj tv)(J} /cat dfiopcfrov ovoav, 

F v7T€pj3oXrj pbavias /cat Trapac/ypoovvrjs . TavTOV S' ot 
TToXvnpdyiioves ttolovol' 7roAAa 2 /cat /caAa ^ea/xara 
/cat a/coua^Ltara /cat a^oAas" /cat hiaTpifias 77ap- 
cA^cWcs-, imoToXta OLOpvTTOVOiv dXXoTpia /cat 
napafiaXXovoi yeiTovojv toi^ois ra cura /cat cru^t- 
ijjidvpi^ovGiv ot/cerats" /cat yvvacois, rroXXaKis fjuep 
ouo a/ctvoura)? act o aoo^a;?. 

10. Ato /cat y^py]oi[iov a>9 eVt /xdAtara irpos ttjv 3 
diTOTpoTr7]V toZs TToXvirpdypLOOiv rj tcov Trpoeyvojofie- 

1 Srjfioatcojjicvas many mss. 

2 7roAAd] 77oAAa yap Stegmann. 

3 tt]v] rr]v rod iradovs Reiske. 

Cf. 503 c-d, supra. b Cf. II., vi. 168. 

496 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 519 

the way. And if, when either some secret matter is 
under discussion or some important business is being 
transacted, a busybody comes on the scene, men drop 
the matter from the discussion and conceal it, as one 
does a tidbit when a cat runs by. Consequently these 
persons are often the only ones to whom those matters 
are not told or shown which everyone else may hear 
and see. 

For the same reason the busybody is deprived of 
everybody's confidence a : we should prefer, on any 
account, to entrust our letters and papers and seals 
to slaves and strangers rather than to inquisitive 
friends and relatives. That noble Bellerophon b did 
not break the seal even on a letter accusing himself 
which he was carrying, but kept his hands from the 
king's letter by reason of that same continence which 
kept him from the king's wife. Inquisitiveness, in 
fact, is indicative of incontinence no less than is 
adultery, and in addition, it is indicative of terrible 
folly and fatuity. For to pass by so many women 
who are public property open to all and then to be 
drawn toward a woman who is kept under lock and 
key and is expensive, and often, if it so happens, 
quite ugly, is the very height of madness and 
insanity. And it is this same thing which busy- 
bodies do : they pass by much that is beautiful to 
see and to hear, many matters excellent for relaxa- 
tion and amusement, and spend their time digging 
into other men's trifling correspondence, gluing their 
ears to their neighbours' walls, whispering with slaves 
and women of the streets, and often incurring danger, 
and always infamy. 

10. For this reason the most useful means possible 
for turning the busybody from his vice is for him to 

497 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

520 vojv avd/JLvrjois. dv yap, coonep 6 Hlplojvlo7]s eXeye 
tols KifitDTovs dvoiyojv Sta y^povov rr\v fiev rcov 
jjllgOcov del fjLearrjv rrjv Se rcov yapiToav evploKew 
Kev-ijv, ovtcxjs 1 tls 2 rrjs 7ToXvTrpayjJLOovvr]s rrjv oltto- 
drjKTjv dvolyrj Sta xP ovov KaL Karaa Kerrr-qr at noX- 
Xojv dxprjCFTcav /cat fxaraiajv /cat dreprrcov yefiovoav, 
'locos dv avro) to Trpayfia 3 Trpoorair], (fxxvev drjoes 
navrdnaoL /cat <j)Xvapd)oes . c/)epe yap, el tls emcbv 
tol ovyypa\x\xara rcov naXaLcov €/cAaju,/3dVot ra 
KCLKiora rcov ev avrols, /cat ^l^Xlov e^ot ovvreray- 

fJLeVOV, 0I0V 'OfJLTJpLKtQV OTL^CjOV aKecfrdXoJV KOLL 

rpayLKO)v ooXolklojjllov /cat rcov in 'Ap^tAo^ou 
B npos rds yvvalKas an pen cos /cat aKoXdoroJs ^Iprj- 
fjuevajv, eavrov napaSeLypLarl^ovTOS, ap' ovk eorL 
rrjs rpayLKrjs Kardpas d^Los, 

oXolo Ovrjrcov eKXeyoJv rag ovpLcfiopds ; 

/cat dvev 8e rrjs Kardpas dnpenrjs /cat dvojcfreXrjs 6 
drjoavpLopios avrov rcov dXXorpiojv dpLaprrjiJLdTOJV' 
toonep r) ttoXls, rjv e/c rcov koklotojv /cat dvayojyo- 
rdrojv Krloas 6 <&lXl7tttos HovrjponoXLV npoorjyo- 
pevoev. 

Ot Toivvv noXvnpdy proves , ov OTLyaiv ovoe ttoltj- 
ixdrojv, dXXd fiiojv dorox^H^ara /cat nXrjfjLfJLeXripLaTa 
/cat ooXolklojjlovs dvaXeyopievoL /cat ovvdyovres, 
dpLovoorarov /cat drepneorarov KaKtov ypafjifiaro- 

1 All mss. but two add dv after ovrws. 

2 ris added by Hutten. 

3 npayiia] nrpdy^ avro W.C.H. 

a With this chapter may be compared chapter 19 of Be 
Vitioso Pudore (3foralia, 536 c-d). 
6 Cf. the same story, illustrating the avarice of Simonides, 

498 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 520 

remember what he has previously learned. a For, as 
Simonides b used to say that when he opened his 
boxes after some time, he always found the fee-box 
full, but the thanks-box empty, so if one opens from 
time to time the deposit-box of inquisitiveness and 
examines it, full as it is of many useless, futile, and 
unlovely things, perhaps this procedure would give 
sufficient offence, so completely disagreeable and silly 
would it appear. Suppose a man should run over the 
works of the ancients and pick out the worst passages 
in them and keep a book compiled from such things as 
" headless lines " in Homer c and solecisms in the 
tragedians and the unbecoming and licentious lan- 
guage applied to women by which Archilochus d makes 
a sorry spectacle of himself, would he not deserve that 
curse in the tragedy, 

Be damned, compiler of men's miseries ? • 

And even without this curse, such a man's treasure- 
house of other people's faults is unbecoming and use- 
less. It is like the city populated by the vilest and 
most intractable of men which Philip founded and 
called Roguesborough/ 

Busybodies, however, by gleaning and gathering 
the blunders and errors and solecisms, not of lines or 
poems, but of lives, carry about with them a most 

in Moralia, 555 f ; there the box containing his fees is full 
of silver. 

c Lines which begin with a short syllable instead of the 
long one demanded by the metre : cf. Moralia, 397 d, 611 b ; 
Athenaeus, xiv. 632 n. 

d Cf. Moralia, 45 a. 

• Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 913, ades. 388; cf. 
Moralia, 855 b. 

1 Cf. Jacoby, Frag. d. gr. Historiker, ii. B, p. 561,Theo- 
pompus, Frag. 110. 

499 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(520) (f>vXaK€LOV TTjV iaVTCOV fJLVrjfJLrjV 7T€pl(f)€pOVGLV. Ci)G7T€p 

Q ovv iv 'Pcbfirj tlvcs ras y pacpas /cat tovs dvhpidvTas 
/cat vtj Ata ra KaXXrj tcov chvlcov 7raiocov /cat 
yvvaiKcov iv pbrjSevl Aoyco TiOifievoi uepl rrjv tcov 
repdrcov dyopav dvaarpe^ovrai, tovs aKvrjjjiovs /cat 
tovs yaAeay/caj^as" /cat tovs Tpcocf)ddXpLovs /cat tovs 
GTpov9oK€(f)dXovs KaTapiavddvovTes /cat t^TovvTes et 
tl yeyevrjTOLL 

avpLfiLKTOv elSos /cat aTrocpcoXiov Tepas, 1 

dXX* lav Gvve^cos tls iuaydyrj toZs tolovtols clvtovs 
dedfiaai, ra^u ttA^ct/xov^v /cat vclvtlclv to npaypua 

7Tap€^€L, OVTOJS Ol T(X 77€/>t TOV /3tW aCTTO^jLtaTa /Cat 

yeycoy WJy@\ /cat hiaoTpo(f)ds Tivas iv olkols dXXo- 

TploLs /cat TrXrjjjipLeXeias TroXvirpaypLovovvTes tcov 

D rrpcoTCov 2 dvapLLfjivrjaKiTCOGav iavTovs otl X®-P lv KaL 

OV7JGLV OvSejJLLOLV rjveyKe. 

11. Meytcrrov /xeVrot 777969 tt)v to£> irddovs diro- 
Tporrrjv 6 iOiGfios, idv Troppcodev dp£dfjL€voi, yvpuvd- 
^cufjiev iavTovs /cat oiodGKOjpiev iirl TavTiqv ttjv 
lyKpaTeiav /cat yap 77 ai)£r]Gis €0eL yeyove tov 

VOGTjfAOLTOS /CaTO, [JLlKpOV els TO TTpOGCO X a) P°^ vr0 ^' 

6V Se Tporrov, eiGOfieOa rrepl ttjs aGKTjGecos ojjlov 
StaAeyojLtevot. irpcoTOV jjl€V ovv duo tcov fipaxvTa- 
tcov /cat cpavXoTaTcov dp^copieda. tl yap xoXzttov 
Igtiv iv toIs 68ols Tas iul tcov Tacftcov iiriypa^ds 
pjr] dvayivd)GK€iv, rj tl ovgx^P^S iv tols TTepnraTOis 
E T(i /cara tcov tolxcov ypa^/xara 3 ttj oi/j€L irapa- 
Tp€)(€W 9 viTofidXXovTas avTols otl xprjGcpLov ovdev 

1 Tepas] Pp€(f>os Life of Theseus, xv. 

2 7rpa)TO)v] 7rpoT€pa)v Hartman. 
8 ypa/z/zara] eViypa^aTa Reiske. 

500 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 520 

inelegant and unlovely record-box of evils, their 
own memory. Therefore just as at Rome there are 
some who take no account of paintings or statues 
or even, by Heaven, of the beauty of the boys 
and women for sale, but haunt the monster-market, 
examining those who have no calves, or are weasel- 
armed, or have three eyes, or ostrich-heads, and 
searching to learn whether there has been born 
some 

Commingled shape and misformed prodigy, 5 

yet if one continually conduct them to such sights, 
they will soon experience satiety and nausea ; so let 
those who are curious about life's failures, the blots 
on the scutcheon, the delinquencies and errors in 
other people's homes, remind themselves that their 
former discoveries have brought them no favour or 
profit. 

11. The greatest factor, however, in ridding our- 
selves of this affliction is the habit of beginning early 
to train and teach ourselves to acquire this self-con- 
trol. It is, in fact, by habituation that the disease 
has come to increase, advancing, as it does, little by 
little. How this habit is acquired, we shall learn when 
we discuss the proper training. So first let us begin 
with the most trifling and unimportant matters. 
What difficulty is there about refraining from read- 
ing the inscriptions on tombs as we journey along 
the roads ? Or what is there arduous in just glan- 
cing at the writing on walls when we take our 
walks ? We have only to remind ourselves that 

° That is, with exceptionally short arms. 
b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 680, Euripides, Frag. 996; 
cf Life of Theseus, xv. (6 d). 

VOL. VI R 501 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovS 9 eniTepTTes iv tovtols yiyparxTai' dAA' li iiivr\- 
adrj" 6 Setva tov Seivos " iir* dyaOcTj " /cat " c/)lXojv 
apioros" o8e tls, /cat ttoXXol Toiavrrjs yiiiovTa </>At>a- 
ptag; a So/cet fiev ov ftAaTTTZiv dvayivcocrKOLieva, 
/3AdVr€t 8e \e\y]d6rcos tco LieAeTrjv TrapeLmoieZv tov 
tpqrtlv rd Lirj TrpoorjKovra. /cat Kaddrrep ol Kvvrjyol 

TOVS OKvAcLKCLS OVK idjGlV €KTp€7T€(j6cLl KCLL Sld)K€LV 

Traoav 68fJLr)V y dAAa tois pvrrjpcnv (eAkovoi /cat 
dvcLKpovovaij KaOapov avTcov /cat aKparov (f>vAdr- 
rovres to ala97]rrjpiov im to ouceZov epyov, Iv 

€VTOVO)T€pOV ijJL(f)VrjTaL rot? lyvzcji 

j? TreAfJLaTCL 1 Orjpeicov LieAicxJv llvkttjpglv ipevvcov 

ovtco Set Tag irrl rrav OectLia /cat rrav aKovGiia tov 
TroAvTrpdypLovos e/cS/oo/zd? /cat rrepLTrAavrjGeLS d</>- 
aipeZv /cat avTiGuav irrl tcx xPV (JL i JLa </>vAdTTOvras . 
cvonep yap ol derot 2 /cat ol AeovTes iv tco 7T€pnraT€iv 
GVOTpi(f)OVGiv cigco tovs ovvxa-S, tva Lirj ttjv aKfjLrjv 
avTCov /cat ttjv o^vttjtcl KaraTpLficoGiv , ovtco to 
521 TToAvTrpayfiov tov cfnAopiaOovs aKprqv rtva /cat 
OTOjJLCOfJLa voLiL^ovTes €X €iV H'V KaTavaALGKO)iJL€V Lirjo* 
a7ra/xj8Awa)jLtev iv toZs dxp^OTOis? 

12. AevTepov tolvvv idi^cofJieOa Ovpav irapiovTes 
dAAoTpiav fj/rj /3Ae7T€LV elato LL7]oe tcov ivTos im- 
hpaTTeodai Trj oi/j€L* KaBdnep X €i P L T V^ TrepiepyLas,* 
dAAa to tov EtevoKpaTOVS excoLtev rrpox^pov, os i(f>rj 

1 77eA/xara Emperius, confirmed by one ms. : rcpfiara. 

2 6l€toI] aiAovpoi Pohlenz. 

3 dxprjcTTOis] x^tptWots' most mss. 

4 Reiske would delete rfj oifiei. 

6 rrjs TT€pL€pyias Babbitt : rfj rrtpiepyiq. 

502 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 520-521 

nothing useful or pleasant has been written there : 
merely so-and-so " commemorates " so-and-so " wish- 
ing him well," and someone else is the " best of 
friends," and much twaddle of this sort. a It may 
seem that no harm will come from reading these, but 
harm you it does by imperceptibly instilling the 
practice of searching out matters which do not con- 
cern you. And as hunters do not allow young hounds 
to turn aside and follow every scent, but pull them up 
and check them with the leash, keeping their sense 
of smell pure and untainted for their proper task in 
order that it may keep more keenly to the trail, 

With nostrils tracking down the paths of beasts b ; 

so one should be careful to do away with or divert to 
useful ends the sallies and wanderings of the busy- 
body, directed as they are to everything that one 
may see and hear. For as eagles and lions c draw in 
their claws when they walk so that they may not 
wear off the sharpness of the tips, so, if we consider 
that curiosity for learning has also a sharp and keen 
edge, let us not waste or blunt it upon matters of no 
value. 

12. In the second place, then, let us accustom our- 
selves not to look inside when we pass another's door, 
nor with our curious gaze to clutch, as it were by 
main force, at what is happening within, but let us 
ever keep ready for use the saying of Xenocrates, 

a I quote Shilleto's note : " Plutarch rather reminds one, 
in his evident contempt for Epitaphs, of the cynic who asked, 
* Where are all the bad people buried ? ' W^here indeed ? " 

b From an unknown poet : Empedocles ? (c/. Diels, 
Hermes, xv. 176). 

c Of. Moralia, 966 c. " Eagles " is probably corrupt. 
Pohlenz suggests " cats." 

vol. vi R 2 503 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(521) firjSev Sta^epetv r) 1 rovs 77080,9 rj rovs ocfrOaXpiovs 
ei? dXXorplav olklo.v nOevai' ovre yap hiKaiov ovre 
kciXov, dAA' ouS' rj$v to Oiapia' 

SvafJLopcjxi \xivTOi rdvoov elcrtSetv, £ev€* 

tol yap ttoXXol rotavra tojv iv rals oiklclis, oKevdpia 
B K€Lfi€va Kal Oepairaivioia KaOe^ofxeva /cat 2 anov- 
oalov ovSev ouS' imrepTTes. r) Se avpScaarp€(f)ovaa 
ttjv ifjvxrjv TrapdfiXafjis avrrj Kal Traparo^evois 
alaxpa Kal to edos [JLO)(9rjp6v. 6 Liev yap 
Atoyevqs deaodfitvos eloeXavvovra rov oXvllttio- 
vlktjv Algj^lttttov €</>' appbaros , Kal yvvaiKos €V~ 
fiopcfrov deojfjLevrjs ttjv ttoilttt]V drTOOTrdoai ra? oipeis 
jjLTj Svvdpevov aXX VTrofiXeTTOvra Kal TrapeTT torpedo- 
fievov, ': 6 par J' elire, " rov dOXrjrrjv vtto 7rat8i- 
GKapiov rpax^jXtl^oLievov ; " rovs Se iroXvirpdypLovas 
Ihois av vtto Travros ofiouajs ded/jLaros rpa^rjXil^o- 
jxevovs Kal Trepiayoiievovs b'rav eQos Kal iieXirr] 
C yevrjrai rr)s 6ijjea)s avrols iravraypv 8ia(f)opovLi€vr)s. 
Sei S', ojs olfiai , fJLrj Kaddirep Oepdiraivav dvdyojyov 
e£a) pepifieodai rr)v aioOrjoLV, dAA' aTTOTTepLTTOLie'vrjv 
vtto rfjs ipvxfjs eVi Tct TTpdypLara ovvTvyxdvew 
avrols ra^i Kal SiayyeXXecv etra ttoXiv koolligjs 
evros elvai rod Xoytafiov Kal Trpooexecv avra>, vvv 
Se GVfJLpaLveL to rod So^o/cAeou?* 

1 t} omitted by some mss., but confirmed by Aelian. 

2 Kal] KCLLTOL W.C.H. 



a Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 2 , p. 617, Euripides, Frag. 790, 
probably from the Philoctetes. 
504 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 521 

that it makes no difference whether it is the feet or 
the eyes that we set within another's house ; for 
what the eyes behold is neither just nor honourable, 
and not even pleasant. 

Unsightly, stranger, are the things within, a 

since the greater part of what we see inside is of this 
sort — kitchen utensils lying about and servant-girls 
sitting in idleness, and nothing important or pleasur- 
able. And this practice of throwing sidelong and 
furtive glances, distorting the soul as it does, is 
shameful, and the habit it implants is depraved. For 
instance, when Diogenes b saw the Olympic victor 
Dioxippus making his triumphal entry in his chariot 
and unable to tear his eyes away from a beautiful 
woman who was among the spectators of the proces- 
sion, but continually turning around and throwing 
side-glances in her direction, " Do you see," said the 
Cynic, " how a slip of a girl gets a strangle-hold on 
our athlete ? " And you may observe how every 
kind of spectacle alike gets a strangle-hold on busy- 
bodies and twists their necks round when they once 
acquire a habit and practice of scattering their glances 
in all directions. But, as I think, the faculty of 
vision should not be spinning about outside of us, c 
like an ill-trained servant girl, but when it is sent on 
an errand by the soul it should quickly reach its 
destination and deliver its message, then return again 
in good order within the governance of the reason 
and heed its command. But as it is, the words of 
Sophocles d come true : 



b Cf. Aelian, Varia Historia, xii. 58. 

c That is, outside of the control of reason. 

d Electra, 724-725. 



505 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(521) eVetra S' AtVtaVo? dvopos aarofioi 

TTtbXoL ^1(1 (fropOVCTLV 1 ' 

at firj Tvxpvaai Traioayaiyias tooirep iXeyofJiev 2 
opdrjs paqb^ oLGKrjaeajg alodrjoeis irpoeKTpeypvaai /cat 
crwe</>eA/co/xevat ttoXAolkls els a (jltj Set /cara/3aA- 

XoVGL TTJV SlOLVOLCLV. O0€V €K€LVO fJL€V lp€v86$ ioTL, 
D TO ArjjJLOKpiTOV iKOVGLCOS ufieoaL TOLS 6l/j€LS CX7T- 

epeiGOLfJievov els eaorrrpov nvpoodev /cat rrjv air* 
avrov z aVa/cAacrtv 8e£d{ievov, ottcjs fir) Trape-^cjuL 
dopvfloy rrjv Scdvoiav e£a) KaXovoai rroXXaKis, aAA' 
iwGLV evoov olKovpelv /cat hiarpifieiv TTpos rols vorj- 
rols, ojGTrep rrapooioi OvplSes efX(j>payeZoar tovto 
fjuevTOL iravros fJL&XXov dXrjOes eonv, otl tt)v aladrj- 
glv oAtytara 4 klvovglv ol TrXeiora rfj hiavoia 
XpajjjLevoL. /cat yap tol fiovoeca 7Toppa>rdra) tojv 

TToXeCOV LOpVGCLVTO, Kdl TTjV VVKTCL 7TpOG€L7TOV 

€V(j)p6vr)v " fieya TTpos evpeoiv rcov ^rjrovfJLevojv 
/cat GKeifjLV rjyovfJLevoL rrjv y)Gvylav /cat to direpi- 

G7TOLGTOV. 

j} 13. 'AAAa jJLrjv ouS' eKelvo xaAe77ov /cat SvgkoXov, 
dv9pa)7TO)v XotSopovfievcov ev dyopa /cat /ca/caJs* 
XeyovTCJV dAA^Aoi;? fir] npooeXdelv, t) ovvSpo/jLrjs eiri 
tl TrXeiovojv yevojjLev7]s jxeZvai KaOr^jLevov edv S' 
dhcpartos €XT}S> Q-ireXdeZv avaaravTa. -^prjorov [lev 
yap ovSevos toZs noXvTTpay[iovovoiv aVa/xt^a? oeav- 

1 (j>€povai,v Sophocles. 

2 eXeyofxev Reiske : Xdyoficv. 

3 avrov] avTcav most mss. 

4 6Xiy tar a Kronen berg : oXiya. 

° Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 5 , ii. p. 89, A 27. 
506 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 521 

Then the Aenianian's hard-mouthed yearlings break 
From his control and bolt; 

that is, the senses which have not received what we 
called above right instruction and training run away, 
dragging the intellect with them, and often plunge it 
into deep disaster. Consequently, though that story 
about Democritus a is false, that he deliberately 
destroyed his sight by fixing his eyes on a red-hot 
mirror and allowing its heat to be reflected on his 
sight, in order that his eyes might not repeatedly 
summon his intellect outside and disturb it, but 
might allow his mind to remain inside at home and 
occupy itself with pure thinking, blocking up as it 
were windows which open on the street ; yet nothing 
is more true than this, that those who make most 
use of the intellect make fewest calls upon the senses. 6 
We observe, for instance, that men have built their 
sanctuaries of the Muses c far from cities and that 
they have called night " kindly " d from a belief that 
its quiet and absence of distraction is greatly con- 
ducive to the investigation and solution of the pro- 
blems in hand. 

13. Yet truly, neither is this e a difficult nor arduous 
task : when men are reviling and abusing each other 
in the market-place, not to approach them, or when a 
crowd is running to see something or other, to remain 
seated, or, if you are without self-control, to get up 
and go away. For you will reap no advantage from 
mixing yourself with busy bodies, whereas you will 

b Plutarch is thinking of some such passage as Plato, 
Phaedo, 66 a. 

c That is, halls devoted to learning, such as the M useion at 
Alexandria and the Academy at Athens. 

d Cf. Aeschylus, Agamemnon^ c 265. 

* Cf. 520 d, supra. 

507 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

tov dnoAavoeis , fieydAa 8' oj^eA^fl^oT? to 7toAu- 
TTpayiiov oLTToorpeipas jiia /cat koXovgcls vrraKoveiv 
rco AoyLGfio) cruve#t£o/xevov. 

'E/c 8e tovtov fJL&AAov emreivovra rrjv doKrjGLV 
opdcos e^et /cat dearpov a/cpoa/xaros' evrjjiepovvTOS 
rrapeXdelv, /cat cf>i\ovs err* 6px^)(JTOV twos rj kcojjlco- 

F Sou deav rrapaXapL^dvovras oicoaaodai /cat fiorjs ev 
oraSta) yivopuevrjs ?} lmTo8p6pLcp purj eTTLGrpacbrjvai. 
Ka9a7T€p yap 6 HcoKpdrrjs Traprjvei cj>vXdrreGdai tcov 
PpcopLarcov 6'cra jiuq rreivcovras eodieiv avaireideL /cat 
tcov TTopbdrcDV oaa iriveiv /x^ Sufjoovras, ovrco xprj 
/cat ^/xas" tojv Oeapidrcov /cat aKovGpLarcov cpyXdrre- 
G0ai /cat c/)€vy€LV oaa Kparel /cat TTpoodyerai tov? 
/jL7]Sev 8eop,evovs. 6 yovv 1 Kudos* ou/c efiovXero r^v 
IldVflctav toetv, aAAa rou 'Apdorrov Xeyovros cos 
d£iov fleas' et'77 r6 T779 yvvaiKos el8os, " ovkovv," 
522 e(f)7], " §ta rovro /xaAAov avrrjs dtfreKreov el yap 
vrro gov rreiodels dtpiKolpLrjv rrpos avrrjv, locos dv pie 
rrdXiv avarreioeiev avrrj /cat pbrj o^oAa^opra tfioirav 
/cat OeaoOal 2 /cat 7rapaKa9rjo8ai irpoepievov 7roAAa 
tojv G7TOv8rjs a^lcov." ojjlolcos ouS' o 'AAe^ai/Spos' 
ets" o^tv rjXOe rrjs Aapctou yuvat/cos' eKTrpeTTeordrrjs 
elvai XeyopLevrjs, aAAa ^pos* Wp pLrjrepa tf>oircov 
avrrjs irpeofivriv ovoav, oi>x virepieive rrjv veav /cat 
KaArjv I8elv. rjfjLels 8e rots' cf>opeioLS tcov yvvaiKcov 
vno^dXXovres rovs ocpdaXpuovs /cat tcov 6vpi8cov 
eKKpepbavvvvres ov8ev dpLaprdvecv SoKovpuev ovtcos 

B oXioOrjpdv /cat pevarrjv els airavra rrjv TToXvrrpay- 
pLoavvrjv TTOiovvres . 

1 yovv] Se all mss. except G. 
2 koll deaoQcu] deaodai re most mss. 

508 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 521-522 

obtain great benefit from forcibly turning aside your 
curiosity and curtailing it and training it to obey 
reason. 

And after this it is well to make our training more 
intensive and pass by a theatre where a successful 
performance is in progress ; and, when our friends 
urge us to see a certain dancer or comedian, to thrust 
them aside ; and, when shouts are heard on the race- 
course or in the circus, not to turn round. For as 
Socrates a used to advise the avoidance of such foods 
as tempt us to eat when we are not hungry and 
such drinks as tempt us to imbibe when we are not 
thirsty, so we also should avoid and guard against 
such sights and sounds as master and attract us with- 
out fulfilling any need of ours. Thus Cyrus b was 
unwilling to see Pantheia ; and when Araspes de- 
clared that the woman's beauty was worth seeing, 
Cyrus said, " Then this is all the more reason for 
keeping away from her. For if, persuaded by you, I 
should go to her, perhaps she herself might tempt 
me, when I couldn't spare the time, to go to see her 
again and sit by her, to the neglect of many important 
matters." So too Alexander c would not go to see 
Darius 's wife who was said to be very beautiful, but 
although he visited her mother, an elderly woman, 
he could not bring himself to see the young and 
beautiful daughter. Yet we peep into women's 
litters and hang about their windows, and think we 
are doing nothing wrong in thus making our curiosity 
prone to slip and slide into all kinds of vice. 

a Cf 513 d, supra. 

b Cf Xenophon, Cyropaedia, v. 1.8; Moralia, 31 c. 
c Cf Life of Alexander, xxii. (677 b) ; Moralia, 97 d, 
338 e. 

509 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(522) 14. "Ectt6 roivvv Kal irpos SiKaioavvrjs aoKrjoiv 
VTrepfirjvai rrore Xtj/jl/jlcl Slkcllov tva rroppco rcov 
olSlkcov eOiarjs aeavrov elvcu, Kal Trpos ococfrpo- 
avvrjs ofJLOLCos arroa-^eaOai nore yvvaiKos Ihias Iva 
jJLrj8e7TOT€ KwrjOfjs vir* dXXorpias. rovro 8rj ro 
edos iirdytov rfj TroXvirpay/jLoovvr) Treipco Kal ra>v 
IStajv evta TrapaKovoai 7rore Kal rrapihelv Kal 
povAo/jievov rivos dyyelXai tl rwv £ttI rrjs olKtas 
vnep^aXeaOai, Kal Xoyovs rrepl gov XeXe^Oat So- 
Kovvras aTTCjoaaodai. Kal ydp rov OlSirroSa rots 
lieyiOTois KaKols rj irepizpyia irepiefiaXe' ^rjrcov ydp 
C eavrov ojs ovk bvra K.opivdiov dXXa £evov, aTrrjv- 
rrjae to) Aatcp, Kal rovrov dveXtbv Kal rr)v fxrjrepa 
Aa/3cov errl rfj fSaoiXeiq yvvacKa koX Sokcov elvai 
jxaKapios irdXiv eavrov e^rjrei. Kal rrjs yvvaiKos 
ovk id)or)s, ere fiaXXov rjXeyxe rov ovveiSora 
yepovra, iraaav npoo^epoov dvdyKrjv. reXos 8e rod 
Trpdyixaros tJStj 7Tepi<f>epovros avrov rfj vrrovoiq Kal 
rov yepovros dvafiorjoavros , 

OLf,ioi TTpos avra) y elpX rep heivtp Xeyeiv, 

ojJLQJS e^rjpjjLevos vtto rod rrddovs Kal acf)a8d^a>v 
ajroKpiverai, 

Kayojy* aKoveiv aXX ojjlojs aKovcrreov. 

ovrco ris ion yXvKViriKpos Kai aKaraG^eros 6 rrjs 

7ToXv7TpayfJLOOVvr]s yapyaXiopiOS, cooirep ZXkos, al- 

D [idooajv eavrov , orav dfxvoorjrai. 6 S' a777^AAay- 

a The herdsman who had saved Oedipus on Cithaeron. 
b Sophocles, Oedipus Rex, 1169. 

510 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 522 

14. Since, therefore, for the attainment of justice 
you may sometimes forgo an honest gain that you may 
accustom yourself to keep clear of dishonest profit, so 
likewise, for the attainment of continence, you may 
sometimes keep aloof from your own wife in order 
that you may never be stirred by another's. Then 
apply this habit to inquisitiveness and endeavour 
sometimes not to hear or see some of the things that 
concern you, and when someone wishes to tell you 
something that has happened in your house , put him 
off and refuse to hear words that are supposed to have 
been spoken about you. It was, in fact, curiosity 
which involved Oedipus in the greatest calamities. 
Believing that he was no Corinthian, but a for- 
eigner, and seeking to discover his identity, he 
encountered Lai'us ; and when he had killed Laius 
and had taken, in addition to the throne, his own 
mother to wife, though seeming to all to be blessed 
by fortune, he began again to try to discover his 
identity. And although his wife attempted to pre- 
vent him, all the more vigorously did he cross-examine 
the old man who knew the truth, bringing every form 
of compulsion to bear. And at last, when circum- 
stances were already bringing him to suspect the truth 
and the old man a cried out, 

Alas ! I stand on the dread brink of speech, 6 
Oedipus was none the less so inflamed and maddened 
by his affliction c that he replied, 

And I of hearing, and yet hear I must d ; 
so bitter-sweet, so uncontrollable is the itching of 
curiosity, like the itching of a sore which gets bloody 
whenever we scratch it. But the man who has got 

c Curiosity. d Sophocles, I.e., 1170. 

vol. vi R3 511 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(522) fievos ttjs vogov ravrris koll <f>voei irpaos dyvorjGas 
tl rwv Svaxepcov clttol av, 

a> TTorvia XrjOrj tow kolkojv, d>s el go^tj. 

15. Aio koI 7rpog tolvtcl gvv€0lgt€ov avrovs, 

€7TLGToXrjV KOJJLLG0€LGaV (JLTJ TCL)(V jJL7]8e ACa,T6(777€U- 

Gfievajs Xvgcll, KaOarrep ol noXXol ttolovglv, av at 
X^pes fipaovvooGi, rols oSovgl tovs Seoyzou? olcl- 
fiifipcoGKovTes, dyyeXov rroOev tJkovtos firj npOG- 
SpapieXv fjL7]$ y ££avaGTrjvai, (f)iXov twos cIttovtos, 
e^cj gol tl kollvov elirelv TrpaypLa," " fi&XXov," 

eiTTelv 1 ;• €L TL XpTjGLjJlOV €)(€LS Tj OK^eAt/XOV.' ' 

'E/xou ttot eV 'PcbpLj] StaAeyo/zeVou, *Vovgtlkos 

E €K€WOS, OV VGT€pOV (XTTeKT€LV€ AojJL€TLOLvds TTJ 86^7] 
(f)0oVTjGaS, TjKpO&TO, KOLL OLOL fJL€GOV GTpCLTLWTTjS 

TrapeXOajv iiTLGToXrjv aura) Kataapo? a7T€§a)K€ 2 ' 
yevopLevrjs 8e glojtttjs Kafiov SlclXlttovtos, orrcos 
avayva) ttjv irrLGToX-qv, ovk rjdeXrjGev ouS' eXvGe 
rrpoTepov tj 8l€^€X0€W efie tov Xoyov kqX 8LaXv9rjvaL 

TO OLKpoaTtjpLOV' €</>' cS 7TOLVT€S iOaVflOLGCLV TO fidpOS 

To\v8p6s. 

"OtOLV 8e TLS OLS €^€GTL Tp€(f>OJV TO TToXviTpaypLOV 
LGXVpOV OL7T€pydGr)TaL KCLL PlCLLOV, OVK€TL pq8LO)S 
7TpOS Ct K€KQjXvTOLL (f)epO(JL€VOV 8lo\ GVVTjdeLCLV KpCLTZW 

8vvcltos Igtlv aAA' eVtaroAta napaXvovGLV ovtol 
(frlXcov, Gvve8pLOLs drropprjTOLS iavTOVs TrapefJifidX- 

F XoVGLV* UpO)V 61 JjLTJ OefJLLS 6pdv yLvOVTCL deOLTOLL, 

1 elnclv added by Bernardakis. 
2 eWSco/ce most mss. 

3 irapafiaWovoiv most mss. 

° Euripides, Orestes, 213. 
512 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 522 

rid of this disease and is gentle by nature will say, 
if he is ignorant of something unpleasant, 

Forgetfulness of evil, sovereign queen, 
I low wise you are ! a 

15. We must, therefore, also habituate ourselves to 
things like these : when a letter is brought to us, not 
to open it quickly or in a hurry, as most people do, who 
go so far as to bite through the fastenings with their 
teeth if their hands are too slow ; when a messenger 
arrives from somewhere or other, not to rush up, or 
even to rise to our feet ; when a friend says, " I have 
something new to tell you," to say, " I should prefer 
that you had something useful or profitable." 

When I was once lecturing in Rome, that famous 
Rusticus, 6 whom Domitian later killed through envy 
at his repute, was among my hearers, and a soldier 
came through the audience and delivered to him a 
letter from the emperor. There was a silence and I, 
too, made a pause, that he might read his letter ; but 
he refused and did not break the seal until I had 
finished my lecture and the audience had dispersed. 
Because of this incident everyone admired the dignity 
of the man. 

But when one nourishes his curiosity upon per- 
missible material until he renders it vigorous and 
violent, he is no longer able to master it easily, since 
it is borne, by force of habit, toward forbidden things. 
And such persons pry into their friends' correspond- 
ence, thrust themselves into secret meetings, be- 
come spectators of sacred rites which it is an impiety 

b Probably Arulenus Rusticus, put to death in or after 
93 a. d. for having in his biography of Paetus Thrasea called 
his subject sanctus (Dio, lxvii. 13. 2, cf. also Tacitus, Agri- 
cola, 2). 

513 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TOTTOVS afS&TOVS 7TCLTOVGL, 77 pdy '/JLOLl d KCLl A6yOVS 

PolglAlkovs dvepevvcooL. 

16. Katrot tovs ye Tvpdvvovs, ols dvdyKrj iravra 
yivu)OK€iv> €7TaxO€ardrovs iroLel to tcov AeyopLevcov 
cotcov koli jrpocraycoyecov yevos. coTaKovoTas piev 

OVV TTpCOTOS €G^€V 6 VodoS* AapeLOS d7TLGTCOV eCLVTCp 
KCLL 17CLVTCLS V(f)OpCOfJL€VOg KCLL SeSoLKCOS, TOVS 0€ 

523 rrpooaycoylSas oi Alovvglol toXs HvpaKooloLs 2 
kclt€(ju£civ' 69 ev ev rfj pLera^oAfj tcov Trpayfidrcov 

TOVTOVS TTptOTOVS OL HvpCLKOGLOL GvAAapL^dvOVTeS 

d7T€rvpLrrdvL^ov. KCLL yap to tcov ovkoc/mivtcov yevos 

€K TTJS TCOV TToAvTTpCLypLOVCOV (f>pCLTpLCLS Kdl eGTLOLS 
eOTLV. aAA' OL pi€V GVKO(f)dvTCLL tpTjTOVGLV, €1 TLS* Tj 

pefiovAevTciL kclkov r) 7T€ttol7]K€v ol 8e TToAvrrpdy- 
ptoves kclI rds dfiovArjTOVS arista? tcov rreAas 
eAeyxovres els p^eoov eK(f>epovoL. AeyeraL Se 4 /cat 

TOV dALTTjpLOV €K (f)LAo7TpaypLOGVVTjS KCLTOVOpLCLodrjVaL 
TO TTpCOTOV ALpLOV ydp COS €OLK€V ' AOrjVOLLOLS lo)(VpOV 

B yevopcevov, /cat tcov eypvTCOv irvpov els pieoov ov 
<j>epovTCov dAAa Kpv<fia /cat vvKTCop ev rat? ot/ctats* 
dAovvTCOv, rrepiLovTes eTrjpovv tcov pivAcov tov iftocfrov, 
elT " dALTTjpLOL " 7rpoo7]yopev9r]oav . opuoicos Se 
/cat ovKO(f)dvTr) Tovvopia yeveoOai 5 ' KeKcoAvpievov 
ydp €K(f)epeLV Ta au/ca, paqvvovTes /cat <f>aivovTes 

1 v60os G] veos or Trpooros. 
2 HvpoLKooiois Bernardakis, confirmed by G : ovpaKovolois. 

3 tis] ri tls Bernardakis. 

4 Se omitted in most mss. 

5 yevecOat] ycyevrjaOai most mss. 



a Cf. Aristotle, Politics, v. (viii.) 9. 3 (1313 b 12 ff.). 
514 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 522-523 

for them to see, tread consecrated ground, investigate 
the deeds and words of kings. 

16. And yet surely in the case of despots, a 
who have to know everything, it is the tribe of so- 
called " Ears " and " Jackals " that makes them 
most detested. It was Darius Nothus, who had no 
confidence in himself and regarded everyone with 
fear and suspicion, who first instituted " Listeners " ; 
and " Jackals " were distributed by the Dionysii b 
among the people of Syracuse. Consequently when 
the revolution came, these were the first persons 
whom the Syracusans arrested and crushed to death. 
And in fact the tribe of informers is from the same 
clan and family as busy bodies. But while informers 
search to see whether anyone has planned or com- 
mitted a misdemeanour, busybodies investigate and 
make public even the involuntary mischances of their 
neighbours. And it is said that the person called 
aliterios G first acquired his name from being a busy- 
body. For it appears that when there was a severe 
famine at Athens and those who possessed wheat 
would not contribute it to the common stock, but 
ground d it in their houses secretly by night, some 
persons went about listening for the noise of the mills, 
and so acquired the name aliterioi. It was in the 
same way, they say, that the sycophant e won his 
name. Since the export of figs f was prohibited, men 
who revealed ° and gave information against those 

b Cf Life of Dion, xxviii. (970 b-c). 

c Transgressor, or outlaw ; Plutarch rejects this explana- 
tion in Moralia, 297 a. 

d The verb aXeiv, from which aAirtfpios is here derived. 

e Informer; cf Life of Solon, xxiv. (91 e); Athenaeus, 
74 e-f. ' avKa. 

9 </>a£v€t,v, from which the noun -^dvrrjs. 

515 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(523) tovs i^dyovTas iKXrjdrjoav " avKocfxivrat. kcli 
tovt ovv gvk o^p^OTOv ioTiv ivvoelv tovs ttoav- 
Trpdyfjiovas, ottojs alcrxvvojVTOU ttjv 7rpos tovs 
/jucrovfievovs jJcdAiara kcll bvax^pcuivoLievovs olioi- 
orrjra kcli ovyy iveiav rod eViT^Seu/xaTOS'. 



516 



ON BEING A BUSYBODY, 523 

who did export them were called sycophants. So it is 
well worth the while of busybodies to consider this 
fact also, that they may be ashamed of the resem- 
blance and relationship of their own practice to that 
of persons who are very cordially hated and loathed. 



517 



INDEX 



Academy, the, 185: the school of 

philosophy founded by Plato at 

Athens. 
Achaean, 121. 

Achaeans, 207, 227, 289, 365. 
Achilles, 33, 105, 173, 207: son of 

Peleus and Thetis, hero of the 

Iliad. 
Acropolis, the, 417 : at Athens. 
Adeimantus, 285 : brother of Plato. 
Aedepsus, 301: medicinal hot baths 

in Euboea. 
Aegina, 207 : an island off the coast 

of Attica in the Saronic Gulf. 
Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, L., 

225 : Roman general, conquered 

Perseus of Macedonia at Pydna 

in 16s B.C.; 230-160 B.C. Plutarch 

wrote his life. 
Aenianian, 507. 
Aeschines, 149 : probably the 

Socratic of Sphettus ; 4th century 

B.C. 

Aeschines, 293 : the Attic orator 

(circa 389-314 B.C.). 
Aeschra, 221 : one of the attendant 

spirits of Empedocles. 
Aeschylus, quoted, 49?, 103, 111, 

231, 351?, 487: Athenian tragic 

poet ; 525-456 b.c. 
Aesop, 313, 383 : a writer of fables 

of the 6th century b.c. 
Agamemnon, 105, 139, 179, 273, 365 : 

commander-in-chief of the Greeks 

in the Trojan War. 
Agathocles, 127 : ruler of Syracuse 

318-289 b.c. 
Agave, 3S7 : mother of Pentheus, 

king of Thebes. 
Agesilaiis, 271 : king of Sparta 398- 

360 b.c. Plutarch wrote his life. 



Agis, 185 : king of Sparta 427-401 

B.C. 

Ajax, 69, 407 : son of Telamon and 
Eriboea ; great hero of the Trojan 
War. 

Alcibiades, 185, 457 : Athenian 
general and statesman ; circa 
451-404 B.C. Plutarch wrote his 
life. 

Aleuas, 323 : tyrant of Thessaly. 

Alexander, 69, 103, 123, 133, 177, 
207, 211, 213, 509: the Great, 
king of Macedon ; 356-323 b.c 

Alexis, quoted, 47 : Athenian poet 
of the Middle Comedy ; circa 372- 
280 b.c. 

Alizon, 475 : perhaps a river, or a 
mountain, of Scythia. 

Amoebeus, 33 : an Athenian citha- 
rode of the 3rd century b. c. 

Amphictyons, 445 : members of the 
Sacred League. 

Anacharsis, 411 : a Scythian noble 
who visited Athens in the time 
of Solon ; circa 594 b. c. 

Anaxagoras, 155, 223, 249 : philoso- 
pher of Clazomenae, friend of 
Pericles; circa- 500-428 b.c. 

Anaxarchus, 51, 69, 177 : Demo- 
critean philosopher, friend of 
Alexander the Great ; 4th century 

B.C. 

Anticyra, 147 : a town on the Cor- 
inthian Gulf in Phocis, famous 
for its hellebore. 

Antigonus, 121, 127, 421 : called the 
"One-eyed," general of Alex- 
ander the Great; circa 380-301 

B.C. 

Antigonus, 291 : Gonatas, king of 
Macedonia 283-240 B.C. 

519 



INDEX 



Antimachus, 457 : of Colophon, epic 
poet of the 4th century b c. 

Antiochus, 279 : an Opuntian. 

Antiochus, 291, 307: called "the 
Hawk," younger son of Anti- 
ochus II, king of Syria?* 

Antiochus VIII and IX : see Cyzi- 
cenus and Grypus. 

Antipater, 195, 463 : of Tarsus, 
Stoic philosopher, died circa 150 

B.C. 

Antipater, 213 : Regent of Mace- 
donia during Alexander's absence 
in Asia ; died 319 b.c. 

Antiphanes, quoted, 405? (c/. 404, 
note a) : Athenian poet of the 
Middle Comedy ; 4th century 

B.C. 

Antiphon, 285 : brother of Plato. 
Anytus, 229, 373 : an Athenian, one 

of Socrates' accusers. 
Apelles, 207 : celebrated Greek 

painter of the 4th century b.c. 
Aphrodite, 47, 209, 411. 
Apollo, 444. 
Apollonis, 259 : mother of Eumenes 

II. 
Apollonius, 299 : Peripatetic of the 

1st century a.d. 
Araspes, 509 : a Mede, friend of 

Cyrus the Great, 6th century 

B.C. 

Arcadian, 253. 

Arcadion, 121 : an Achaean oppon- 
ent of Philip of Macedon ; 4 th 

century b.c 
Arcesilaus, 143 ; quoted, 197 : 

founder of the so-called Middle 

Academy ; born circa 315 b.c 
Archedice, 323 : mother of Aleuas 

of Thessaly. 
Archelaus, 435 : king of Macedonia 

413-399 B.c 
Archilochus, quoted, 119?, 199,401, 

425, 499 : of Paros, great iambic 

poet; circa 650 b.c 
Ariamenes, 303-307 : eldest of the 

sons of Darius I ; died 480 b.c 
Ariphron, quoted, 71, 251 : of 

Sicyon, poet of the 4th century 

B.C. 

Aristandros : see 246, note c. 
Aristarchus, 247 : father of Theo- 
dectes ; but see 246, note c. 

520 



Aristeides, 125, 155 : of Athens, 
called "the Just"; died 468 b.c 
Plutarch wrote his life. 

Aristippus, 9, 149, 193, 195, 479 : 
of Cyrene, pupil of Socrates, 
founder of the Cyrenaic school of 
philosophy. 

Aristogeiton, 415 : Athenian tyran- 
nicide ; killed 514 b.c 

Ariston, 351 : father of Plato. 

Ariston, 21 ; quoted, 481 (see also 
163 and 471): of Chios, Stoic 
philosopher of 3rd century b.c 

Aristophanes, quoted, 9, 355, 483 : 
Athenian comic poet ; circa 445- 
38SB.C 

Aristotle, 27, 59, 401 ; quoted, 101, 
129, 137, 213 : the celebrated 
philosopher ; 384-322 b.c 

Artabanus, 305 : brother of Darius 
I of Persia. 

Artaxerxes, 259 : II Mnemon, king 
of Persia 404-358 B.C. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Asapheia, 221 : one of the attendant 
spirits of Empedocles. 

Asclepiades, quoted, 231 : of Samos, 
lyric and elegiac poet of the 3rd 
century b.c 

Asclepius, 103, 491 : son of Apollo, 
god of medicine 

Ascraean, 389. 

Asia, 291, 313, 391, 413. 

Athena, 111, 307: of the Brazen 
House at Sparta, 437. 

Athenaeus, 259 : brother of Eume- 
nes II of Pergamum. 

Athenian, 139, 449. 

Athenians, 125, 133, 307, 413, 417, 
435, 457. 

Athenodorus, 279 : a native o* 
Chaeroneia. 

Athens, 133, 195, 407, 413, 479, 515. 

Athos, 109, 201 : a mountain on 
the peninsula of Acte. 

Atossa, 305 : wife of Darius I of 
Persia. 

Atreus, 203, 263 : son of Pelops and 
Hippodameia, father of Agamem- 
non and Menelaus. 

Attalus, 259, 311 : II Philadelphos, 
king of Pergamum 159-138 B.C. 

Augustus Caesar, 429 : first em- 
peror of Rome ; 63 b.c -a.d. 14. 



INDEX 



Babylon, 309. 

Bacchis, 461 : a character in an un- 
identified comedy. 

Bacchylides, quoted, 409?: Greek 
lyric poet of the 5th century b.c. 

Bactrians, 371. 

Bellerophon, 497 : the rider of 
Pegasus and slayer of the Chi- 
maera. 

Bias, 405 : of Priene, one of the 
Seven Sages ; circa 550 b.c. 

Bithynians, 199. 

Black Sea, 403. 

Boedromion, 307 : Attic month 
(August-September). 

Boeotian, 185. 

Boreas, 171, 401 : the North Wind. 

Briareiis, 201 : a monster with fifty 
heads and a hundred arms. 

Briseis, 139 : in the Iliad the cap- 
tive of Achilles whom Agamem- 
non took away. 

Cadmioan victory, 301. 

Caepio, Q. Servilius, 297, 299 : half- 
brother of the younger Cato. 

Callias, 11: son of Charias. 

Callimachus, quoted, 107, 223?, 287?, 
481?, 4b9: of Cyrene, poet and 
scholar ; librarian at Alexandria ; 
circa 310-240 B.C. 

Callisthenes, 103, 123 : of Olynthus, 
nephew of Aristotle ; historian 
of Alexander's exploits ; later 
fell into disfavour and died in 
prison. 

Callisto, 221 : one of the attendant 
spirits of Empedocles. 

Callixenus, 373 : one of the accusers 
of Socrates. 

Cambyses, 311, 313: son of Cyrus 
the Great, second king of Persia, 
conqueror of Egypt ; died 522 b c. 

Camillus, M. Furius, 125 : the con- 
queror of Veii and saviour of 
Rome after the battle of the 
Allia. Plutarch wrote his life. 

Carneades, 223, 457, 4 63; quoted, 
237 : of Cyrene, philosopher of 
the Third Academy; circa 218- 
129 b.c. 

Cassander, 291 : son of Antipater 
and ruler of Macedonia, 317-297 



Castor, 283, 293 : son of Tyndareiis 
and Leda, brother of Polydeuces. 

Cato, M. Porcius, 155, 297, 299 : the 
Younger; 95-46 B.C. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Celtiberians, 445. 

Centaurs, 5. 

Cerameicus, 413 : at Athens. 

Chaeron, 473: son of Apollo and 
mythical founder of Chaeroneia. 

Chares, 293 : Athenian general of 
the 4th century B.C. 

Charias (or Chabrias), 11 : cele- 
brated Athenian general of the 
4th century b.c. 

Charicles, 279 : an Opuntian. 

Charmides, 451 : pupil of Prota- 
goras and Socrates, Athenian 
politician ; died 403 b.c 

Charondas, 494, note b: the great 
legislator of Thurii. 

Chary bdis, 231. 

Chian, 201. 

Chians, 199. 

Chios, 21, 193. 

Chloris, 477 : daughter of Amphion 
and wife of Neleus (Od., xi. 281 ff.). 

Chrysippus, 21, 59, 67 ; quoted, 73 : 
Stoic philosopher from Soli in 
Cilicia; 280-206 b.c 

Chthonia, 221 : one of the attendant 
spirits of Empedocles. 

Cilicia, 195, 441. 

Cimon, 351 : Athenian commander, 
son of Miltiades ; died 449 b.c 

Citium, 21, 183 : a city of Cyprus. 

Cleitus, 69, 123 : general of Alex- 
ander the Great, by whom he 
was slain. 

Cleon, 483: Athenian politician; 
leader of the extreme democrats 
from 428 till his death at Amphi- 
polis in 422 b.c 

Clodius, 449 : presumably P. Clo- 
dius Pulcher, the opponent of 
Cicero. 

Clymene : see 362, note a. 

Colophon, 457. 

Corinth, 445. 

Corinthian, 511. 

Craterus, 421 : general of Alexander 
the Great ; fell fighting Eumenes 
in 321 b.c 

Craterus, 291 : son of the former ; 

521 



INDEX 



half-brother of Antigonus Gon- 

atas ; died soon after 270 b.c. 
Crates, 179, 371 : of Thebes, Cynic 

philosopher ; 3rd century B.C. 
Creon, 437 : tyrant of Thebes, 

brother of Jocasta in Sophocles' 

A ntigone. 
Cretans, 313. 
Crison, 207: of Himera, famous 

runner of 4th century B.C. 
Cronus (Saturn), 205, 239, 241, 261 : 

a Titan, son of Uranus : see also 

Saturn. 
Ctesiphon, 117 : a pancratiast. 
Cyclopes, 5. 
Cyclops, 419. 
Cynic, 187, 505. 
Cypria, quoted, 131. 
Cyrus, 127, 305, 463, 509 : the Great, 

founder of the Persian Empire ; 

killed in 529 b.c 
Cyrus the Younger : see 127, note /. 
Cyzicenus, 291 : Antiochus IX of 

Syria. 
Cyzicus, 259. 

Danaus, 353 : son of Belus, founder 

of Argos. 
Darius I, 303, 305, 313 : the Great, 

king of Persia 521-485 B.C. 
Darius II, 295 : king of Persia, 

424-404 B.C. 
Darius III, 509, 515: king of 

Persia 336-330 b.c 
Decius Mus, P., 369 : Roman general 

against the Latins ; consul 310 

Delphi, 185, 309, 323. 

Demetrius, 227, 445 : called Polior- 
cetes, son of Antigonus the One- 
Eyed ; king of Macedonia : 337- 
283 b.c. Plutarch wrote his 
life. 

Democritus, 59, 211, 383, 507; 
quoted, 171, 345 : philosopher of 
Abdera, great exponent of the 
Atomic Theory; circa 460-400 

B.C. 

Demos, 355 : a character in Aristo- 
phanes' Knight*. 

Demosthenes, 293; quoted, 441: 
great Attic orator; 385-322 b.c 

Denaea, 221 : one of the attendant 
spirits of Empedocles. 

522 



Deris, 221 : one of the attendant 

spirits of Empedocles. 
Diogenes, 7, 85, 139, 179, 183, 239, 

369, 371, 505 : of Sinope, Cynic 

philosopher ; 404-323 b.c 
Dionysii, 515. 
Dionysius, 207 : the Elder, tyrant 

of Syracuse 405-367 b c 
Dionysius, 185, 433, 435, 445 : the 

Younger, tyrant of Syracuse until 

his expulsion by Timoleon in 

343 b.c 
Dionysus, 79, 147. 
Dioscuri, 247, 277 : Castor and 

Polydeuces. 
Dioxippus, 505 : an Olympic victor, 

companion of Alexander the 

Great. 
Dolon, 69, 441, note g : the Trojan 

traitor in II. , x. 
Domitian, 513 : Roman emperor 

a.d. 81-96. 

Echepolus, 365, note a. 

Egypt, 419. 

Egyptian, 481. 

Eileithyiae, 349 : goddesses of child- 
birth. 

Electra, 103 : daughter of Agamem- 
non and Clytemnestra, sister of 
Orestes. 

Empedocles, 211, 473 : quoted, 157, 
221, 503?: the philosopher of 
Acragas ; circa 494-434 b.c 

Epameinondas, 185, 211, 463: the 
great Theban general ; circa 420- 
362 b.c. Plutarch wrote his life, 
which is not extant. 

Ephorus, 463 : of Cyme, Greek 
historian ; born circa 405 b. c 

Epicaste, 477: Jocasta, mother of 
Oedipus. 

Epicharmus, quoted, 441 : comic 
poet of Megara in Sicily ; 5th 
century b.c 

Epicurus, 173, 299 ; quoted, 221, 
343 : Greek philosopher, 341-270 
b c 

Erasistratus, 491 ; quoted, 345 : ol 
Ceos, famous physician ; jlor. 258 

B.C. 

Eretria, 441 : a city of Euboea. 
Eretria, 19 : a town in Elis. 
Eros, 417 : god of love. 



INDEX 



Eros, 95, 97, 167 : a friend of 
Plutarch. 

Eteocles, 263 : son of Oedipus and 
Jocasta, brother of Polyneices 
and Antigone. 

Eubulus, 293 : Athenian statesman 
of 4 th century b.c 

Eucleides, 147, 309: of Megara, 
Socratic philosopher of 4th cen- 
tury B.C. 

Eumenes, 421 : secretary of Alex- 
ander the Great ; after Alex- 
ander's death one of the Dia- 
dochoi; 362-316 B.C. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Eumenes II, 259, 309, 311 : king of 
Pergamum 197-159 b.c 

Euphorbus, 441 : an Eretrian. 

Euphorion, 211 : of Chalcis, epic 
poet of 3rd century b. c. 

Euripides, 351 ; quoted, 29, 49, 59, 
65, 103, 157, 169, 171, 177, 181, 
185, 205, 211, 219, 227, 233, 235, 
259, 263, 269, 279, 353-357, 363, 
387, 397, 403, 421, 425, 461, 501, 
505, 513: Athenian tragic poet, 
circa 485-406 B.C. 

Eurycleia, 417, note g : nurse of 
Odysseus. 

Eurymedon, 351 : a river of Pam- 
phylia where Cimon won a victory 
over the Persians circa 466 b.c. 

Eurypylus, 127 : a Greek hero in 
the Trojan War. 

Euthycrates, 441 : of Olynthus, 
accused of having betrayed his 
country to Philip of Macedon. 

Euthydemus, 142 : a Sophist ; Plato 
wrote a dialogue bearing his 
name. 

Evenus, 353 : of Paros, elegiac 
poet of 5th century b.c 

Fabricids, Luscinus, C, 185 : con- 
sul 282 and 278 ; censor 275 ; 
general against Pyrrhus in 278 

B.C. 

Forum, the Roman, 427 

Fulvius, 429 (see note b) : a friend 

of Augustus (perhaps an error for 

Fabius). 
Fundanus, C. Minicius, 93-97, 167 : 

a friend of Plutarch and the 

younger Pliny. 



Galatians, 199, 307. 

Gauls, 431. 

Giants, 5. 

Glaucon, 285 : brother of Plato. 

Gracchus, C, 111 : the younger of 
the two agrarian reformers ; slain 
121 b.c Plutarch wrote his life. 

Greece, 281. 

Greeks, 121, 187, 301, 303, 331. 

Grypus, 291 : Antiochus VIII of 
Syria. 

Gyges, 199 : king of Lydia. 

Hades, 217, 369, 477. 

Harmodius, 415 : Athenian tyran- 

nicide, killed 514 b.c 
Harmonia, 221 : one of the attend 

ant spirits of Empedocles. 
Hegesias, 357 : philosopher of Cy 

rene, early 3rd century b.c 
Hegisistratus, 253, note c : a pro- 
phet of Elis. 
Helen, 103 : daughter of Tyndareiis, 

wife of Meneiaiis. 
Helicon, 153 : a mathematician, 

friend of Plato. 
Heliope, 221 : one of the attendant 

spirits of Empedocles. 
Hellespont, 201. 
Helots, 109. 

Heptachalcon, 413 : see 412, note c. 
Hera, 349. 
Heracleitus, 447 : quoted, 7, 119, 

219 : philosopher of Ephesus ; 

circa 560-500 b.c 
Heracles, 201, 325. 
Hermes, 401 
Herodotus, quoted. 11, 253, 267 : ol 

Halicarnassus, distinguished his 

torian of 5th century b c 
Herophilus, 491 : of Chalcedon, ana- 

tomist of Alexandrian age (Jlor. 

300 b.c). 
Hesiod, 317 ; quoted, 171, 215, 261 

317, 415, 483 : of Ascra in Boeotia, 

didactic poet of 8th century b.c 
Hieronymus, 105, 137 (and cf. 90) : 

of Rhodes, Peripatetic philoso- 
pher of 3rd century B.C. 
Hippocrates, quoted, 109, 467 : of 

Cos, the famous physician ; circa 

460-377 b.c 
Homer, 225, 349, 409, 459, 499; 

quoted, 13, 31, 33, 53, 59, 69, 83, 

523 



INDEX 



85, 95, 97, 101, 105, 109, 131, 139, 
143, 147, 173, 179, 203-207, 211, 
215, 227, 201, 267, 269, 273, 2*9, 
293, 339, 347, 349, 365, 381, 403, 
405, 409, 413, 417, 419, 423, 433, 
435, 477. 

Homeric, 207. 

Homerid, 349. 

Ilypereides, 293 : Attic orator ; 
393-322 b c. 

Hyrcanians, 371. 

Ibycds, 439 : of Rhegium, lyric 
poet of the 6th century b. c. 

Ida, 425 : a mountain of the Troad, 
or of Crete. 

Iliad, 445. 

Indians, 371. 

Ido, 421 : daughter of Cadmus, wife 
of Athamas. 

Iolans, 325 : nephew of Heracles. 

Ion, quoted, 177 : of Chios, tragic 
poet of 5th century B.C. 

Ionian, 457. 

Iphicles, 325 : twin brother of 
Heracles. 

Iphicrates, 11 : Athenian com- 
mander, son of Timotheiis ; died 
circa 353 B.C. 

Ischomachus, 479 : a wealthy man 
of Athens. 

Ismenias, 211 : a wealthy man of 
Thebes. 

Italy, 493. 

ius trium liberorum, 335. 

Klopidat, 483, note b. 
Kropidai, 483, note b. 

Lacedaemon, 325. 

Laconia, 445. 

Laconic, 455. 

Laertes, 173 : king of Ithaca, father 

of Odysseus. 
Lagus, 123 : father of Ptolemy I 

of Egypt. 
Lai'us, 511 : father of Oedipus, king 

of Thebes. 
Lamia, 477 : the Greek hobgoblin. 
Leaena, 415, 417 : an Athenian 

woman, member of the group of 

conspirators who killed Hippar- 

cnus in 514 B.C. 
Leosthenes, 293 : Athenian orator 

524 



and commander in the Lamian 
War ; 4th century b.c 

Leucothea, 325 : the deified Ino, 
wife of Athamas. 

Leuctra, 463 : town in Boeotia 
where Epameinondas defeated 
the Spartans in 371 B.Q 

Livia, 429 : Augusta, wife of Caesar 
Augustus. 

Locrian, 493. 

Loxias, 447 : an epithet of Apollo. 

Lucullus, L. Licinius, 283 : Roman 
general ; consul 74 b. c. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Lycurgus, 335, 445 : reputed author 
of the Spartan constitution. 
Plutarch wrote his life. 

Lycurgus, 79 : king of Thrace, op- 
ponent of Dionysus's innovations. 

Lydia, 281. 

Lydian, 391. 

Lysias, 409 : Attic orator ; born 
circa 445 B.C. 

Lysimachus, 431, 4S3 : one of the 
generals and successors of Alex- 
ander the Great ; slain in battle 
281 B.C. 

Macedon, 441. 

Macedonia, 121, 225, 309. 

Magas, 69, 123 : governor of Cyrene, 

half-brother of Ptolemy II. 
Maimactes, 125 : epithet of Zeus ; 

see 124, note a. 
Maltese, 211. 
Marius, G., 145, 413 : conqueror of 

Jugurtha and the Cimbri ; 156-86 

B.C. Plutarch wrote his life. 
Marsyas, 113 : Phrygian inventor of 

the flute. 
Matuta, 325 : the Roman Leucothea. 
Medes, 305. 
Media, 369. 
Medius, 211 : son of Oxythenus ; 

friend of Alexander the Great. 
Megabyzus, 207 : Persian satrap of 

the 4th century b.c. 
Megarians, 227. 

Meilichios, 125 : epithet of Zeus. 
Melanthius, 99 : see 98, note a. 
Meletus, 229, 373 : an Athenian, 

accuser of Socrates. 
Menander, quoted, 73, 175, 203, 221, 

225, 235, 255, 319, 459 : Athenian 



INDEX 



poet of the New Comedy, 342- 
291 b.c. 

Menedemus, 19, 213 : of Eretria in 
Elis, Socratic philosopher of the 
4th century b.c. 

Merops, 169 : king of Ethiopia, 
husband of Clymene. 

Metella, 413 : wife of Sulla. 

Metellus Macedonicus, Q. Caecilius. 
125, 289, 421 : defeated Achaeans 
in 165 ; consul 143, censor 131 : 
died 115 b.c. 

Metrocles, 187, 369 : of Maroneia, 
Cynic philosopher ; flor. circa 
300 B.C. 

Miletus, 457. 

Miltiades, 351 : Athenian com- 
mander at Marathon 490 B.C. ; 
died a few years later in dis- 
grace. 

Mimnermus, quoted, 47 : of Colo- 
phon, elegiac poet of the 6th 
century b.c. 

Mithridates, 413 : Eupator, king 
of Pontus; 132-63 b.c. 

Molione, 249 : mother of Cteatus 
and Eurytus. 

Mucins, 123 : Scaevola, who braved 
Lars Porsenna of Clusium. 

Muse, 489. 

Muses, 83, 127, 185, 261, 409, 411, 
507. 

Musonius Rufus, C, quoted, 97 : 
Roman Stoic of the 1st century 

A.D. 

Mysteries, the, 417. 

Nemertes, 221 : one of the at- 
tendant spirits of Empedocles. 

Neocles, 351 : father of Themis- 
tocles. 

Neoptolemus, 127 : son of Achilles. 

Xeoptolemus, 421 : an officer of 
Alexanders army, killed fighting 
against Eumenes, 321 B.C. 

Nero, 145, 415 : emperor of Rome 
54-68 a.d. 

Nestor. 409, 459 : king of Pylos in 
the Homeric poems. 

Nicias, 437 : Athenian general, 
killed at Syracuse 413 B.C. Plu- 
tarch wrote his life. 

Nicocreon, 89 : tyrant of Salamis 
in Cyprus, 4th century b.c. 



Nigrinus, Avidius, 

note 5. 



M7: see 2-16, 



Ochus, 259: Artaxprxes 111, king 

of Persia 358-338 b.c. 
Odysseus, 31, 225, 231, 417, 419, 

477. 
Odyssey, 445. 
Oedipus, 355, 511. 
Olympia, 121, 201, 399, 479. 
Olympian, 125. 
Olympic, 505. 
Olynthus, 125, 219: a city of 

Chalcidice. 
Opuntians, 279. 

Paccics, 167, 189: a friend of 

Plutarch. 
Panaetius, 155 : of Rhodes, Stoic 

philosopher; circa 180-110 b.c. 
Panathenaea, 239 : great festival at 

Athens. 
Pandarus, 109 : Lycian commander 

in the Trojan War. 
Pantheia, 509 : a noble Susian lady 

in Xenophon's Cyropaedia. 
Paraetonium, 125 : a port in North 

Africa between Alexandria and 

Cyrene. 
Parmenides, 185 : a dialogue of 

Plato. 
Parmenion, 69 : general of Philip 

and Alexander ; circa 400-330 b.c. 
Parnassus, 473. 
Parthian, 373. 

Peiraeus, 435 : the port of Athens. 
Peisistratus, 123, 261 : tyrant of 

Athens, 6th century b.c. 
Peleus, 123, 173 : father of Achilles. 
Pelopidas, 127 : Theban statesman 

and general ; fell in battle 364 

b.c. Plutarch wrote his life. 
Peloponnesus, 325. 
Penelope, 419 : the faithful wife of 

Odysseus. 
Pergamum, 311. 
Pericles, 351 : Athenian statesman ; 

circa 398-429 b.c. Plutarch 

wrote his life. 
Perilaiis, 291 : brother of Cassander. 
Peripatetic, 299. 
Perseus, 225, 309 : son of Philip V ; 

last king of Macedon, 178-168 b.c. 
Persia, 303, 305. 

525 



INDEX 



Persian, 207, 267. 
Persians, 305, 369. 
Phaethon, 170, 362, note a ; son of 

Clymene and Apollo. 
Phanias, 175 : a character in 

Menander's Citkaristes. 
Philagrus, 441 : an Eretrian. 
Philemon, 69, 123 ; quoted, 123 : 

Athenian comic poet, 4th century 

B.C. 

Philetaerus, 259; brother of Eu- 
menes II. of Pergamum. 

Philip, 121-125, 445, 499 : king of 
Macedon, 359-336 B.C. 

Philippides, 431, 483: Athenian 
poet of the new comedy ; circa 
300 b.c. 

Philocrates, 441 : Athenian orator 
of the *4th century b.c. ; one of 
the 10 ambassadors sent to Philip 
of Macedon. 

Philotas, 69: son of Parmenion, 
prominent Companion of Alex- 
ander ; executed for treason. 

Philoxenus, 207 : of Cythera, poet 
at the court of Dionysius I of 
Syracuse. 

Phocion, 133 : Athenian general 
and statesman ; 402-317 b.c. 
Plutarch wrote his life. 

Phylace, 265 : a town in Thessalian 
Phthiotis. 

Pindar, 445; quoted, 81, 117, 183, 
211, 215, 237, 277, 391?: lyric poet 
circa 522-442 b.c. 

Pittacus, 203, 281, 419: ruler of 
Mitylene, one of the Seven Sages ; 
6th century b c. 

Plato, 25, 27, 45, 69, 85, 207, 211, 
285, 321, 323, 351 ; quoted, 7, 23, 
71, 75, 83, 113, 119, 153, 155, 181, 
223, 229, 239, 257, 277, 281, 413 
443 : founder of the Academy, 
Athenian philosopher ; 427-346 

B.C. 

Pleiades, 351. 

Plutarch, 167. 

Polemon, 147, 149 : Athenian philo- 
sopher, head of the Academy 
circa 314-276 b.c 

Polydeuces, 277, 283, 293 : brother 
of Castor. 

Porsenna, 123 : Etruscan king of 
Clusium. 

526 



Porus, 123 : Indian prince of Pau- 
rava ; defeated by Alexander 326 

B.C. 

Poseidon, 79, 307. 

Postumius, 429: Postumus Agrippa, 

grandson of Augustus ; killed a.d. 

14. 
Priam, 147 : king of Troy in the 

Homeric poems. 
Ptolemy I, 123: Soter, general of 

Alexander, succeeded to the 

satrapy of Egypt, which he ruled 

322-285 b.c He wrote a history 

of Alexander's expedition. 
Pupius Piso, 479 : Roman orator, 

1st century b.c. 
Pythagoras, 25, 479, 495; quoted, 

477 : of Samos, philosopher of 

the 6th century B.C. 
Pythagoreans, 303. 
Pythian, 209, 241, 323, 445, 453. 

Quietus, Avidius, 247 : see 240, 
note &. 

Republic, 285 : a dialogue of Plato. 

Rhodian, 125. 

Roman, 125, 185, 199, 225, 369, 425, 

449. 
Romans, 289, 335. 
Rome, 93, 167, 185, 255, 325, 371, 

413, 415, 501, 513. 
Rusticus, Arulenus, 513: Roman 

Stoic, put to death by Domitian 

circa a.d. 93. 

Salamis, 307, 351 : an island in the 
Saronic Gulf, off the coast of 
which the Greeks defeated the 
Persians in 480 b.c. 

Samian, 129. 

Sappho, quoted, 115, 409 ? : poetess 
of Lesbos, late 7th century b.c. 

Saturn, 371 : see also Cronus. 

Saturnalia, 239, note c. 

Satyrus, 129 : an orator of Samos, 
4th century b.c. 

Scilurus, 447 : king of the Scythians. 

Scipio Aemilianus Africanus, P. 
Cornelius, 289 : son of Aemilius 
Paulus ; consul 147 and 134 ; cen- 
sor, 142 ; conqueror of Carthage 
and Numantia ; died 129 b.c. 



INDEX 



Plutarch wrote his life (not ex- 
tant). 

Scythians, 11, 371, 447. 

Seleucus, 291, 307, 431, 433 : II 
Kallinikos, king of Syria 247-226 

B.C. 

Semonides, quoted, 53 : of Samos 
and Amorgos, iambic poet of 7th- 
6th century B.C. 

Senate, Roman, 425. 

Seneca, L. Annaeus, 145: Roman 
Stoic philosopher and writer ; 
circa 4 b.c-a.d. 65. 

Sicily, 435. 

Sicyonian, 363. 

Simias, quoted, 113 ? : of Rhodes, 
grammarian and poet at Alex- 
andria under Ptolemy I. 

Simonides, 465, 499; quoted, 45, 
113?, 199, 287, 337 : of Ceos, lyric 
poet; 556-467 b.c. 

Siren, 489. 

Socrates, 69, 105, 125, 143, 179, 201, 
229, 295, 369, 451, 455, 459, 479 : 
Athenian philosopher ; 468-399 

B.C. 

Socratic, 309. 

Solon, 2S1, 335, 411 ; quoted, 213 : 
the Athenian legislator and poet ; 
circa 638-558 b.c Plutarch wrote 
his life. 

Sophist, 51. 

Sophists, 247. 

Sophocles, 351, 407, 505 ; quoted, 
45, 107, 127, 137, 151-155, 187, 
267, 275, 351 ?, 355, 399, 409, 437, 
449, 485, 507, 511: Athenian 
tragic poet; 495-406 b.c 

Sotion, 299 : Peripatetic of 1st 
century a.d. 

Sparta, 239, 437. 

Spartan, 9, 87, 269. 

Spartans, 101, 109, 127, 247, 445, 
455, 457. 

Speusippus, 321, 323 : Plato's 
nephew and successor as head of 
the Academy. 

Stilpo, 187, 22"? : of Megara, philo- 
sopher of the 4th century b.c 

Stoa, 463 : the Painted Porch of 
the philosophers at Athens 

Stoic, 463. 

Stoics, 207, 285. 

Strato, 213 : successor of Theo- 



phrastus as head of the Peripa- 
tetic school. 

Stratonice, 311 : wife of Eumenes 
II of Pergamum. 

Sulla, L. Cornelius, 413 : consul 88 
and 80; 138-78 b.c Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Sulla, Sextius, 93-97 : a friend of 
Plutarch. 

Syncretism, 313. 

Syracusans, 515. 

Syracuse, 515. 

Syrian, 479. 

Tantalus, 363 : son of Zeus and 
father of Pelops. 

Tarsus, 195. 

Taurus, Mt., 441. 

Telchines, 7 : spirits attending the 
precinct of Poseidon on the is- 
land of Rhodes. 

Telemachus, 261 : son of Odysseus 
and Penelope. 

Teucer, 293 : son of Telamon, 
brother of Ajax. 

Thamyris, 107 : a Thracian singer, 
blinded by the Muses. 

Thasian, 199. 

Theaetetus, 451 : Athenian pupil 
of Socrates. 

Theban, 127. 

Thebans, 101. 

Thebes, 263, 301. 

Themis locles, 351 : Athenian com- 
mander and statesman ; died in 
exile ' 459 b.c Plutarch wrote 
his life. 

Theodectes, 247 : see 246, note c. 

Theodoras, 181, 371 : the Cyrenaic, 
called " the Atheist," philosopher 
of the late 4th century b.c 

Theophrastus, quoted, 269, 315 : of 
Lesbos, born 372 b.c ; Aristotle's 
pupil and successor as head of 
the Peripatetics. 

Thessalian, 323. 

Thessalians, 323. 

Thoosa, 221 : one of the attendant 
spirits of Empedocles. 

Thracian, 79, 479. 

Thrasybulus, 123 : son-in-law of 
Peisistratus of Athens. 

Thucydides, 457 : the great Athen- 
ian historian ; born 471 b.c 

527 



INDEX 



Thurii, 495. 

Timaea, 185 : wife of Agis of Sparta. 

Timaeus, 167 : a dialogue of Plato. 

Timon, 299 : brother of Plutarch. 

Timon, quoted, 51 : philosopher of 
3rd century B.C., famous for his 
lampoons. 

Tissaphernes, 457 : Persian satrap 
of lower Asia Minor from 414 
B.C. ; put to death in 395 b.c. 

Trojans, 289. 

Troy, 365. 

Tyndareiis, 293 : husband of Led a, 
father or foster-father of the 
Dioscuri, Helen, and Clytem- 
nestra. 

Tyro, 477 : wife of Cretheus, be- 
loved ■ of Poseidon ; famous for 
her beauty. 



Xanthipp£, 143 : wife of Socrates. 

Xanthippus, 351 : Athenian com- 
mander, father of Pericles. 

Xenocrates, 53, 503 ; quoted, 85 : 
of Chalcedon ; succeeded Speu- 
sippus as head of the Academy, 
339-314 b.c. 

Xenon, 279 : a native of Chaeroneia. 

Xenophon, quoted, 169,475 : Athen- 
ian historian ; 430-359 b.c 

Xerxes, 109, 201, 305, 307 : king oi 
Persia 485-465 b.c 

Zeno, 21, 33, 149, 183, 407: of 
Citium, founder of the Stoic 
school ; died circa 264 b. c 

Zeno, 415 : of Elea ; follower of 
Parmenides ; 5th century b.c. 

Zeus, 205, 209, 215, 239, 389. 



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